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PALJEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

THE CRAG MOLLUSCA. 

Vol. II. 
BIVALVES. 

THE FOSSIL REPTILIA 

OF THE 

WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 

Part III. 

MEGALOSAURUS BUCKLANDI. 
THE EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 

Part III— No. II. 
PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



FOSSIL REMAINS OF MOLLUSCA \ 

FOUND IN Til 

CHALK OF ENGLAND. 

Part III. 
CEPHALOPODA. 

THE TERTIARY ENTOMOSTRACA 

OF 

ENGLAND. 
BRITISH FOSSIL ECHINODERMATA. j 

Part First. 

THE CIDARIDiE, HEMICIDARID^E, AND 
DIADtEMAD^. 

1856. 



California Academy of Sciences 

Presented hyP aleontograp h ical Soci ety. 




THE 



PAUEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 



V) 



LONDON 



MDCCCXLVII r. 



A MONOGRAPH 

OF 

THE CRAG MOLLUSCA 



WITH 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SHELLS 

FROM THE 

UPPER TERTIARIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



BY 

SEARLES Y. WOOD, F.G.S. 



VOL. I. 

UNIVALVES. 



PRINTED FOR THE 



LONDON: 
PALJEONTOGRAPHTCAL 
1848. 



SOCIETY. 



A I>1, A K I), PKTNTBR, BARTHOLOMKW CLOSE. 



THE 



PALEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 



LONDON: 



M DCCCLVI, 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 



https://archive.org/details/monographofpalae91856pala 



THE 



A MONOGRAPH 

01" 

CRAG MOLLUSCA, 



DESCKIPTIONS OF SHELLS 



UPPER TERTIARIES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



SEARLES V. WOOD, F.G.S. 



VOL. II. 

BIVALVES. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PAL/EONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1350—1850. 



E. ADIjAKDj I'HINTKU, BAKTHOJ.OMJiW CLOSE. 



LIST 



t Cmratil, Sectaries, anfo fjtflnkrs 



OF THE 



PALtEONTOGRAPHICAL society, 

1856. 



W. J. HAMILTON, Esq., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., &c. 



(Council. 



PEO!. G. BUSK, F.R.S., L.S., &c. 
W. B. CARPENTER, M.D., E.R.S., &c. 
H. DEANE, Esq., F.C.S., See. 
JOHN D'URBAN, Esq. 
F. E. EDWARDS, Esq. 

H. FALCONER, M-D., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., &c. 
J. W. FLOWER. Esq. 

ROBERT HUDSON, Esq., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., Sec. 



PROF. HUXLEY, F.R.S., &c. 

SIR CHARLES LYELL, M.A., F.R.S,, L.S., G.S, &c. 

EDWARD NEWMAN, Esq., F.L.S, &c. 

D. SHARPE, Esq., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., Sec. 

PROF. TENNANT, F.G.S., Sec. 

S. L. WARING, Esq. 

N. T. WETHERELL, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 



Cwatfuw. 

SEARLES WOOD, Esq., F.G.S., Sec, Twickenham, Surrey. 

f^onorart) Jr>ccvctavi>. 

J. S. BOWERBANK, Esq., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., Sec., 3, Highbury Grove, Islington. 



ilocal Jz>ccrctaric£f. 



Alton . 
Bath . 
Birmingham 
Blandford 

Bolton . 

Brighton 
Bristol . 
Cambridge . 
Cheltenham 
Cirencester 
Colchester . 
Deddiugton 
Devizes 
Dublin . 
Dudley . 

Edinburgh 

Glasgow 
Gloucester 
Guildford 
Huddersfield 



William Curtis, Jun., Esq. 

Wm. Walton, Esq., 17, Grosvenor Place. 

Wm. Mathews, Esq., Jun., Edgbaston. 

W. Shipp, Esq. 
I Matthew Dawes, Esq., F.G.S., Sec, 
l Westbrooh. 

Henry Catt, Esq. 

William Sanders, Esq. 

James Carter, Esq. 

Tuos. Wright, M.D., &c. 

Prof. James Buckman, F.G.S., &c. 

John Brown, Esq., F.G.S., Sec, Stanway. 

Charles Faulkner, Esq., F.G.S., See. 

William Cunnington, Esq. 

Gilbert Sanders, Esq., 2, Foster Place. 

John Gray, Esq. 
f Prof. Balfour, F.L.S., &c., 2, Bellevue 
I Crescent. 

James P. Fkaser, Esq., City Bank. 

John W. Wilton, Esq. 

R. A. C. Austen, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 

Robert W elsh, Esq. 



Kendal . . . Thomas Proudfoot, M.D. 
Leeds . . . Thomas Nunneley, Esq. F.R.C.S.E. 
Leicester . . James Plant, Esq. 
Market Rasen. Rev. W. W. Cooper. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne William Kell, Esq., Gateshead. 
Norwich . . Robert Fitch, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 
Oxford . . . Prof.Jn.Phillips,M.A.,F.R.S.,G.S.,&c. 
Paris . . . Prof. M. Edwards, Jardin des Plantes. 
Plymouth . . J. H. Fuge, Esq. 
Portsmouth . W. A. Raper, M.D. 
Richmond,Yorks.EDWARD Wood, Esq. 
Scarborough . John Leckenby, Esq. 
South Petherton. Henry Norkis, Esq., F.R.C.S. 
Southampton . R. Tovey, Esq., 9, Waterloo Place. 
Stamford . . John F. Bentley, Esq. 
Stowmarket . C. R. Bree, Esq. 
Swaffham . . C. B. Rose, Esq. 
Torquay . . William Pengelly, Esq. 
Wolverhampton Henry Beckett, Esq. Church-street. 
Y or k 1 Edw. Charlesworth, Eeq., F.G.S., &c, 

i Museum. 



LAWS. 



1. 

That the Society formed be called the Palaeontographical Society, and that it shall have for 
its objects the illustration and description of British Fossil Organic Remains. 

II. 

Each Subscriber of One Guinea, or more, annually, shall be considered a Member of the 
Society. Such subscription to be paid in advance, and shall be due on the 1st day of January, 
1847, and each succeeding year. 

III. 

A Member shall, for each Guinea subscribed annually, be entitled to one copy of every 
publication issued by the Society, for the year to which his subscription relates. But no 
Member shall be entitled to receive his copy, or copies, until his subscription has been paid. 

IV. 

The number of copies of the Society's publications shall be limited to the number of 
Members, unless otherwise directed by the Council. 

V. 

The business of the Society shall be conducted by a President, Treasurer, Hon. Secretary, 
and a Council of sixteen Members, who shall be elected at a General Meeting of the Members, 
to be held annually in London. 

VI. 

The accounts of the receipt and expenditure of the Society shall be examined annually by 
two Auditors appointed by the Council ; the Auditors to be Members of the Society, who are 
not Members of the Council, and their statement circulated among the Subscribers. 

VII. 

That the Editors of works published by the Society be entitled to a number of copies of 
their works, not exceeding twenty-five, as may be decided by the Council. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE DELIVERY OF BOOKS. 



They are delivered, free of expense, within three miles of the General Post Office, London. 

They are sent to any place in England, beyond the distance of three miles from the 
General Post Office, by any conveyance a Member may point out. In this case the parcels are 
booked at the expense of the Society, but the carriage must be paid by the Member to whom 
they are sent. 

They are delivered, free of expense, at any place in London which a Member, resident in 
the country, may name. 

They are sent to any of the Hon. Local Secretaries of the Society, each Member being 
expected to pay the Local Secretary a due share of the carriage of the parcel in which the books 
are sent. 

Any number of Country Members may unite, to have their books sent in one parcel to any 
address they may name. In this case they are requested to depute one of their number to 
transmit to the Secretary for London a list of the names of those whose books are to be included 
in the same parcel. 

Those Members who wish their books to be included in any of the parcels to Local 
Secretaries, are requested to send in their names (with their Christian name in full) and 
particular address, to the various Local Secretaries, who are respectfully requested to forward to 
the Secretary for London an accurate list of all such names, w-ith as little delay as possible. 

Unless intimation to the contrary be given to the Secretary for London, the future deliveries 
will be made in accordance with the delivery of the first volume. 

The Council, desirous of imposing as little trouble as possible upon the Local Secretaries, 
particularly request that all subscriptions be paid by Members directly to the Treasurer, 
Searles Wood, Esq., Twickenham, Surrey, by Post Office Order on the London Office, 
or by Cheque on a London Banker. And, as there is no other capital for conducting the affairs 
of the Society than the subscriptions paid in advance, the Country Members are respectfully 
reminded that an early remittance is absolutely necessary. 

As the quantity of plates and letterpress to be delivered to the Subscribers annually "will be 
increased in proportion to the extension of the Society, the Members are respectfully urged to 
obtain as many new Subscribers, and at as early a period, as possible. 

Gentlemen desirous of forwarding the objects of the Society, may be provided with circulars 
for distribution by application to the Hon. Secretary. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS, PRINCE ALBERT, OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA. 



Abich, Dr. H. Conseiller d'Etat et Membre 

de l'Academie Imperial des Sciences de 

St. Petersburg. 
Adam, Thomas, Esq. Halifax. 
Addison, Rev. John, Weymouth. 
Adlard, J. E. Esq. Bartholomew-close. 
Agnew, Lady, Moray-place, Edinburgh. 
Alder, Joshua, Esq. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Alexander, Capt. H., Crown Bank, Diss. 
Alexander, W. H. Esq. Ipswich. 
Allingham, William, Esq. Reigate. 
Ansted, Prof., M.A., F.R.S., G.S. &c, 

1 7, Manchester-street. 
Aplin, C. d'Oyley H. Esq. Port Phillip, 

Australia. 

Archaeological and Natural History Society, 
Taunton. 

Arlidge, John T., A.B., &c. Shirley Park, 

Crovdon. 
Asher, A. Esq. Berlin. 
Ashley, J. M. Esq. 

Ashmolean Society, Oxford (per Rev. E. 

Hill, Christchurch). 
Athenaeum Library, Liverpool. 
Aveline, W. T. Esq. Museum of Practical 

Geology, Jermyn-street. 
Austen, R. A. Godwin, Esq. B. A., F.G.S. &c. 

Chilworth Manor, Guildford, Surrey. 
Austin, Miss Helena E., at H. Howes, Esq. 

Frenchay, near Hambrook, Bristol. 
Austin, Rev. J. B., M.A. Embury House, 

Wimborne. 

Babington, C. C. Esq. M.A., F.G.S.,L.S. &c. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 
Backhouse, Wm. Esq. Conset Iron Works, 

Shotley Bridge, near Gateshead, Tyne. 
Baines, Samuel, Esq. Brighouse, near 

Huddersfield. 



Balfour, Prof., F.L.S. &c. Edinburgh. 
Ball, R. Esq. M.R.I.A., See. Geo. Soc. Dublin, 

&c. 3, Granby-rovv, Dublin. 
Barclay, Joseph G. Esq. 54, Lombard-street. 
Barlee, George, Esq. Clifton. 
Barnes, Rev. J. W., Vicarage, Kendal. 
Barrett, Rev. A. North Cheam House, Surrey. 
Barthes, Lowell, and Co. Gt. Marlborough- 

street. 

Bartlett, M. Esq. Boston, U. S. 

Bass, Isaac Gray, Esq. Brighton. 

Battersby, Robert, M.D. Torquay. 

Beaufoy, George, Esq. South Lambeth. 

Beaumont, Mons. Elie de, Membre de 

l'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 

* 

Beckett, Henry, Esq., Church-street, Wol- 
verhampton. 
Belfast Library. 

Bell, Prof., R.S., Pres. L.S., F.G.S., &c. 

17, New Broad-street, City. 
Bell, Rev. Charles, Hampstead. 
Bennett, William, Esq. Brockham Lodge, 

Riegate. 

Benson, Starling, Esq. Swansea. 

Bentley, J. F. Esq. Stamford, Lincolnshire. 

Bergh, Augustus, Esq. 19, York Road, 

Hove, near Brighton. 
Bernard, Ralph M. Esq. Victoria Square, 

Clifton. 

Bewley, John, Esq. 16, Brunswick Buildings, 
Liverpool. 

Bidwell, Henry, M.D. Albrighton, Wolver- 
hampton. 

Bilke, Edward, Esq. F.G.S. &c. 12, Stam- 
ford street. 

Binney, E.W. Esq. Manchester. 

Binyon, T. Esq. St. Ann's-square, Man- 
chester. 

Birmingham Old Library, Union-street. 



vi 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Blackburne, John George, Esq. Mining 

Engineer, Oldham. 
Blackie, W. G. Esq. Ph. D., F.S.A.S. &c. 

Yillafield, Glasgow. 
Blackwell, S. H. Esq. Dudley. 
Blackwell, Thos. E., F.G.S. &c. 65, Pul- 

teney-street, Bath. 
Bladon, James, Esq. Pontypool. 
Blake, W. Esq. Bishop's Hall, Taunton. 
Blount, J. H., Esq. M.B. Francis-street, 

Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Boase, H. S., M.D., F.R.S., G.S., &c. 

Claverhouse, near Dundee. 
Bodley, T. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Anlaby House, 

Pitville, Cheltenham. 
Bohn, Henry, Esq. 4, York-street, Covent- 

garden. 
Booth, Prof., United States. 
Borradaile, Charles, Esq. Upper Tooting. 
Bosquet, M., Pharmacien, Maaestricht. 
Botfield, Beriah, Esq. M.P., F.R.S., L.S. &c. 

10, Sackville-street. 
Bouch, Thomas, Esq. Edinburgh, and 

Northern Railway Office, Edinburgh. 
Bouchard-Chantereaux, Mons. President de 

l'Administration du Museum, Boulogne. 
Bower, Rev. E., Closworth, near Yeovil. 
Bowerbank, J. S. Esq. F.R.S., L.S., G.S. &c. 

3, Highbury-grove, Hon. Sec. 
Bradby, Lonsdale, Esq. Prior House, Rich- 
mond, Yorkshire. 
Brady, Right Hon. M., Lord Chancellor for 

Ireland, &c, Dublin. 
Brady, Antonio, Esq. Stratford, Essex, and 

Admiralty Office, Somerset House. 
Braickenridge, G. W. Esq. F.S.A., G.S. &c. 

Broomwell House, Brislington. 
Bramley, Lawrence, Esq. Halifax. 
Brassey, Thos. Esq. Jun. 56, Lowndes- 

square. 
Bravender, J. C. Esq. 
Bree, C. R. Esq., Stowmarket, Suffolk. 
Briggs, Major-General, F.R.S., G.S. &c. 

Oriental Club, Hanover- square. 
Briggs, Miss Ellen, 3, Arlington-street. 
Bright, Richard, M.D., F.R.S. &c. 11, 

Savile-row. 
Brighton and Sussex Natural Nistory 

Society, T. B. Home, Esq. 7, Pavilion 

Parade. 



Bristow, HenryW. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Museum 

of Practical Geology. 
British Museum, Departmental Minera- 

logical and Geological Library. 
Brodie, Rev. Peter B., Rowington, near 

Warwick. 

Broome, C. E. Esq. M.A. &c. Elmhurst, 

Batheaston, Bath. 
Brown, John, Esq. 6, North Parade, Derby. 
Brown, Isaac, Esq. Ackworth. 
Brown, John, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Stanway, 

near Colchester. 
Browne, Wm. Meredith, Esq. Westminster 

Fire Office, King-street, Covent-garden. 
Brown, T. C. Esq. Cirencester. 
Bruce, Rev. J. O, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Brunei, J. K. Esq F.R.S., G.S. &c, 18, 

Duke-street, Westminster. 
Bryson, Alexander, Esq. Edinburgh. 
Buckman, Prof. James, F.G.S. &c. Royal 

Agricultural College, Cirencester. 
Bullock, Henry, Esq. 15, Cumberland-street, 

Bryanstone- square. 
Bunbury, E. H. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 1 5, Jermyn- 

street, Piccadilly. 
Burlington, The Earl of, Chancellor of the 

University of London, F.R.S. , G.S. &c. 

10, Belgrave-square. 
Busk, Professor G. F.R.S., F.L.S., Harley- 

street, Cavendish-square. 
Butcher, Henry J. Esq. Devizes. 
Butler, J. E. Esq. Alton, Hants. 
Button, Charles, Esq. Holborn Bars. 
Byerley, Isaac, Esq. Upton, Birkenhead. 

Caird, H. W. Esq. Albury Park, Guildford. 

Calvert, John, Esq. 189, Strand. 

Cambridge University Library (per Rev. 
James Power). 

Cann, James M. Esq. 5, Church-street, 
Edge-hill, Liverpool. 

Carpenter, W. B., M.D., F.R.S. &c, Uni- 
versity Hall, Gordon-square. 

Cardiff Literary and Scientific Institution. 

Carter, James,Esq.30,PettyCury,Cambridge. 

Carter, R. Esq. Halifax. 

Carter, Rev. W. A., Eton College. 

Cams, Dr. Victor, Leipzig, per Williams 
and Norgate, 14, Henrietta-st., Covent- 
garden. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



vn 



Catt, Henry, Esq. West-street, Brighton. 
Cautley, Colonel, Sir P. F.R.S. &c, 13, 

New Burlington-street. 
Cawdor, The Earl of, Trustee, British Museum, 

F.R.S., G.S. &c, 74, South Audley-st. 
Chambers, Robert, Esq. F.R.S.E., G.S. &c. 

Edinburgh. 
Chapman, Thomas, Esq. F.G.S. 3, Arundel- 

street. 

Charlesworth, Edward, Esq. F.G.S. &c. 
Museum, York. 

Charlton, E., M.D., 7, Eldon-square, New- 
castle-on-Tyne. 

Chippenham Literary and Scientific Insti- 
tution. 

Chisholme, W. Esq. 

Chomley, Mrs. Octavia, Avening, Stroud, 

Gloucester. 
Clabon, J. M. Esq. 21, Great George-street. 
Clapham, Richard, Esq. Austwick Hall, near 

Settle. 

Clark, Edward, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Sandgate, 
Kent. 

Clark, Henry, M.D. Midland House, South- 
ampton. 

Clark, Rev. Samuel, Training Institution, 
Battersea. 

Clark, Rev. Francis F., B.A. Malpas, near 
Newport, Monmouthshire. 

Clark, Prof. W., F.R.S. &c. Cambridge. 

Clarke, Robert, Esq. Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. 

Clayton, Rev. J. H. Farnboro' Rectory, 
Bagshot. 

Clennell, Jno. E. Esq. Hackney. 

Cochrane, Charles, Esq. The Heath, Stour- 
bridge. 

Colchester, W. Esq. Harwich. 

Cole, Jno. W. Esq. 18, Randolph-road, 
Maid Hill West. 

Coles, Henry, Esq. F.G.S.&c. 24, Cambridge- 
road, Hammersmith. 

Colvin, Lieut. -Col. C.B. Leintwai'dine, near 
Ludlow. 

Collings, Rev. W T., F.L.S., G.S. Seigneur 

de Lerk, near Guernsey. 
Collingwood, F. S. W. Esq. Glanton Pyke, 

Glanton, Northumberland. 
Conybeare, Rev. W. D., F.R S. &c. Deanery, 

Llandaff. 
Cooke, W. R. Esq. Burford, Oxon. 



Cooke, Rev. R. B., F.G.S. &c. Wheldrake 
Rectory, York. 

Cooper, R. Esq. Bilston, Birmingham. 

Cooper, Rev. W. IL, M.A. &c, Sussex- 
square, Brighton. 

Cooper, Rev. W. W. West Rasen, near 
Market Rasen, Lincolnshire. 

Corder, Mrs., Ipswich. 

Cormack, Dr., United States. 

Cornalia, Dr. Emile, Museum of Natural 
History, Milan. 

Cornthwaite, Rev. T. M., M.A.Walthamstow. 

Cornwall Library, Truro. 

Cotsworth, Mrs., Reading. 

Cotton, R. P., M.D. &c, 47, Clarges-street, 
Piccadilly. 

Coulson, Thos. Esq. Clifton, Bristol. 

Crewdson, W.D. Esq. Helme Lodge, Kendal. 

Crowley, Alfred, Esq. Croydon, Surrey. 

Crum, Walter, Esq. F.R.S. Thornliebank, 
Glasgow. 

Cubitt, W. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Bedford Hill, 

Streatham, Surrey. 
Cubitt, Geo. Esq. Lyall-street, Belgrave-sq. 
Cull, R. Esq. 13. Tavistock-st., Bedford-sq. 
Cunningham, James, Esq. 50, Queen-street, 

Edinburgh. 
Cunnington, W. Esq. Devizes, Wilts. 
Curtis, W. jun., Esq. Alton, Hants. 
Cust, Lady Elizabeth, 13,Eccleston-square. 

Dana, Jas. D. Esq. M.A. New Haven, U.S. 
Danby, Rev. Francis B., Lancaster. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq. M.A., F.R.S., G.S. 

&c. Down, Farnborough, Kent. 
Davidson, Thomas, Esq. F.G.S. Mem. Geo. 

Soc. France, &c. 48, Park Crescent, 

Lewes Road, Brighton. 
Davis, John Ford, M.D. 13, Royal Crescent, 

Bath. 

Daw, Robert, Esq. Customs, Leith. 
Dawes, J. S. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Smithwick, 

Birmingham. 
Dawes, M. Esq. F.G.S. Westbrook, Bolton. 
Day, Alfred, D.C.L. Westbury, near Bristol. 
Day, Hen. Geo. Esq. B.A. St. John's Coll., 

Cambridge. 
Deane, H. Esq. Clapham, Surrey. 
De Castro, James, Esq. Somerset-terrace, 

Guernsey. 



Yin 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Denison, Edw. R. Esq. Whitehill, Berk- 

hampstead. 
Deshayes, Mons., Paris. 
Deslongchamps, M., Eudes, Caen. 
Devon and Exeter Institution, Exeter. 
Dickenson, Joseph, M.D., F.L.S. &c. 5, 

Nelson-street, Great George-square, 

Liverpool. 

Dickinson, W. Esq. North Mosses, White- 
haven. 

Dickinson, Joseph, Esq. F.G.S. Inspector 
of Coal Mines, Barr Hill, Manchester. 

Dickinson, W. H .Esq. St. George's Hospital. 

Dickinson, Henry, Esq. Coalbrook Dale. 

Digby, Lady T., Mintern, near Dorchester. 

Dilke, C. Wentworth, Esq. 76, Sloane-street. 

Dillwyn, L. L. Esq., M.P., F.R.S., L.S. &c. 
Burrows Lodge, Swansea. 

Dixon, George, Esq. Great Eyton, near 
Stokesley, Yorkshire. 

1 )onkin, Henry, Esq. 5, Paragon, New Kent- 
road. 

Dorset County Museum Library, Dorchester. 
Douglas, Rev. Robert, Forebridge, Stafford. 
Dover Proprietary Library. 
Dowell, Geo. M. Esq. Trinity College, 
Dublin. 

Drakeford, Rev. D. J. Chewton, Mendip, 
Somersetshire. 

Drewitt, R. D. Esq. Peppering, near Arundel. 

Ducie, the Earl of, F.R.S. &c. 1, Ennismore- 
place, Prince's Gate. 

Duckworth, — Esq. Smith and Co., Book- 
sellers, Liverpool. 

Duff, Patrick, Esq. Elgin. 

Dumortier, Mons. E., Lyons. 

D'Urban, John, Esq. 32, Gordon-street, 
Gordon-square. 

Eardley, Lady, Frognell, Torquay. 

Eassie, Wm. Esq. Jun. Railway Saw-mills, 
Gloucester. 

East Sussex Medico-Chirurgical Society, 
Hastings (Dr. Greenhill). 

Eaton, Rev. George, The Pole, North wich. 

Edwards, W illiam, Esq. 9, London-street, 
Norfolk-square, Paddington. 

Edwards, George, Esq. Wolverhampton. 

Edwards, F. E. Esq. 2, John-street, Down- 
shire-hill, Hampstead. 



Edwards, Prof. Milne, Jardin des Plantes, 
Paris. 

Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Grey, Bart. 
M.P., Trustee Brit. Museum, F.R.S., 
G.S., &c. Oulton Park, Cheshire, and 
6, Albermarle-street. 

Ellesmere, The Earl of, D.C.L. &c. &c. 
Belgrave-square. 

Elliot, John, Esq. Kingsbridge, Devon. 

Ellis, Miss Eliza, Belgrave, near Leicester. 

Elwes, John, Esq. Bossington, near Stock- 
bridge, Hants. 

Enniskillen, William Willoughby, Earl of, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., G.S., &c. Florence- 
court, Enniskillen, and Athenasum. 

Etheridge, R. Esq. Curator Bristol Philo- 
sophical Institution. 

Evans, Thomas, M.D. Gloucester. 

Eyton, Thos. C. Esq. F.L.S. &c. Vineyard, 
near Wellington, Salop. 

Falconer, Dr. F.R.S., L.S., G.S. &c. 
Falconer, Thomas, Esq. Usk, Monmouthsh. 
Falkner, Frederick, Esq. Bath. 
Falkner, Thomas Alexander, Esq. M.A. 

Weymouth. 
Farnham, Lord, Carlton Club, 94, Pall Mall. 
Farrer, — Esq. Torquay. 
Faulkner, Charles, Esq., F.G.S., Museum, 

Deddington, Oxon. 
Favre, M. Alph., Prof. Geology, Academy, 

Geneva. 

Featherstonehaugh, Rev. Walker, Eagle's 
Cliff, Durham. 

Fenton, James, Esq., M.A., Grappenhall 
Lodge, near Warrington. 

Ferguson, Daniel, Esq., Northallerton, York- 
shire. 

Ferguson, W. Esq., 2G, Lloyd-square, Pen- 
tonville. 

Ferguson, Wm. Esq., 31, Torrington-square. 
Fewes, Thomas, Esq., Barrow-on-Soar. 
Fisher, Rev. J. H., F.G.S. &c. Kirby Lons- 
dale. 

Fisher, Rev. Osmond, M.A. Dorchester 
Fisher, Rev. Wm. R. D., F.L.S. &c. 
Fitch, Robert, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Norwich. 
Fitton, W. II., M.D., F.R.S., L.S., G.S., &c. 
4, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



IX 



Fleming, Rev. J., D.D.,. F.R.S.E., &c. 

New College, Edinburgh. 
Fletcher, I. F., Esq., F.R.S., &c. Peel Hall, 

Bolton. 

Fletcher, T. W., Esq., F.R.S., S.A. &c. 

Dudley, Worcestershire. 
Flower, J. W. Esq. Park Hill, Croydon. 
Forchhammer, Professor, Copenhagen. 
Fox, Rev. W. D. Delamere Forest, near 

Chester. 

Fraser, William, Esq. Drainage Office, 
Borris in Ossory, Queen's County. 

Fraser, James P. Esq. City Bank, Glasgow. 

Fraser, John, M.D.Wolverhampton. 

Fryer, A. Esq. Chatteris, Cambridgeshire. 

Fuge, J. H. Esq. F.R.C.S.E. Plymouth. 

Fuller, Henry J., M.D. 13, Manchester- 
square. 

Gaily, Charles, Esq. Felbridge Park, East 
Grinstead. 

Galton, Douglas, Esq. R.E. 12, Chester- 
street, Grosvenor-place. 

Gandy, Gerard, Esq. Kendal. 

Gassiot, I. P. Esq. F.R.S. &c. Clapham. 

Gavey, George E. Esq. 

Geological Society of Manchester. 

Geological and Polytechnic Society of the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, Leeds. 

Geslin, M. Berthaud, Paris. 

Gibson, G. S. Esq. Saffron Walden. 

Gibson, Thos. F. Esq. 124, Westbourne- 
terrace, Hyde-park. 

Glossop, F. II. N. Esq. Isleworth. 

Godlee, Rickman, Esq. Lillies, Upton, Essex. 

Gomonde, W. H. Esq. 

Gordon, P. L. Esq. Craigmyle. 

Gough, Thomas, Esq. Grange, Cartmel, 
Lancashire. 

Gough, Capt. the Hon. G. S., F.L.S. &c. 
Rathronan House, Clonmel, Ireland. 

Gould, John, Esq. F.R.S., L.S., Z.S. &c. 
Broad-street, Golden-square. 

Graham, Cyril, Esq. Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Gratton, Joseph, Esq. 94, Shoreditch. 
Gray, I. E. Esq. Ph. D., F.R.S., G.S„ &c. 

British Museum. 
Gray, C. Esq. Bliston. 



Gray, John, Esq. Lyttleton-terrace, Hayley, 
near Stourbridge. 

Gray,Thos. Esq. 37, Monteith-row,Glasgo\v. 

Griesbach, Rev. A. W, Wollaston, Welling- 
borough, Northampton. 

Griffith, Edw. Esq. F.R.S. &c. Common 
Pleas Office, Serjeant's Inn, Chancery- 
lane. 

Grosvenor, Horace, Esq. Cincinnati, Ohio, 
U. S. 

Grundy, Thomas, Esq. Northampton. 
Gruner, M. Louis, Directeur de l'Ecole 

Imperiale des Mines, &c. St. Etiennc, 

Loire, France. 
Guise, W. V. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Elmore -court, 

near Gloucester. 
Gwilt, G. Esq. Union-street, Southwark. 

H agenow. Chevalier Frederic de, Ph.D. &c. 
Griefswald, Pomerania. 

Haines, C. Y., M.D. 26, Warren-place, Cork. 

Hall, Charles, Esq. Ansty, Blandford. 

Hall, Robert, Esq. 8, Dean's-yard, West- 
minster. 

Hall, William, Esq., Feversham, Kent. 
Hall, Robert W. Esq. Raglan House, 

Wheath, Glamorganshire. 
Hall, James, Esq. Geological Survey, States 

Library, Albany, New York, U.S. 
Halle, University, Library of 
Hambrough, B. J. Esq. F.G.S. Niton, I.W. 
Hamilton, E. M.D., F.L.S. 22, Grafton- 

street, Bond-street. 
Hamilton, W. J. Esq. F.R.S., V.P. G.S., 

Chesham-Place, Pimlico. 
Hanbury. Geo. Esq. 25, Mark-lane. 
Hansfield, J. Esq. 

Hanson, Samuel, Esq. Botolph-lane. 
Harkness, Prof. Robert, Queen's College, 
Cork. 

Harmar, Richard, Esq. 9, Brock- street, Bath. 
Harris, W. Esq. Charing, Kent. 
Harrison, Wm. Esq. Galligreaves House, 
Blackburn. 

Harvey, W. H., M.D., Trinity College, 
Dublin. 

Hastie, Alexander, Esq. M.P. &c. Glasgow. 
Hastie, James, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Grove-hill- 
terrace, Camberwell. 

6 



X 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Hastings, the Marchioness of, Efford House, 

Lymington, Hants. 
Haughton, Prof. S., Trin. Coll., Dublin. 
Hawes, Rev. Henry, B.A., F.L.S. &c. 

Southsea, Portsmouth. 
Hawkins, M. R. Esq. 4, Stanhope-street, 

Hyde Park Gardens. 
Hawkins, B. Waterhouse, Esq. Belvidere- 

road, Norwood. 
Heales, G. S. Esq. Doctors' Commons. 
Henslow, Rev. Jno. S, M.A., F.L.S., G.S. & 

CPS. Prof. Bot. Camb., Hitcham, Bil- 

deston, Suffolk. 
Hewett, Rev. James, Dedington, Oxon. 
Heywood, James, Esq. F.R.S., G.S. &c. 

5, Eaton-place. 
Hickes, Thomas, Esq. Gloucester. 
Higgins, E. T. Esq. 

Highley, Samuel, Esq. Jun. 3<2, Fleet-street. 
Hill, Miss, Rock House, Bath. 
Hitchman, Dr. John, County Asylum, Derby. 
Hodgson, R. Esq., F.R.A.S. &c. Clabury 

Hall, Woodford-bridge. 
Holmes, George B. Esq. Horsham. 
Hony, Rev. W. E., F.G.S. &c. Archdeacon of 

Sarum, Baverstock, near Salisbury. 
Hopgood, James, Esq. Clapham Common. 
Hopkins, W. Esq., M.A., F.R.S., G.S. 

Cambridge. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., G.S. 17, 

Queen's Road West, Regent's Park. 
Horner, Rev. John S., Mello Park, near 

Frome. 

Howard, Mrs. Greystoke Castle, Penrith. 
Howitt, Thomas, Esq. Lancaster. 
Hoyland, Chas. Esq. lC, Old Broad-street. 
Hudson, Robert, Esq, F.R.S., G.S. Clapham. 
Huguenin, O. F. U. T. Esq. Java. 
Hull, W. D. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 17, Upper 

Brunswick-place, Brighton. 
Hunt, Z. D. Esq. F.G.S. Aylesbury. 
Hunter, Rev. S. Wolverhampton. 
Hunter, Rev. Robert, Nagpore, East Indies. 
Hussey, Mrs. Rectory, Hayes, Kent. 
Hutchins, Miss, Alton, Hants. 
Hutton, R. Esq. F.G.S., M.R.I.A. &c. 

Putney Park. 
Huxley, T. H. Esq. 41, North Bank, 

Regent's Park. 



Huxtable, Rev. A., M.A., Sutton Waldron, 
Blandford. 

Illingworth, Rev. E. A. 3, Mecklenburgh- 

street, Mecklenburgh-square. 
Illingworth, R. S. Esq. 9, Norfolk-crescent. 
Ilott, James, Esq. Bromley, Kent. 
Ingenieur, P. M. Esq. Toulon, per Bailliere. 
Ipswich Museum, Ipswich. 

Jackson, W. Esq. Newton, near Penrith. 
Jackson, Edw. S. Esq. M.A., F.G.S. &c. 

Totteridge House, Enfield Highway, 

Middlesex. 

James, Lieut.-Col. H., R.E., F.G.S. &c. 
Ordvance Survey, Southampton. 

Jardine, Sir Wm. Bart. F.R.S.E., F.L.S. &c. 
Jardine Hall, Lockerby, N.B. 

Jarvis, Richard II. Esq. 24, Dorset-square. 

Jeffreys, J. G. Esq. F.R.S., L.S. 1, Mon- 
tague-square. 

Jenkyn, Rev. T. W., D.D., F.G.S. &c. 
Rochester. 

Jennings, F. M. Esq. M.R.I.A. &c. Cork. 

Johnes, J. Esq. Dolan Cothi, Llandilo, 
North Wales. 

Johnson, William, Esq. Eton College. 

Jones, Rear-Admiral T., M.P., F.L.S., G.S. 
&c. 30, Charles- street, St. James's. 

Jones, John, Esq. Gloucester. 

Jourdain, Dr. Director, Museum, Lyons. 

Jukes, J. B. Esq. M.A., F.G.S. &c. Geolo- 
gical Survey of Ireland, Stephen's- 
green, Dublin. 

Keal, John, Esq. Bellevue-house, Bristol. 
Kell, William, Esq. Gateshead, near New- 

castle-on-Tyne. 
Kenyon, the Hon. Mrs., Parade, Shrewsbury. 
Kenyon, J. R. Esq. British Museum. 
King, Prof. W., Prospect-hill, Galway. 
King, W. P. Esq. Rodney Place, Clifton, 

Bristol. 

Kirby, Rev.Thos., M.A., M.C.P.S., Rectory, 
Great Wallingford, Sudbury, Suffolk. 

Konigliches Ober Berg. Amt. Bonn. 

Kingston, G.S. Esq. Grote-street, Adelaide, 
S. Australia. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



A I 



Knapp, Charles, Esq. 5, Norfolk-crescent, 

Hyde Park. 
Knowles, Jas. T. Jun. Esq. Clapham Park. 
Krantz, M. Bonn. 

Kuprianov, Lieut.-Col., St. Petersburg. 

Laidlay, John W. Esq. Calcutta, and 

Hindon, near Arundel. 
Landseer, George, Esq. Cunningham-place, 

St. John's Wood. 
Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.R.S., L.S. 8, 

Savile-row, Bond-street. 
Lashman, Dr. C. Croydon. 
Law, Rev. Julius, Conran, Durham. 
Lawrance, John, Esq. F.G.S. Elton, Oundle. 
Leckenby, Jno. Esq. Scarborough. 
Lee, John, LL.D., F.R.S., R.A.S. &c. 5, 

College, Doctors' Commons. 
Lee, Jno. Edward, Esq. The Priory, Caer- 

leon, Monmouthshire. 
Leeds Library, Leeds, Yorkshire. 
Lesson, E., M.D., Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 
Lemon, Sir C. Bart. F.R.S., G.S, &c. 40, 

Chai'les-street. 
Library of the University, King's College, 

Aberdeen. 
Lidstone, Roger, Esq. Plymouth. 
Lindsay, Chas. Esq. 10, Addle-street, Doctors' 

Commons. 

Lingard, Jno. R. Esq. Aldcrley, near Wilms- 
low, Cheshire. 

Lister, J. J. Esq. F.R.S. &c. Upton, Essex. 

Lister, Jno., M.D., F.G.S. &c. Cliffside, 
Sandown, I. W. 

Lister, Rev. W. Bushbury, Staffordshire. 

Literary and Philosophical Society of Sheffield. 

Literary and Philosophical Society of New- 
castle. 

Literary and Philosophical Institution, 

Cheltenham. 
Literary and Scientific Institution, Frome, 

Somersetshire. 
Liveing, G. E. Esq. St. John's College, 

Cambridge. 
Llewelyn, J. D. Esq. F.R.S., L.S. &c. Pentle- 

gare, Swansea. 
Llewellen,W. J un. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Pontypool. 
Lloyd, John, Esq. 77, Snow-hill. 
Lloyd, Frederick, Esq. 30, Dorset-square. 



Loftus, W. K. Esq. Stand House, New- 

castle-on-Tyne. 
Logan, W. E. Esq. 

Long, H.W. Esq. Rood Ash ton, Trowbridge 

London Institution, Finsbury Circus. 

Longman, Messrs. and Co. Paternoster-row. 

Lonsdale, W. Esq. F.G.S. Melksham, Wilts. 

Loriere, Mons., Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 

Lovcn, Prof. S., Stockholm. 

Lowry, J. W. Esq. F.R.G.S. 45, Robert- 
street, Hampstead-road. 

Lubbock, Sir John W. Bart. M.A., F.R.S. 
L.S., Mansion-house-street. 

Ludlow Natural History Society. 

Lury, S. H. Esq. 16, Old Broad-street. 

Lycett, John, Esq. Minchinhampton. 

Lyell, Sir C, M.A., F.R.S., L.S., G.S. &c 
53, Harley-street, Cavendish-square. 

Mackeson, Henry B. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Hythe, 
Kent. 

Mackey, Lieut.-Col., Fairhill, near Exeter. 
Maclaren, Charles, Esq. F.R.S.E., G.S. &c. 

Moreland Cottage, Grange, Edinburgh 
Maclean, William C. Esq. St. Ann's Thicket, 

Southsea. 

Macleod, John, M.D., H.M.S. Hermes. 

McAndrew, R. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Allhallows 
Chambers, Lombard-street. 

Mcintosh, John, Esq. Taunton. 

Macredie,P.B.M. Esq. Perceton Irvine, N.B. 

Magendie, A. Esq. F.R.S., G.S. &c. Heding- 
ham Castle, Castle Hedingham, Essex. 

Major, Charles, Esq. Red Lion Wharf,Upper 
Thames-street. 

Malta Library, per Sir W. Reade, Malta. 

ManselL John, Esq. Cossington, Bridge- 
water. 

Marcou, Mons. 

Marsh, John, Esq. Burnt Tree, near Dudley. 

Marshall, James G. Esq. M.P. Leeds. 

Marshall, Matthew, Esq. Bank of England. 

Martin, P. J. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Pulborough. 

Martineau, F. Edgar, Esq. 

Mason, Miss, Southend House, Croydon. 

Matthieson, James, Esq. 19, Belitha-terrace, 
1'arnsbury Park. 

Matthews, W. jun. Esq. Edgbaston. Bir- 
mingham. 



xii 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Maw, G. Esq. Barratt's-hill House, Broseley, 
Salop. 

Maynard, Viscountess, Easton Lodge, Essex. 
Meade, Rev. R. J. Castle Cary. 
Mechanics' Institution, Lewes. 
Mechanics' Institution, Llandilo. 
Mechanics' Institution, Leicester. 
Medlock, Henry, Esq. Great Marlborough- 
street. 

Melbourne University Library, Australia. 

Meryon, Edward, M.D. 14, Clarges-street. 

Middleton, John, Esq. 63, St. Stephen- 
street, Norwich. 

Miller, Hugh, Esq. Edinburgh. 

Mitchell, John, Esq. Church-street, Wolver- 
hampton. 

Mitchell, J. Esq. F.R.S. King-street, Kil- 
marnock, Ayrshire. 
Mitchenson, John, Esq., 56, South-street, 

Durham. 
Mohr, Ernest, Herr, Heidelberg. 
Mold, W. H. Esq. Aldersley, Derbyshire. 
Molini, Charles Frederick, Esq., 17, King 

William-street, West Strand. 
Monk, Jas. Esq. Aden Cottage, Durham. 
Moore, J. C. Esq. Sec. G. S. &c. 4, Hyde 

Park Gate, Kensington. 
Moore, Charles, Esq. Cambridge-place, Wid- 

come-hill, Bath. 
Moore, Joseph, Esq. 25, Park Terrace, 

Brixton-road. 
Morant, A. W. Esq. Manville-terrace, 

Camden New Town. 
Morgan, James, Esq. Prospect-place, Marsh, 

near Huddersfield. 
Morgan, Rev. William Leigh, Cardiff. 
Morgan, William, Esq. Swansea. 
Morris, John, Esq. F.G.S. Kensington. 
Morson, T. N. Esq. Southampton-row, 

Russell-square. 
Morton, George Highfield, Esq. 5, London 

Road, Liverpool. 
Mosley, Sir Oswald, Bart., D.C.L , F.L.S., 

G.S. &c. llolleston Hall, Burton on- 

Trent. 

Murchison, Sir R. I., G.C.H.S., LL.D., 
MA., F.R.S., G.S., L.S. &c. 16, 
Belgrave-square. 

Murdock, William, M.D. 320, Rotherhithe. 



Murray, William, Esq. Monkland, Glasgow. 
Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn-street. 

Neale, Edward V.Esq. WestWickham, Kent. 

Neale, T. C. Esq. Chelmsford. 

Neale, Henry, Esq. Foxhangers, Devizes. 

Neison, Francis, G. P. Esq. F.L.S., &c. 
3a, St. James's-square. 

Nelson, Lieut.-Col. R. I., R.E. 11, Alfred- 
street, Plymouth. 

New York State Library, Albany, U.S. 

Newman, Edward, Esq. F.L.S. &c. 9, Devon- 
shire-street, Bishopsgate street. 

Noble, W. H. Esq. Capt. R.E. Chatham, 
and Little Fife House, Whitehall. 

Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution. 

Norman, Mark W. Esq. Ventnor, I. W. 

Norris, Henry, Esq. F.R.C.S. &c. South 
Petherton. 

Norton, J. H., M.D. F.G.S. &c. Amroath 

Castle, near Tenby. 
Nunneley, Thomas, Esq. Leeds. 
Nunn, J. Esq. East Washfield, near Tiverton. 
Nutt, David, Esq. 270, Strand. 

Olivier, Lieut. Col. H. S., Pottern Manor, 
Devizes. 

Ormerod, G. W., Esq. M.A., F.G.S. &c. 

Chagford, Exeter. 
Owen, R., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., L.S.G.S., 

&c. British Museum. 

Paine, J. M. Esq. Farnham. 

Papillon, Rev. J., Lexden. 

Parry, Thomas G. Esq. F G.S. Highnam 
Court, near Gloucester. 

Pattisson, Mrs. Jacob, Witham, Essex. 

Payne, S. Henry, Esq. King-street, Bridge- 
water. 

Payne, Rev. Wm. Reading. 
Paynter, Rev. Samuel, Stoke Hill, Guildford, 
Surrey. 

Peace, William, Esq. Haigh, near Wigan. 
Pearson, Sir Edwin, K.H., M.A. F.R.S. &c. 

7, Chester- terrace, Regent's Park. 
Peckover, Algernon, Esq. F.L.S. Wisbeach. 
Pengelly, William, Esq. Torquay. 
Penny, Rev James, M.A. &c. Blandford. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



xiii 



Penruddocke, Charles, Esq. Compton Park, 

near Salisbury, and 12, Hereford-street, 

Oxford-street. 
Perkins, Rev. R. B. Wotton-Underedge, 

Gloucestershire. 
Perry, George, Esq. Croydon, and Charter 

House. 
Pertz, Dr. Berlin. 

Phillips, Prof. John, M.A., F.R.S., G.S. &c. 

Magdalen Bridge, Oxford. 
Philosophical Society of Glasgow. 
Philosophical Society, Leicester. 
Philosophical Society, York. 
Pickering, John, Esq. Tufnell-park-road, 

Upper Holloway. 
Pictet, Prof. Geneva. 

Pidgeon, Jonathan S. Esq. Pembridge Villa, 
Bayswater. 

Pierson, Charles, Esq. Blenheim Parade, 

Cheltenham. 
Pitts, R, C. Esq. 8, St. Giles-street, Norwich. 
Plant, James, Esq. Princess-street, Leicester. 
Plomley, F., M.D., F.L.S. &c. Maidstone. 
Pollexfen, Rev. J. H., M.A., 4, Bedford- 

place, Clapham-rise 
Pollock, Lady, Clapham-common. 
Portal, Wyndham S. Esq. Malshanger 

House, Basingstoke. 
Portlock, Lieut.-Col., R.E., F.R.S., G.S., &c. 

Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. 
Portman, Hon. Miss, 5, Prince's Gate, Hyde 

Park. 

Potts, Thomas, Esq. Hampton House, Tor- 
quay. 

Powles, T. W. Esq., 46, Wimpole-street. 
Pratt, S. P. Esq. F.R.S., L.S., G.S. &c. Bath. 
Preston Literary and Philosophical Insti- 
tution. 

Prestwich, Joseph, jun. Esq. F.G.S., Mark- 
lane. 

Pritchard, Rev. C, M.A., F.R.S. &c.Clapham. 

Proudfoot, Thomas, M.D. Kendal. 

Prout, Rev. E., F.G.S., &c. Mission House, 

Bloomfield-street, Finsbury. 
Provis, William A. Esq. The Grange, Elles- 

mere, Salop. 

Raban, Major, Durnford-place, Bathwick 
Hill, Bath. 



Radcliffe Library, Oxford. 

Ramsay, Prof. A.C., F.R.S., G.S. &c, Mu- 
seum of Practical Geology, Jermyn-st. 

Ramsay, Sir James, Bart. Banff. 

Ramsay, William, Prof, of Humanity, Uni- 
versity of Glasgow. 

Ramsbotham, J. H., M.D. Huddersfield. 

Rankin, R., M.D. Carluke, Glasgow. 

Ransome, Mrs. Robert, Ipswich. 

Ransome, George, Esq. F.L.S. &c. Ipswich. 

Raper, W. A., M.D., Parade, Portsmouth. 

Rashleigh, J. Esq. 3, Cumberland-terrace, 
Regent's-park. 

Reeve, Lovell, Esq. F.L.S., G.S. &c. 5, 
Henrietta-street, Covent Garden. 

Rich, Messrs., 12, Tavistock -row, Covent- 
garden. 

Richardson, W. S., F.G.S. &c. 26, Dorset- 
place, Dorset-square. 

Richardson, William, Esq. Southeram, near 
Halifax. 

Risley, Rev. William Cotton, M.A. Ded- 

dington, Oxfordshire. 
Robbins, George, Esq. 37, Grosvenor-place, 

Bath. 

Roddam, Jonathan, Esq. Newhouse, Wear- 
dale, Durham. 

Rofe, John, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Preston. 

Rogers, Prof. Henry D., F.G.S. &c. Phila- 
delphia, u. s. 

Roots, William, M.D., F.S.A. &c. Surbiton, 
Kingston, Surrey. 

Roper, F. C. S. Esq. Pembury-road, Clapton. 

Rose, C. B. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Swaffham. 

Rosling, A. Esq. Southwark Bridge Wharf. 

Rosser, W. H. Esq. 60, King-street, 
Stepney. 

Rothery, H. C. Esq. M.A., F.L.S. 94, 

G loucester-terrace, Hyde-park. 
Rothery, Charles, Esq. Greta Hall, Keswick. 
Round, George, Esq. Colchester. 
Royal Artillery Institution, Woolwich. 
Royal Agricultural Coll. Library, Ciren- 
cester. 

Royal College of Surgeons. 
Royal Dublin Society. 

Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Pen- 
zance. 

Royal Institution, Liverpool. 



XIV 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Royal Institution of South Wales, Swansea. 
Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Bagshot 
Royal Library, Berlin. 

Royal University, Breslau Library (Dr. F. 
Roemer). 

Rudd, Rev. Leonard H. M.A. Twyford, 

Reading. 
Ruthven, John, Esq. Kendal. 
Rutter, John, Esq. Ilminster. 

Sabine, General, R.A., F.R.S., Q.S., 13, 

Ashley-place, Westminster. 
Salmon, J. D. Esq. 16a, Strand. 
Salter, J. W. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Museum of 

Practical Geology, Jermyn-street. 
Sanders, W. Esq. F.G.S. &c. 49, Park-villa, 

West-park, Bristol. 
Sanders, Gilbert, Esq., M.R.I.A. &c, 2, 

Forster-place, Dublin. 
Sandwith, Thos. M.D., Beverley, Yorkshire. 
Sansom, Thomas, Esq., 7, Everton-street, 

Liverpool. 

Saunders, W. Wilson, Esq. F.L.S. &c, 
Lloyds. 

Saxby, S. H. Esq. 2, Lansdown Circus, 

South Lambeth. 
Sayle, George, Esq. Kingstaith-squai'e, Lynn, 

Norfolk. 

Scarborough Philosophical Society. 

Schlumberge, Jos. K. Esq. 

Schrieber, Lady Charlotte, 18, King's Arms- 
yard, Moorgate-street. 

Schultz, Mons. Guillermo, Paris. 

Schumard, Dr. B. F., per Bailliere and Co. 

Scott, J. B. Esq. M.A. Bungay, Suffolk. 

Scott, Capt., R.E. 6, Clarence-place, Wool- 
wich. 

Sedgwick, Rev. Adam, M.A., F.R.S.,G.S. &c. 
Cambridge. 

Selwyn, A. R. Esq. Museum of Practical 
Geology, Jermyn-street. 

Sharman, George, Esq., 7, Belgrave-terrace, 
Abbey-wood, St. John's-wood. 

Sharp, Samuel, Esq. Stamford. 

Sharp, John, Esq. Culverden Castle, Ton- 
bridge Wells. 

Shaw, John, M.D., F.G S. &c. Hop House, 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Sherman, Rev. James, Paragon, Blackheath. 



Sheppard, T. Byard, Esq. Selwood Cottage, 
Frome. 

Sheppard, Alfred B. Esq., 18, Lincoln's-inn- 
fields. 

Shipp, W. Esq. Blandford, Dorset. 

Sidney Sussex College Library, Cambridge. 

Silliman, Professor. 

Silurian Society, Bytown, U. S., per Bail- 
liere and Co. 

Sims, W. D. Esq. Ipswich. 

Sismonda, M. Angelo, Prof, of Mineralogy, 
Turin. 

Simpson, S. Esq. The Greaves, Lancaster. 
Sloper, George E., Esq. Devizes. 
Smith, David H. Esq. Bradford, Yorkshire. 
Smith, James, Esq. F.R.S.L. & E., GS. 

Jordan Hill, near Glasgow. 
Smith, Captain Robert, Frankfort Avenue, 

Rathgar, Dublin. 
Smith, Samuel, Esq. Wisbeach. 
Smith, Rev. Lessingham, Caulfield Rectory, 

Essex. 

St. Marc, Mons. Meaux, Rue Hautesville, 

No. 19, Paris. 
Sopwith, T. Esq. F.R.S. G.S. &c. Allen- 
heads, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Sorby, H. C. Esq. Broomfield, Sheffield. 
Sowerby, James de Carle, Esq. F.L.S. &c. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park. 
Sparrow, Arthur, jun. Esq. Wolverhampton. 
Spence, W. Esq. F.R.S.,L.S. &c. 18, Lower 

Seymour-street. 
Spragge,W. K. Esq. Paignton, near Torquay. 
Spratt, Thomas, Esq. Capt. R.N., F.G.S. 

Tynemouth, Devon. 
Stamford Institution 
Stansfield, James, Esq. Halifax. 
Stassin, M. Xavier, Libraire, Paris. 
Stevenson, Frederick J. Esq. Clifton, Bristol. 
Stevens, H. Esq. F.G.S. &c. The Shaws, 

Matlock, Derbyshire. 
Stewart, R. Esq. Torquay. 
Stewart, John, Esq. F.R.S.E. &c. 28, Aber- 

crombie-place, Edinburgh. 
Studer, Prof., Berne. 

Suess, Edward, Esq. Vienna, Wollziel, 773. 
Sunderland Corporation Museum, per John 

Evans, Esq. M.B. 
Sydenham, Arthur, M.D. Yeovil. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Tate, George, Esq. F.G.S. &c. Alnwick. 
Taylor, James, Esq. Marsden, near Hud- 
dersfield. 

Taylor, John, Esq. 6, Queen' s-place, Upper 

Thames-street. 
Taylor, S. Watson, Esq. Urchfont, Devizes. 
Teale, T. P. Esq. F.L.S. &c. Leeds. 
Tennant, Prof. J as. F.G.S. &c. 149, Strand, 

[two copies.) 

Teschemacher, Frederick, Esq., 4, Park- 
terrace, Highbury. 

Thiolliere, M. Victor, Lyons. 

Thomas, F. W. L. Esq. Lieut. R.N. H.M.S. 
Woodlark. 

Thompson, Miss S. Stamford. 

Thomson, Alexander, Esq. F.R.S.E. Ban- 
chory House, Aberdeen. 

Thomson, Francis Hay, M.D. 100, Hope-st. 
Glasgow. 

Thomson, Dr. Allen, Prof. Anatomy, Uni- 
versity, Glasgow. 

Thomson, Prof. Wyville, Queen's College, 
Belfast. 

Thomson, Thos. Esq. Hull. 

Thornewill, Robert, Esq. Burton-on-Trent. 

Thornton, Rev. John, M.A., F.G.S., &c. 
Aston Abbots, near Aylesbury. 

Tite, S. C. Esq. Towcester, Northampton- 
shire. 

Todd, R. B., M.D., F.R.S. &c. 3, New- 
street, Spring-gardens. 

Tomes, R. F. Esq. Welford, near Stratford- 
on-Avon. 

Tomes, John, Esq. 37, Cavendish-square. 

Tomkins, Chas. M.D., F.L.S. &c. 19, 
Medina Villas, Dalston-road. 

Torquay Natural History Society. 

Tovey, R. Esq. 9, Waterloo-place, South- 
ampton. 

Townsend, Mrs. R. E. A. Spring Field, 
Norwood. 

Traill, Prof. Thos. Stewart, M.D. Edinburgh. 

Trevelyan, SirW. C. Wellington, Northum- 
berland, and Athenaeum. 

Tvvamley, Charles, Esq. 6, Queen's-road, 
Gloucester-gate, Regent's Park. 

Tweedy, M. Esq. Alverton, Truro. 

Tylor, Alfred, Esq. F.G.S. Warwick-lane, 
Newgate-street. 



United States Military Academy, West 
Point, New York, (per C. Layton, 16, 
Little Britain). 

University of Glasgow. 

University of Tubingen. 

University Library, St. Andrew's. 

Valenciennes, Prof., Jardin des Plantes, 
Paris. 

Vallance, Mrs. 54, Queen-street, Brighton. 
Veal, Samuel, Esq. Wolverhampton. 
Verneuil, Mons. Edward de, 57, Rue de la 

Madeleine, Paris, 
Vetch, Captain J. R.V., F.R S., G.S. &c. 

Admiralty, Whitehall. 

Walker, Charles, Esq. 

Walker, H., M.D. Calcutta, per Williams 
and Norgate. 

Wall, Geo. P. Esq. Pitmoor, near Sheffield. 

Waller, Edward, Esq. Finnoe House, Burri- 
sokane, Ireland. 

Walmstedt, Dr. L. P., Prof. Mineralogy, 
Upsala, per Triibner and Co., Pater- 
noster-row. 

Walton, William, Esq. London Dock Head, 
Poplar. 

Walton, William, Esq. 17, Grosvenor-place, 
Bath. 

Walwein, Mons. Paris. 

Ward, N. B. Esq. F.R.S., L.S. &c. 14, 
Clapham-rise. 

Ward, Henry, Esq. Wolverhampton. 

Waring, Samuel Long, Esq. ] 15, St. John- 
street. 

Warrington Museum and Library. 

Warrington, Robert, Esq. F.C.S., &c, 
Apothecaries' Hall. 

Warwickshire Natural History Society. 

Watson, Thos. Esq. 64, Old Broad-street. 

Watts, John King, Esq. St. Ives, Hunt- 
ingdon. 

Wauchope, Admiral, Dacre, Penrith. 
Weiss, Prof., University, Dublin. 
Welsh, Robert, Esq. Huddersfield. 
Westall, Edward, Esq. Croydon. 
Weston, Charles H. Esq., 5, Sion-place, 

Sion-hill, Bath. 
Wetherell, N. T. Esq. F.G.S. &c. Highgate. 



XV] 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Whatman, J., Esq. M.A., F.R.S. Vinters, 

Boxley, near Maidstone. 
Wheatley, E. B. Esq. Cotewall, Mirfield, 

Yorkshire. 

Wheeler, Rev. Allen, Sodbury, Gloucester- 
shire. 

Wheldon, John, Esq. 4, Paternoster-row. 
Whewell, Rev. William, B.D., F.R.S. , Hon. 

M.R.I.A., F.S.A., F.G.S., F.R.A.S., 

Mast. Trhi. Coll.Camb. Lodge,Cambridge. 
White, Alfred, Esq. F.L.S. &c. Castle-street, 

Cow Cross. 
White, J. G., M.D. 26, Lloyd-square, Pen- 

tonville. 

White, K. C. Esq., F.G.S. St. Heliers, 
Jersey. 

Wiggins, John, Esq. F.G.S. 30, Tavistock- 
place. 

Willcock, J. W. Esq. 6, Stone-buildings, 
Lincoln's Inn. 

Willaume, Thos. B. T. Esq. 5, Leicester 
Gardens, Cleveland-square, Bayswater. 

Williams, Dr., Swansea. 

Williams, W. W. M.D. Gloucester. 

Wills, William, Esq. Edgbaston, Birming- 
ham. 

Wilson, Rev. Dr. Southampton. 

Wilson, D. Esq. 5, St. Nicholas- st. Aberdeen. 

Wilson, John, Esq. F.R.S.E., F.G.S. Elm 

Cottage, Edinburgh. 
Wilson, J. H. Esq. B.A., F.L.S., F.R.B.S. 

&c, The Grange, Worth, Sussex. 
Wilson, Edward, Esq. F.G.S. &c Lydstip 

House, near Tenby, S. Wales. 
Wilson, Rev. Sumner, 1, New Place House, 

Southampton. 



Wilson, Edward, Esq. Lyons. 

Wiltshire, Rev. Thos. M.A., F.G.S. &e. 

Rectory, Bread-street-hill. 
Wilton, John W. Esq. Gloucester. 
Witts, Rev. E. F. Upper Slanglor Rectory, 

near Stow-on-the-Wold. 
Winstone, Benjamin, M.D. 7, Ely Place, 

Hoi born. 

Wintle, G. S. Esq. East Gate-st. Gloucester. 
Wolley, Rev. Charles, Eton College. 
Wood, Edward, Esq. Richmond, Yorkshire. 
Wood, Mrs. Col., Rectory House, Wickham, 

Bishops Witham. 
Wood, S. V. Esq. F.G.S. &c. St. Stephen's 

House, Twickenham, Treasurer. 
Wood, Rev. Henry, Queen's Coll. Oxford. 
Woodall, John, Esq. Oriel College, Oxford, 

and St. Nicholas House, Scarborough. 
Woodd, C. H L. Esq. F.G.S., F.S.A. &c. 

Hillfield, Hampstead. 
Woodward, Charles, Esq. F.R.S. 10, Comp- 

ton-terrace, Islington. 
Worcestershire Natural Hist. Soc, Foregate, 

Worcester. 

Wright, Chas. C. Esq. 37, Woburn-square. 

Wright, Thomas, M.D. F.R.S.E. Pres. of 
the Phil, and Lit. Institution, Chel- 
tenham. 

Yates, James, Esq. M.A., F.R.S., L.S., G.S. 

&c. Lauderdale House, Highgate. 
Young, J. Forbes, M.D., F.L.S. &c. Upper 

Kennington-lane. 
Young, James, Esq. Tower Hill, East 

Smithfield. 

Zeuschner, Prof., Cracow. 



BIVALVIA. 



217 



Gastrana,* Schum. 1817. 

Tellina (sp.) Linn. Chemn. 
Venus (sp.) Retz. 1788. 

Psammobia (sp.) Lam. 1818. Turt. 1822. Flem. 1828. 
Petri cola (sp.) J. Sow. Lam. 

Diodonta. Desk. 1845. For b. and Hani. 1848. Gray, 1851. Woodward, 1854. 

Generic Character. Shell equivalved, inequilateral, transverse, ovate or subtrigonal, 
covered with concentric striae or lamellae. Hinge with two teeth in one valve, and 
one large subbifid tooth in the other. Impressions by the adductors ovate, nearly 
equal, that by the mantle with a sinus wide and deep. Ligament external. 

Animal with the mantle open, and fimbriated margins ; siphons long, unequal, and 
separated to their bases, with slightly fringed orifices ; foot linguiform. 

This appears to be a very well marked genus, and strongly characterised by its 
dentition. A few species only are as yet known either in a recent or fossil state. 
I have not seen it from any older formation than the Faluns of Touraine. One 
fossil species has been brought from South Africa, belonging to a tertiary deposit. 



1. Gastrana laminosa, J. Sowerby. Tab. XXV, fig. 1, a — e. 

Petricola laminosa. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 573, 1827. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 99, pi. 3, fig. 16, 1844. 

Spec. Char. Testa subirregidari, ovatd vel triyontdd, convexiusculd, clausd, inaqui- 
laterali ; antice rotundatd, postice anyulatd ; lainellatd, lamellis erectis acidis, striis 
interstitiis exilioribus ; cardine bidentato sinu palliari mayno. 

Shell somewhat irregular, slightly convex, ovate or trigonular, closed, inequilateral ; 
anterior side rounded, posterior angulated ; covered with sharp and erect concentric 
ridges or lamellae, and very fine radiating striae between them ; hinge with two teeth, 
palleal sinus large. 

Lenyth, 2\ inches. Height, If inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Ramsholt, Gedgrave, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton, Alderton, Bawdsey, Walton Naze. 

This species is not particularly rare either in the Coralline or in the Red Crag. 
It has considerable resemblance to Tettina frayilis, Linn. {Petricola ochroleuca, Lam.), 
but appears to differ sufficiently to be removed from that species. Like it, however, it 
was subject to much distortion ; and though the valves are found free, its habits were 
probably such as to lead it into confined situations, so as oftentimes to impede the 



E t ym . ? ya a t >ip, ventral. 



29 



218 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



regularity of growth. The principal difference between this and G.fragilis is a larger 
posterior side, which is biangulated, the posterior dorsal portion not sloping off to a 
point as in the recent shell : the laminae in our fossil are also larger, more remote, and 
the palleal sinus extends only to a line drawn perpendicularly from the umbo ; in 
G.fragilis it projects beyond. The right valve of our shell has two large diverging teeth, 
while the left one possesses one large central, triangular, bifid tooth, with a cavity on 
each side, and two small rudimentary teeth ; a large fulcrum for the ligament ; the 
laminae are prominent, and erect, not reflexed. 

Tettina fragilis, Linn., is found fossil in the Sicilian Beds, as, also, quoted in the 
Faluns of Touraine ; but I have not seen it from the Crag. 



Generic Character. Shell transverse, inequilateral, equivalved, more or less wedge- 
shaped ; posterior side the shorter ; surface generally smooth and glossy, sometimes 
finely striated or decussated ; covered by an epidermis in the recent state. Margin 
plain or crenulated. Hinge composed of two cardinal teeth in one valve, and one in 
the other, with more or less developed lateral teeth. Muscular impressions ovate with 
a large and deeply indented mantle-mark. Ligament external. 

Animal somewhat oblong, the mantle open in front, with fringed or partially fringed 
margins. Siphons not very long, separated their entire length ; foot large, sharp 
edged, and pointed. 

The principal distinction between this genus and that of Tellina is the truncation 
of the posterior side, and the general wedge-shaped form of the shell, as also the 
absence of the flexous fold in the margin, and it is in general more inequilateral, but 
the two genera are very closely allied. Tellina is made the type of a family by the 
malacologists, and the present genus is alike honoured with a similar distinction, upon 
what grounds they are so widely separated I am unable to discover. 

A fossil from the Carboniferous Period is described under this name, but its true 
generic position is doubtful, and there is no certainty of its existence in the fossil state 
anterior to the older Tertiaries. 



Don ax,* Linnceus. 1758. 



Tellina. Adans, 1/57. 

Chion. Scopoli, 1777. 

Cuneus. Da Costa, 1778. 

Serrula. Chemn. 1782. 

Capisteria. Gevers, 1787. Sec. Gray. 

PERONiEA, PeRON^ODERMA (sp.) Poll, 1791. 



Latona. — Schum. 1817. 
Hecuba. Id. 
Iphigenia? Id. 
Capsa. Lam. 1818. 
Donacina. Fetus. 1821. 
Egeria? (sp.) Lea. 1833. 



* Etym. ioi al, a sea-fish. Pliny. 



BIVALVIA. 



219 



The habits of the living species are generally littoral ; and they bury themselves 
in the sand, leaving their siphons on a level with the surface. 



1. Donax vittatus, Da Costa. Tab. XXII, fig. 7, a, b. 



Donax trunculus. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1127, fide Forh, and Hani. 

— — Penn. Brit. Zool., ed. 4, vol. iv, p. 93, pi. 55, fig. 45. 

— — Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 42, 1846. 

— vittatus. Gray. List Brit. Moll,, p. 46, 1851. 

— anatjnus. Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 332, pi. 21, figs. 4—6, 

and pi. K, fig. 7, 1848. 

— ruber. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 127, pi. 10, fig. 14, 1822. 
Cuneus vittatus. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p, 207, t. 14, fig. 3, 1778. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, oblongd vel cuneiformi, incequilaterali ; posticc breviore, 
truncatd, antice rotundatd ; tenuissime striata, obsolete decussatd ; margine ventrali 
convexiuscido, crenidato. 

Shell transversely oblong or wedge-shaped, inequilateral; posterior side the 
shorter, truncated, and obtusely pointed ; anterior rounded ; striated externally and 
somewhat obscurely decussated ; ventral margin slightly convex and crenulated. 

Length, \ \ inch. Height, fths of an inch. 

Localitg. Mam. Crag, Bramerton. Recent, British Seas. 

This common living species I have seen only from the above locality, where I am 
informed it is by no means rare. 



2. Donax trunculus, Linnaeus. Tab. XXII, fig. 8, a, b. 

Donax trunculus. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1127, 1767. 

— — Born. Test. Mus. Cses., p. 54, t. 4, figs. 3, 4, 1780. 

— — Poli. Test. Sicil., vol. ii, p. 76, t. 19, figs. 12—20, 1795. 

— — Savigny. Descr. de l'Egypt, torn, xxii, p. 198, pi. 8, fig. 14. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 36 ; vol. ii, p. 28. 

— — Broc. Conch. Foss. Subappen., p. 535, 1814. 

— — Desk. Exped. Scient. Alger. Moll., pi. 74, figs. 1 — 5 ; and pi. 75. 

— truncata. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Capsa trunculus. Hartley. Recent Shells, p. 87, pi. 11, fig. 38. 

Serrula laevigata. Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. vi, p. 259, pi. 26, figs. 253, 254, 1782. 

Le gafet? Adam. Nat. Hist. Senegal, t. 18, fig. 2. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, cuneatd, laevigata, valde inaquilaterali ; latere postico 
brevissimo, truncato ; margine ventrali crenidato. 



220 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Shell transverse, wedge-shaped, and smooth, inequilateral ; posterior side very short 
and truncated ; ventral margin nearly straight and crenulated. 
Length, 1 inch. Height, \ an inch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Sutton. Recent, Mediterranean. 

This shell is rare in my cabinet, and I have met with it from one locality only. It 
appears to differ from the preceding, and to correspond with the Mediterranean form in 
having a much shorter posterior side, it is also smoother externally, with less distinct 
radiating striae, and the ventral margin not so much curved ; the dentition is much the 
same in both species, though somewhat more strongly marked in D. anatinus* The 
"sinus in the mantle mark extends nearly to the middle, rather further beyond the 
hinge than in the British shell, with a few other minor differences ; and as the British 
Conchologists have separated the recent shells into two species, the fossil forms seem 
to warrant a similar proceeding. Philippi mentions this among the Red Sea Shells 
collected by Von Hemprich and Ehrenberg. 

3. Donax politus, Poll. Tab. XXTI, fig. 9, a, b. 

Tellina polita. Poli. Test. Sicil., vol. i, p. 44, pi. 21, fig. 14, 1791. 

— vinacea. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3238. 

Donax complanata. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 106, pi. 5, fig. 4, 1803. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 28, 1844. 

— longa. "Bronn." Phil. En. Moll. Sic., vol. i, p. 37, pi. 3, fig. 13, 1836. 

— glabra. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

— politus. Fori, and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll,, vol. i, p. 336, pi. 21, fig. 7, 1848. 
Capsa complanata. G. B. Sow. Gen. of Shells, No. 10, fig. 2. 

Psammobia polita. Costa. Catal. Test. Sicil., p. 20, No. 14. 

Spec. Char. Testa elongaio-cuneiformi, complanata, laevigata, polita, tenui, inaqui- 
laierali ; latere antico longiore ; latere postico angulato ; margine integro. 

Shell elongately wedge-shaped, flattened or compressed, smooth and glossy, thin, 
inequilateral ; anterior side the longer, produced ; posterior angulated ; margin 
smooth. 

Length, 1 inch. Height, \ an inch. 
Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton and Gedgrave. 

Recent, Britain and Mediterranean. 
Small specimens not exceeding half an inch in length are abundant at Sutton, but 
fragments indicate a magnitude of at least an inch and a quarter. This elegant shell 
is beautifully glossy in those specimens that are well preserved, but the generality are 

* In the ' Hist. Brit. Moll.,' vol. i, p. 310, the hinge ofD. trunculusis said to be destitute of lateral teeth, 
while they are described (p. 332) as being present in D. anatinus. I have not been able to make that distinc- 
tion. There is a prominent lateral tooth in my fossil on the posterior side, beyond the ligamental support. 



BIVALVIA. 



221 



more or less uncoated. Unlike the preceding species, this is free from radiating striae, 
and the margin is in consequence quite smooth. The form of this is also different, 
and may be readily distinguished. The palleal sinus is large and deep, extending 
beyond the hinge area, and in some old shells the interior is considerably thickened. 

Poli has given a good representation of the shell of this species ; but in depicting 
the animal he has made the siphons to protrude on the longer, and the foot at the 
shorter or posterior side. 



Psammobia * Lam. 1818. 



Lux. Chemn. 1782. 
Gari. Schum. 1817. 
Psammot.ea. Lumk. 1818. 
Psammotea. Schweig. 



PERONiEA et PERON/EODERMA (sp.) Poli. 

Azor. 

GOBRiEl 

Psammocola. Blainv. 182-4. 



Leach, MS., 1819. 1 ^ _ 

> oec. Gray. 
jus. Id. J J 



Generic Character. Shell equivalve, subequilateral, transversely oblong, more or 
less compressed, slightly gaping at each extremity; exterior generally covered with 
transverse or concentric striae, and occasionally ornamented with radiating lines or 
ridges. Hinge composed of two teeth in one valve, and one in the other, and without 
lateral teeth. Sinus in the impression of the mantle large and deep. Ligament 
external, fulcrum prominent. 

The animal has the mantle open the entire length, and bordered by a fringe of 
fine simple filaments ; siphons long and slender, marked with longitudinal lines, and 
ornamented with minute cirri ; a large and tongue-shaped foot, somewhat pointed. 

There is no very essential distinction between this genus and Tellina, the 
greatest difference appearing to be a somewhat more oblong form of outline, and 
a less distinct inflexion on the posterior side of the shell, with a rather more 
prominent fulcrum for the ligament in Psammobia. In the recent state the 
species are, like the Tellens, inhabitants of various climes, and generally live buried in 
sand or gravelly mud, and they have a vertical range from low-water mark to 100 
fathoms. 

The name of this genus, being in fact only third in point of date, will have to be 
changed. 



I. Psammobia Ferroensis, Chemn. Tab. XXII. fig. 3, a, b. 

Petiver. Gazophyl., t. 94, fig. 9, 1764. 
Tellina Ferroensis. Chemn. Conch. Cab., vi, p. 99, t. 10, fig. 91, 1782. 
— Feuoensis. Broc. Conch. Subap., p. 512, No. 6, 1814. 

* Etyni. xpufifios, sand, and fii6u), to live. 



222 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Tellina Fervensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3235, 1/88. 

— — W. Wood. Linn. Trans., vol. vi, p. 174, t. 15, figs. 20, 21, 1802. 

— radiata. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 209, t. 14, fig. 1, 1778. 

— incarnata. Penti. Brit. Zool., vol. iv, p. 74, pi. 47, fig. 31, 1776. 

— muricata. Broc. Conch. Subap., p. 511, t. 12, fig. 2. 

— truncata. Spengler. Fide Lovcn. 

— trifasciata. Bon. Brit. Shells, vol. ii, pi. 60, 1800. 
Psammobia Ferroensis. Lamk. Hist. Nat. des An. s. Vert., v, p. 512. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic., vol. i, p. 23, pi. 3, fig. 7, 1836. 

— — Lovcn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 42, 1846. 

— — Sis?nonda. Syn. An. Invert. Pedm. Foss., p. 21, 1847. 

— Dumontii. Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 103, pi. 4, fig. 12, 1844. 

— LjEvis. Id. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 104, pi. 4, fig. 13. 

— muricata. Id. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 105. 

— — 1 Grateloup. Cat. Zool. des An. Vert, et Invert., p. 67, 1838. 

— AiTiNis? Dugard. Mem. de la Soc. Geol. de France, torn, ii, part 2, 

p. 257, pi. 18, fig. 4, 1837. 

Spec. Char. Testa iransvervd, ovato-oblongd, subcequilaterali, tenui ; concentrice 
striata; antice rotundatd ; postice truncata, angidatd, striata et decussatd ; margine 
vet/frati convexiuscido ; sinu pattiari magno. 

Shell transverse, ovately oblong, nearly equilateral, thin ; concentrically striated ; 
anterior side rounded ; posterior truncated, and decussated upon the posterior slope ; 
ventral margin slightly curved ; palleal sinus large. 

Length, 1-| inch. Height, -|ths of an inch. 

Localitg. Cor. Crag, Gedgrave, Sutton, and Ramsholt. 

Recent, Britain, Mediterranean, Finmark. 

This elegant shell, in its full-grown state, is rare ; but small specimens and frag- 
ments are by no means scarce. I have assigned it, without a doubt, to the existing 
species, although some of my fossils appear rather more transverse, or have a some- 
what greater length comparatively than the recent shell. My Crag specimens are 
particularly thin and fragile, with scarcely a trace of any muscular impression. In 
some of the young specimens the radiating striae upon the angular slope of the pos- 
terior side are strongly marked with decussating lines. 

This is said to have been found fossil in the Drift beds of Lancashire and Ireland. 



2. Psammobia vespertina, Chemnitz. Tab. XXII, fig. 2, a — d. 

Lux vespertina. Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. vi, p. 72, t. 7, figs. 59, 60, 1/82. 

Solisn vespertinus. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3228, 1788. 

Tellina variabilis. Don. Brit. Shells, vol. ii, t. 41, fig. 2, 1800. 

Gari. Poll. Test. Sicil., pi. 15, figs. 19, 21, 23, vol. i, p. 41, 1791. 

— Born. Test. Mus. Cces. Vind., p. 31, t. 2, figs. 6, 7, 1780. 

— ai.bjda. Dillw. Desc. Cat. Brit. Shells, vol. 1, p. 78, 1817. 



BIVALVIA. 



223 



Tellina depressa. Perm. Brit. Zool., ed. 4, vol. iv, p. 87, pi. 47, fig. 27. 
Psammobia vespertina. Lam. An. s. Vert., t. 5, p. 511, 1818. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 22 ; vol. ii, p. 21. 

— — Lovlm. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 42, 1846. 

— — Sism. Syn. An. Inv. Pedm, Foss., p. 21, 1847. 
Psammocola vespertina. Blainv. Malac, p. 77, fig. 4, 1825. 
Sanguinolaria — Flem. Brit. Anim., p. 460, 1828. 

Ciiama lutescens. List. Hist. Conch., t. 417, fig. 261. 

Azor variabilis. " Leach." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xx, p. 272. 

Spec. Char. Testa oblongo-ovatd, siibincequilaterali, concentrice striata, striis obtusis 
depressis; antice rotundald, postice subtruncatd ; margine subtilissime crenidato. 

Shell ovately oblong, slightly inequilateral, concentrically striated, stria? obtuse, 
depressed ; anterior side rounded, posterior somewhat truncated ; margin very finely 
crenulated. 

Length, 2 inches. Height, 1 inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Ramsholt and Sudbourn. 

Recent, Mediterranean, British, and Norwegian Seas. 

A very few specimens only of this elegant species have fallen under my observa- 
tion. I have no hesitation in assigning the smaller shell (fig. 2, c, d), found at Rams- 
holt, as an identity with the recent British species. Fig. 2, a, b, is the representation 
of a specimen found by myself at Sudbourne, and the only difference appears to be in 
its having somewhat larger proportions, this one measuring as much as 2f- inches 
in length, and 1^ inch high ; and our fossil is in all probability only a monstrous form 
of the existing shell. It strongly resembles Psam. Stangcri, Gray, ' Faun, of New 
Zealand,' p. 273, No. 1 79. 

3. Psammobia tellinella, Lamarck. Tab. XXII, fig. 4, a, b. 

Psammobia tellinella. Lamk. Hist. des. An. s. Vert., v, p. 515, 1818. 

— Forb. and Hani. Hist, of Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 277, pi. 19, fig. 4, 

and Animal, pi. k, fig. 1, 1848. 
— Lovcn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 42, No. 303, 1846. 

— — Alder. Cat. Moll. North, and Durh., p. 89, 1848. 

— Florida. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 86, pi. 6, fig. 9, 1822. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, ovato-oblongd, tenui ; transversim striata ; antice ovato- 
rotundatd ; postice subangulatd ; margine ventrali leviter ar citato ; cardine bidentato, altera 
unidentato, sinu palliari prof undo. 

Shell transverse, ovately oblong, thin, very finely striated transversely; anterior 
side slightly rounded, posterior somewhat angulated ; ventral margin slightly curved ; 
hinge with one tooth in one valve, inserted between two in the other ; palleal sinus 
deep. 



224 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Length, 1 inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, Channel Islands, Hebrides, and Bergen. 

This delicate and elegant shell is rare in my cabinet ; about half a dozen small 
specimens and a few fragments are all that I have seen. It much resembles the 
young of Ps. vcspertina, but is rather more rounded on the posterior side, and it is a 
deeper or more tumid shell. The hinge teeth are small, though apparently a trifle 
larger than those of the recent shell. The palleal sinus is large and deep, extending 
inwards to a little beyond the hinge denticles. It is said to extend in the living state 
from the Channel Islands to the coast of Bergen, and ranges vertically from five to fifty 
fathoms. 



Tellina,* Linnceus, 1767. 



Petasuncxjlus. Rumph. 1705. Petiver, 1/13. 

Chamelea (sp.) Klein. 1/53. 

Peroncea et peroneoderma (sp.) Poll. 1791. 

Tellinarius (sp.) Du?n. 1306. 

Angulus. Megerle, 1811. 

Omala. Schum. 1817. 



Arcopagia. Leach MS. 1816. Brown, 1827. 
Phylloda. Schum. 1817. 
Tellinides. Lamk. 1818. 
Macoma. Leach, 1819. 
Limicola. Ld. 1819. Fide Gray. 
Homala. (sp.) Agassiz. 



Generic Character. Shell transversely ovate, or suborbicular, generally inequilateral, 
plain or smooth, but more frequently sculptured or ornamented ; posterior side more 
or less angulated, with an irregular flexuosity produced by a slightly sinuated form in 
the posterior part of the ventral margin. Hinge with generally two cardinal and two 
lateral teeth in each valve, the latter, in some species, are obsolete. Palleal impression 
deeply sinuated. Ligament external. 

Animal of the form of the shell, having the mantle open in front, with the margins 
fringed ; siphons long, sometimes four or five times the length of the shell, separate 
throughout, the orifices plain or indistinctly toothed; foot large, triangular, and 
compressed. 

The character by which this genus is said to be most distinguished is the flexuous 
fold, or slightly twisted form of the posterior side of the shell ; this, however, is not 
always discernible, thereby merging into Sanguinolaria and Psammobia which are 
characterised by the absence of the fold, and the want of lateral teeth, though in some 
species of this genus the latter character is by no means permanent. The outward 
form of Tellina is exceedingly variable, some species being nearly orbicular, while 
others arc much elongated ; in general the shells are slightly compressed, somewhat 
unequal in size, one valve being more tumid than the other, especially on the posterior 
side, where the ligament is placed ; and this side is generally, though not always, the 
shorter of the two. 

* Etym. TeXXivr), the name of a mussel. 



BIVALVIA. 



225 



A peculiarity exists in many of the species, as well as in some of the species of its 
generic allies, by which a considerable variation is produced in the degree of tumidity 
at the posterior part of the opposite valves, causing the impression of the mantle upon 
the interior to display a difference in form as well as in extent ; the compressed or 
right valve having its sinus shorter and somewhat broader or higher, while in the 
more tumid one it extends forward so as almost to touch the anterior adductor. This 
does not appear to depend upon a difference in length of the two siphons, as in some of 
the members of this, so called, family, which are furnished with tubes of an unequal 
length, this difference in the sides of the animal does not exist, and the mantle- 
mark is the same in both valves ; but in others, in which the tubes are precisely alike, 
this inequality in the valves is very conspicuous ; the difference in the mantle-mark 
appearing to be coexistent with the difference in the tumidity of the valves. 

If the drawings by malacologists be correct, the inhalent siphon is the longer 
one in some species, while in others, this lower or indrawing tube is the shorter of the 
two, and apparently without producing any difference of tumidity at the posterior part 
of the valves. It is, however, doubtful whether a safe reliance can be placed upon the 
published figures of the Bivalve Molluscs, as some of the animals are represented 
with the upper siphon most extended, while in other very proximate species the 
lower projects beyond the upper one. Mr. Alder informs me these siphons are so 
elastic that either may be made to appear the longer at the will of the animal, which 
perhaps is the cause of this apparent diversity. 

The inequality of proportions in the two valves gives to them a degree of obliquity, 
and, when viewed in a position with the animal upon its ventral margin or standing 
upon its foot, indicates an inflexion or incipient spirality in a dextral direction. 
The want of symmetry in the two valves does not pervade the whole group ; for 
species evidently otherwise very closely allied arc not possessed of this deformity. 

Amongst other peculiarities of this genus may be mentioned T. Biirneti, rather an 
aberrant species, brought from the Coast of California, it has its right valve quite flat, 
while the left is convex or lenticular ; and in the newer Tertiaries of South Carolina 
there is a fossil species strongly resembling it in general form, but which differs from 
it in having the left valve the flat one. In both of these species the sinus in the 
mantle-mark is large and deep, but is unlike that of our other unsymmetrical shells in 
being of the same form and magnitude in both valves. 

Notwithstanding the great curtailment of this genus since its original establishment 
by Linnaeus, it still contains a very large number of species, particularly in the recent 
state ; and these have a wide geographical distribution, extending from the Equator to 
the Polar Regions, and they range vertically from low-water mark to nearly 100 fathoms. 
The genus appears as early as the Coral Rag, with some doubtful forms in the Palaeozoic 
Formations. In the older Tertiaries, twenty-three species have been figured and 
described by Mr. Edwards from the deposits of that period in this country alone, and 
ten were inhabitants of the seas by which the Crag was deposited. 

30 



226 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



1. Tellina crassa, Pennant. Tab. XXI, fig. 1, a — e. 

Tellina crassa. Penn. Brit. Zool., ed. 4, p. 73. 

— — ? Dujard. Mem. de la Soc. Geol. de France, t. 11, pi. 11, p. 258, 1837. 

— — Smith. Mem. Wern. Soc, vol. viii, p. 93. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 23, 1844. 

— — Lovtn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 41, No. 296, 1846. 

— — Sismonda. Syn. Meth. An. Inv. Ped. Foss., p. 21, 1847. 

— rigida. Pvlteney. In Hutcben's Hist, of Dorset, p. 30. 

— scabra. Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. vi, t. 10, fig. 94. 

— maculata. Adams. Linn. Trans., vol. iii, p. 252. 

— — Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 108, pi. 6, fig. 7, 1822. 

— obtusa. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 1/9, fig. 4. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 106, pi. 5, fig. 1, 1844. 

— subrotunda. Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, pp. 29 and 255, 1839. 
Venus crassa. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3288. 

Pectunculus planus crassus. List. Hist. Conch., fig. 136, 1687. 

— depressior. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 194, t. 13, fig. 4, right-hand figure. 
Arcopagia crassa. Brown. Illust. Brit. Conch., pi. 16, fig. 8, 1827. 

— - ovata. Id. Illust Brit. Conch., pi. 16, fig?. 9, 10. 

Bale. Hist, and Antiq. of Harwich, t. 11, fig. 13, 1730. 

Spec. Char. Testa crassa, ovalo-ellipticd, transversa, depressd, utrinque cequaliter 
rotundatd ; latere postico breviore ; lineis creberrimis, elevatis, lamelliformibus ornata. 

Shell thick, ovate or elliptical, transverse, depressed both sides, equally rounded ; 
posterior one the shorter, ornamented with elevated close set ridges or lamellae. 
Length, 2 inches. Height, \\ inch. 
Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton, Walton Naze. 
Mam. Crag, Chillesford. 

Clyde Beds. {Smith.) Recent, Britain, Coast of Scandinavia. 

This shell is rare in the Coralline, but it becomes abundant in the Red Crag, at 
Sutton, though very scarce at Walton Naze. There is a slight flexuous fold on the 
posterior margin, produced by the small sinus in the margin ; and the exterior is 
covered with numerous raised ridges forming obtuse lamellae, scarcely reflexed ; be- 
tween these are fine, distinct, radiating or interstitial striae ; the right valve is the more 
tumid of the two. The palleal sinus is large and deep, with an upward direction ex- 
tending more than half way across the shell ; the adductor muscle marks are deeply 
impressed, particularly the anterior one, within which is a thickened obtuse ridge from 
beneath the umbo to the lower part of the adductor. Old shells are often thickened 
on the inside, thereby deepening the muscular impressions. 

The figure of T. subrotunda, Des. 'Coq. Foss. des Env. de Paris/ torn, i, p. 81, pi. 12, 
figs. 16, 17, strongly resembles this species, and is considered as identical by Philippi ; 



BIVALVIA. 



227 



but in the description by M. Deshayes, that author says it differs from T. crassa, Penn., 
in having only one lateral tooth, and the concentric striae are finer ; there is no mention 
of any insterstitial striae, nor of the thickened internal ridge on the anterior side. 
T. obovaia, F. Edwards, ' Geol, Journ.,' No. 11, p. 49, pi. 2, fig. 2, resembles our shell 
in outline, and may probably, when more specimens have been obtained, and it 
becomes better know r n, be the same as T. subrotunda of Deshayes; but until a fair 
comparison be instituted, T. crassa can scarcely be considered as dating its specific 
existence from the Older Tertiaries. 

This species has a range in depth extending from low-water mark to below 50 
fathoms, and its favorite habitat is in gravelly sand. It is found fossil in the 
Belgian Crag, and in the newer Tertiaries of Calabria, but it is not known as a living 
species in the Mediterranean. 

Tab. Ill, fig. 18, 'Phil. En. Moll. Sic.,' called T. radula, is probably this species. 

2. Tellina balaustina, Linnceus. Tab. XXI, fig. 4, a — d. 

Tellina balaustina. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1119, No. CI, 1/67. 

— — Poll Test. Sicil., vol. i, p 49, 1791. 

_ _ Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 25 ; vol. ii, p. 21. 

— — Forbes. Eeport iEgean. Invert., p. 180, 1843. 

— tenuilamellosa. Nyst. et West. Nouv. Rech. Coq. Foss. d'Anv., p. 7, pi. 3, 

fig. 6, 1839. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 109, pi. 4, fig. 14 a, b, 1844. 

— ovaloides. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Lucina balaustina. Payr. Cat. Moll. Cors., p. 43, pi. 1, figs. 21, 22, 1826. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, ovatd, convexd, stcbinaquilaterali, tenui ; antice 
rotundatd, postice subangulatd ; lamellatd lamellis erectis tenuibus, distantibus ; cardir.e 
bidentato, dentibus lateralibus magnis. 

Shell transverse, ovate, convex, slightly inequilateral, thin ; anteriorly rounded, 
posteriorly subangulated ; covered with distant, thin, erect lamellae ; hinge with two 
cardinal teeth and large lateral teeth. 

Length, f ths. Height, \ an inch. 

Localitg. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, iEgean, Mediterranean, and British. 

Very few specimens of this delicate and pretty species have fallen to my researches, 
and those are all from one locality. The exterior is ornamented with very fine and 
numerous concentric striae, and distant, sharp, elevated ridges or lamellae ; the last 
are so thin that many of them are rarely left upon the surface ; the posterior side is 
the smaller, slightly truncated, or rather biangulated, with an incipient fold very far 
back ; the right valve has two cardinal teeth, posterior one the larger and subbifid ; 
two lateral teeth nearly equidistant, anterior one large, the other nearly obsolete ; 



228 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



left valve with one cardidal subbifid tooth, and elevated dorsal margins to interlock 
with the lateral teeth of the opposite valve. One side of the right valve is somewhat 
compressed, causing thereby a difference of form in the siphonal scar. 

The nearest approach to this species that I am acquainted with is T. lamellulata, 
F. Edwards, ' Lond. Geol. Journ.,' vol. i, p. 14, pi. 23, fig. 2, but that shell seems rather 
more equilateral, flatter, and less truncated, with more numerous elevated lamellae. 
M. Edwards' specimens are not in very good preservation. 

3. Tellina obliqua, /. Soiverby. Tab. XXI, fig. 7, a — d. 

Tellina obliqua. J. Sow. (not Lamk.) Min. Conch., t. 161, fig. 1, 1817. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 107, pi. 5, fig. 2, 1844. 

— — Lyell. Elem. of Geol., 2d ed., p. 299, fig. 14, 1841. 

Spec. Char. Testa subrotundatd, obliqua inaquilaterali, crassd^ lavigatd vel irregu- 
lariter striata ; antice rotundatd ; postice truncatd, subangulatd ; cardine bidentato, denti- 
bus lateralibus obsoleiis. 

Shell rather rounded, oblique, inequilateral, thick, and strong; anterior side 
rounded ; posterior truncated or subangulated, smooth, or covered with irregular lines 
of growth ; hinge with two cardinal teeth, lateral teeth obsolete. 

Length, 1-| inch. Height, l-| inch. 

Localitg. Cor. Crag, Sudbourn, Ramsholt. 

Red Crag, Sutton, Bawdsey, Felixstow, Ipswich. 
Mam. Crag, Chillesford. 

This shell first appears in the lower or Coralline Crag, where it is not very 
abundant ; in the succeeding period, or Red Crag, it may be found in most locali- 
ties. The species may be called obliquely circular, or rather lenticular, the height 
being very nearly if not quite equal to the length ; the valves are somewhat tumid, and 
covered with irregular lines of growth, and the posterior side is rather the shorter of 
the two, with the fold very far back ; this side is compressed in the right valve, but 
tumid in the left ; the inequality of the two valves at that part having relation to the 
unequal magnitude of the siphonal scar in the different valves ; the lateral teeth may 
be said to be wholly wanting, as in the proximate genus Psammobia. 

4. Tellina lata, Gmelin. Tab. XXI, fig. 6, a — d. 

Tellina lata alba. List. Hist. Conch., fig. 253, 1686. 

— lata. Gmel. 1788. (Not Quoy and Gaim.) Fide Lov6n. 

— — Midden. Sibiria Keise, vol. ii, part 1, pi. 23, figs. 4, 5. 

— — Loven. Ind. Moll. Seand., p. 41, 1846. 



BIVALVIA. 



229 



Tellina ovata. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 1G1, fig. 2, 1817. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 30 5 vol. ii, p. 23. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Toss, de Belg., p. 108, pi. 5, fig. 3, a, b, 1844. 

— ovalis. Woodw. Geol. of Norf., p. 43, pi. 2, fig. 1 1, 1832. 

— sabulosa. Spengler. Sec. Loven. 

— calcarea. Wahlenb. Sec. Ly ell. Geol. Trans., vol. vi, 2d series, p. 137, pi. 16, 

figs. 9—11, 1839. 

— — Moller. Ind. Moll. GroenL, p. 20, 1842. 

— proxima. Smith. Mem. Wern. Soc, vol. viii, p. 105, pi. 1, fig. 21, 1838. 

— — Sow. Append. Beeckey's Voy., p. 154, t. 44, fig. 4, 1839. 

— — Fori, and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 307, pi. 21, fig. 1, 1848. 

— edentula. 1 Brod. and Sow. Zool. Journ., vol. iv, p. 363, 1829. 

— — 1 Gray. App. Beech. Voy. Zool., p. 154, t. 41, fig. 5 ; and t. 44, fig. 7, 

1839. 

— sordida. Couthony. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, p. 59, pi. Hi, fig. 11, 1839. 

— triangularis. Lyell. Phil. Trans., 1835, p. 36, fide Lovdn. 

— tenera. Gray. List Brit. Moll., p. 42, 1851. 
Sangotnolaeia sordida. Gould. Invert. Massach., p. 67, 1841. 
Macoma tenera. Leach. Ann. of Phil., vol. xiv, p. 204, 1819. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovatd, transversa, inaquilaterali ; antice longiore rotundatd ; postice 
sub-angalatd ; dentibus utrinqne binis, lateralibus nullis. 

Shell ovate, transverse, inequilateral ; anterior side the longer and rounded ; 
posterior obtusely angulate, with two teeth in each valve; lateral teeth none. 

Length, If inch. Height, \\ inch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Sutton. 

Mam. Crag, Bramerton, Chillesford. 
Clyde Beds, Uddevalla, Russia, Canada. 

Recent, Finmark, N. E. Coast of America, Britain, 
Behring's Straits (G. B. Sowerby). 

I have never seen the present species from the Older or Coralline, and only rarely 
from the Red Crag, and never at Walton-on-the-Naze. In the Mammaliferous Crag 
Period the two species appear to be more equally distributed, although the oblique 
form is there giving way to its more transverse successor, while this latter species 
only, remains at the present day, and seems to be restricted to the colder regions of 
the Northern Hemisphere. In this, as in the preceding species, there is a considerable 
difference in the form and depth of the siphonal scar in the two valves, and the 
posterior side of this one is much more pointed than that of obliqua, and the line of the 
ventral margin is not only less curved but is somewhat constricted on the posterior 
side. T. lata, Middendorff, 'Malac. Ross.,' found in the Arctic Seas and Behring's Straits, 
may probably be a dwarf variety of our shell, connecting it with T. Balthica, which it 
resembles in many of its characters. 



230 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



5. Tellina Benedenii, Nyst and Westendorp. Tab. XXI, fig. 2, a — d. 

Tellina zonaria. Nyst, (not Lamk.) Rech. Coq. Foss. Prov. d'Anv., p. 14, 1836. 

— Benedenii. Nyst et West. Nouv. Recb. Coq. Foss. d'Anv., p. 7, No. 13, pi. 2, 

fig. 5 bis; pi. 3, fig. 5, 1839. 

— — S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovatd, subcequilaterali, cequivalvi, complanatd, laevigata, crassd ; 
antice rotundatd ; poslice angidatd, sub acuminata, valvd altera dente cardinali duo ; 
impressione paMiari magno. 

Shell ovate, slightly inequilateral, equivalved, compressed, smooth, and thick ; 
anterior side rounded ; posterior angulated, and somewhat pointed, two cardinal teeth 
in each valve ; palleal sinus large. 

Length, 2 inches. Height, \\ inch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Sutton. 

My cabinet contains a single specimen of each valve, which are all that I have 
seen. This species somewhat resembles T. prcetenuis, from which, however, it may 
be readily distinguished. The umbo is somewhat prominent, it has a thickened 
hinge furnished with two cardinal teeth in each valve, one small and simple, the 
other bifid ; the simple one is posterior in the left valve, anterior in the right ; 
besides which there is an obtuse lateral tooth on the anterior side of the left 
valve, and a corresponding depression on the anterior dorsal slope in the right, for 
its reception ; the adductor muscles are large and deep, and the sinus in the mantle 
is of an elliptical form, extending about two thirds across the shell. 

The valves have a small and general convexity, and there is no tumid swelling 
on the one side, or compression on the other, hence the similarity in the siphonal 
scar; the surface is smooth (?), but may have been worn so; and there are traces of 
the brownish coloured zones, which M. Nyst speaks of as ornamenting the Belgian 
fossil. 

6. Tellina prcetenuis, Leathei MSS. Tab. XXI, fig. 5, a — c. 

Tellina prcetenuis (Leathes' MS.) Woodw. Synop. Tab. Brit. Organ. Rem., p. 11, 1830. 
_ _ Woodw. Geol. of Norf., t. 2, fig. 12, 1832. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovato-trigond, inaquilaterali, tenui, lavi ; antice n/ajiore, rotundatd, 
et conoexiusculd ; postice biangulatd, subrostratd, et compressd ; cardine bidentato ; dentibus 
lateralibus nuttis. 

Shell ovato-trigonal, inequilateral, thin, and smooth ; anterior side the larger, 
rounded, and somewhat convex ; posterior biangulated, rather pointed, and com- 
pressed ; hinge with two cardinal but no lateral teeth. 

Length, If inch. Height, \\ inch. 



BIVALVIA. 



231 



Locality. Red Crag, Sutton, Walton Naze. 

Mam. Crag, Bramerton, Postwick, and Chillesford. 

This shell in some parts of the Red Crag is exceedingly abundant, though rare at 
Walton on the Naze. At Sutton I have frequently found specimens with the valves 
united and the ligament preserved, strong presumptive evidence of their having lived 
and died in the locality wherein they were found. 

This species was named by the late Rev. G. R. Leathes, in consequence of its con- 
nexion or resemblance to T. tenuis, perhaps its nearest relative. It is somewhat in form 
like T. Balthica, but is not so tumid or thick : it differs from T. tenuis in having more 
height, with a greater convexity in the ventral margin ; the two teeth in each valve are 
alternately simple and bifid, the bifid one is anterior in the left valve, and vice versa ; 
and there are no lateral teeth, but there is a very distinct one on the anterior side in 
T. tenuis, and in that species the mantle mark is comparatively larger. 

In well-preserved specimens, the surface is covered with fine concentric striae, or 
lines of growth, more especially upon the posterior slope, and the right valve is the 
more tumid of the two ; there is also a slight difference in the magnitude of the 
palleal sinus in the opposite valves. 

The shell which really makes the nearest approach to this species is one that was 
brought from the S. E. Coast of Australia. 

7. Tellina Balthica, Linnaus. Tab. XXII, fig. 1, a — c. 

Tellina Balthica. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1120, No. 68. 

— — Born. Test. Mus. Cses. Vind., p. 38, t. 11, fig. 14, 1/80. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 28 ; and vol. 2, p. 22. 

— Baltica. Lyell. Phil. Trans., 1835, p. 34, var. a, pi. 11, figs. 1,2; var. 6, 

figs. 3, 4. 

— solidula. Pulteney. In Hutchin's Hist. Dorset, p. 29. 
_ _ Woodw. Geol. of Norf., pi. 2, fig. 13, 1832. 

— — Lovtn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 41, 1846. 

— — Middend. Mai. Ross., loc. cit., p. 577, 1849. 

— rubra. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 211, t. 12, figs. 4, 4, 4. 

— carn aria. Penn. Brit. Zool., vol. iv, p. 88, pi. 49, fig. 32. 
„ _ J.E.Gray. List of Brit. Moll., p. 41, 1851. 

— zonata. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3238, No. 52. 

— inconspicua. ? Brod. and Sow. Zool. Journ., vol. iv, p. 363, 1829. 

_ _ ? Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. 153, t. 41, fig. 6, 1839. 

— Groenlandica. {Beck.) Lyell. Trans. Geol. Soc, vol. vi, 2d series, pi. 16, fig. 8, 

1839. 

Psammobia fusca. Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., v, p. 220. 

— solidula. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 95, t. 8, fig. 2, 1822. 
Sanguinolaria fusca. Conrad. Am. Mar. Conch., 34, pi. 7, fig. 1. 

— — Dekay. Nat. Hist. New York (Zoology), pi. 32, fig. 304. 

Limicola carnaria. " Leach." Sec. Gray. 



232 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Spec. Char. Testa orbiculaio-ovatd, tumidd soliduld ; antice rotundatd, postice subangu- 
latd ; car dine bidentato, dentibus later alibus nuttis. 

Shell roundly ovate, tumid, thick, and strong ; anterior side rounded, posterior 
somewhat angulated ; cardinal teeth two, lateral teeth none. 

Length, -§- inch. Height, f inch. 

Locality. Mam. Crag, Bramerton, Weybourne, Bridlington, Dalmuir, Russia, 
Canada. 

Recent, Britain, Baltic, N. E. Coast of America, Black Sea. 

I have not seen this shell from the Red Crag ; as it is, however, an estuary species, 
it is less likely to be there. In the recent state, it is often found high up in our rivers, 
where the water is nearly fresh when the tide is out. The shells grow large and 
thick in muddy localities, and thinner and more delicate in sandy places. 

Tellina, is probably its most appropriate place, although the entire absence of lateral 
teeth does not strictly accord with the diagnosis of this genus, but it corresponds with 
it in all other respects. 

Fig. 1 a, b, is the representation of a shell from Clacton, where I obtained it from the 
Clay in which TJnio littoralis is found in abundance; and upon some of my specimens of 
TJnio are several barnacles, evidently showing the close proximity of the sea to this 
fresh-water deposit when it was formed.* 

I have myself obtained only few specimens of the fossil from Norfolk, but I am 
informed it is not rare. 



8. Tellina fabula, Gronovius. Tab. XXI, fig. 3. 

Tellina fabula. Gron. Zoophyl. Gronov., p. 263, No. 4, pi. 18, fig. 9, 1781. 

— — Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 26, t. 3, fig. 10, 1836. 

— — Lyell. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. iii, new series, p. 327, 1839. 

— — G. B. Sow. Thesau. Conch., vol. i, p. 287, pi. 57, fig. 62. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 302, t. 19, fig. 9. 

— discors. Pulteney. Ilutchin's Dorset, p. 54. 

— semistriata. Solander, ex Montague. 

Spec. Char. "Testa elongato-ovatd, compressd, transversa subinaquilaterali, tenia ; pos- 
tice attenuatd, subrostratd, antice majiore rotundatd ; valvula sinistra Icevi, dextrd oblique 
striata ; cardine bidentato, dentibus lateratibus parvis." 

Shell transversely elongato-ovate, compressed, sub-inequilateral, thin ; posterior 
side narrow, and somewhat pointed ; anterior broader, larger, and rounded ; left valve 

* At Clacton I have also obtained Mytilus edulis, Cardium edule, and Trigonella plana, and also a 
rolled specimen of Melania inquinata (Cerithium melanioides, Sow.). 



BIVALVIA. 



233 



smooth ; right valve covered with oblique strise ; hinge with two cardinal teeth, and 
small lateral tooth. 

Length, | inch. Height, \ inch. 

Locality. Mam. Crag, South wold. Recent, British Seas, Mediterranean. 

One specimen was found by Captain Alexander some years since, but it is now 
unfortunately lost. I am, however, certain of its existence as a Crag shell, and have 
in consequence given the representation of a recent individual. 

Philippi gives it as a living species in the Mediterranean, but not as a fossil from 
that part of the world. He places it in his section of the genus " dentibus lateralibus 
carentes." It is not, however, strictly speaking, destitute of lateral teeth ; there is a 
distinct and proximate one on the anterior side of the right valve, and another smaller, 
but more remote, on the posterior margin, immediately beyond the ligamental fulcrum. 
The right valve is prettily ornamented with numerous oblique strise, placed close and 
straight on the siphonal side, and are rather more distant and wavy on the anterior 
half. 

This I have found in the recent state on the sandy shores of the Eastern Coast of 
England, and almost within the reach of fresh water. It is usually a littoral species, and 
is said to range to the depth of ten or twelve fathoms. 

9. Tellina donacina, Linnaus. Tab. XXII, fig. 5, a, b. 

Tellina donacina. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1118, No. 59, 1767. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 24 ; vol. ii, p. 21. 

— — 1 Dujard. Mem. Geol. Soc. Fr., torn, ii, part 2, p. 258, 1837. 

— — Desh. Exped. Scient. Alg. Moll., pi. 69, figs. 1—3. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 292, pi. 20, figs. 3, 4 ; 

and pi. K, fig. 4, 1848. 

— — Middend. Make. Rossica, p. 576, 1849. 

— trifasciata. Penn. Brit. Zool., ed. 4, vol. iv, p. 75, No. 33. 

— variegata. Poll. Test. Sicil., vol. ii, p. 45, t. 15, fig. 10. 

— stjbc arinata. Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap,, p. 5 1 2, t. 1 4, fig. 5, 1 8 1 4, fide Phil. 

— Llanttvyi. Payr. Cat. Moll. Cors., p. 40, pi. 1, figs. 13, 14, 1826. 

— lusoria. {Say.) fide Lyell. Proc. Geol. Soc., vol. iv, part 3, p. 555, 1845. 
Donax striatella. Nyst. Coq. Foss. Belg., p. 116, pi. 4, fig. 15 a, b, 1844. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, elongatd, vel ovato-oblongd, compressiuseuld, tenuissime 
striata, inaquilaterali, latere postico breviore, obtuse angulato ; impressione palliari magno 
pro/undo. 

Shell transverse, elongate, subtrapezoidal, somewhat compressed, inequilateral, 
and finely striated ; posterior side the shorter, obtusely angulated ; impression of the 
mantle large and deep. 

Length, | inch. Height, § inch. 
Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Clyde Beds. Recent, Britain, Mediterranean, and North Seas. {Midd.) 

31 



234 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



This species is exceedingly abundant in the Coralline Crag, but I have seen it only 
in one locality. The palleal impression is very large and deep, extending inwards 
until it almost touches a sort of ridge or thickening of the shell between it and the 
impression of the anterior adductor ; the lateral teeth are at unequal distances : two 
obtuse ridges diverge from the umbo to the ventral margin on the siphonal side, most 
distinct in the right valve, upon the interior of full-grown specimens ; in the left, these 
markings, instead of being in relief, are impressed. Upon some of my fossils there are 
the remains of continuous coloured bands, not intercepted by white radiations. None 
of my Crag specimens have attained to so great a magnitude as is given to the recent 
British shell, my largest scarcely reaching three fourths of an inch in length. This has 
been well named ; it strongly resembles a Donax in all its characters. 

A specimen, in the cabinet of Sir Charles Lyell, has the locality of Bramerton 
attached to it. 

10. Tellina donacilla, S. Wood. Tab. XXII, fig. 6, a, b. 
Tellina donacilla. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, ovato-oblongd, subinaquilaterali, compressiusculd, politd ; 
posfice breviore, truncatd, biangulatd; antice rotundatd ; cardine bidentato ; dentibas late- 
ralibus duobus. 

Shell transverse, ovately oblong, somewhat inequilateral, compressed, glossy ; 
posterior side the shorter, truncated, and biangulated ; anterior side rounded ; two 
cardinal, and two lateral teeth. 

Length, ^ inch. Height, % inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

This shell appears to be rare, one specimen of each valve, in my own cabinet, are 
all that I have as yet seen. It very much resembles in outline T. Oudardii, Payr., ' Moll. 
Cors., 5 p. 40, pi. 1, fig. 16 — 18, and I had considered it different, in consequence of 
the want of the peculiarly characteristic marks of that species, which has the exterior, 
as stated by the author, beautifully ornamented with lozenge-shaped cancellae, formed 
by radiating striae intersecting the lines of growth. If these lines be upon the 
recent shell and not alone in the epidermis, our fossil does not possess them. The 
surface is covered with some broad and flat obsolete ridges on the body of the shell, 
which are sharp and elevated upon the posterior slope. It is flatter than T. donacina, 
less inequilateral, and has not the fine and regular striae of that species. It also 
somewhat resembles the figure of T. compressa, Broc, pi. 12, fig. 9 ; and may possibly 
belong to one of the Mediterranean or Subappennine species, but I have not been able 
to obtain specimens for comparison. 

Our shell has two diverging cardinal teeth in the right valve, with one large, 



BIVALVIA. 



235 



elongated, lateral tooth on the anterior side, and one lateral tooth on the posterior 
slope, beyond the large and prominent fulcrum for the ligament ; this fulcrum is so 
conspicuous, as almost to justify the species being placed in the genus Psammohia, and 
forms one of the links that so closely unite that genus with Tellina. The left valve has 
one large triangular cardinal tooth, and a rudimentary one behind it, with correspond- 
ing elevations or teeth, which fit into the lateral depressions of the right valve ; and 
there is an obscure diagonal ridge on the inside, from beneath the umbo towards the 
anterior side of the ventral margin. The palleal scar is not well defined in our shell, 
but is probably very large and deep. 

Tellina tenuis is enumerated in Mr. Smith's ' List of the Clyde Fossils.' 

Trigonella. Da Costa. 1778. 



Spoonmussel. Petiver. 
Mactra (sp.) Gmelin. 
Mya (sp.) Chemn. 
Tellina (sp.) Donov. 
Ligula (sp.) Mont. 1808. 
Solen (sp.) Olivi. 
Arenaria. Megerle. 1811. 
Scrobictjlaria. Schumacher. 1817. 



Lavignon. Cuv. 1817. 

Lutraria (sp.) Lam. 1818. Swains. 1840. 
Listera. Turt. 1822. 
Lutricola. Blainv. 1824. 
Amphidesma (sp.) Flem. 1828. 
Calcinella. Agass. 1842. 
Semele (sp.) Woodw. 1854. 



Generic Character. Shell equivalved, subequilateral, somewhat compressed, nearly 
smooth. Hinge furnished with two small cardinal teeth in the right valve, and one 
in the left ; no lateral teeth. Muscular impression ovate. Palleal sinus large and 
deep. Ligament small, external. Cartilage large, internal. 

Animal with its mantle open, having the margins denticulated. Siphonal tubes 
iong, slender, and disconnected, with simple orifices. Foot large, tongue-shaped, and 
compressed. 

This genus is closely allied to Tellina, differing only in the arrangement of the hinge 
furniture. In Trigonella the ligament is small and external, separated from the carti- 
lage, which is large, and placed in an expanded, spoon-shaped process. In Tellina 
the cartilage is invisible, or nearly so. 

1. Trigonella plana, Da Costa. Tab. XXII, fig. 14, a — c. 

Spoonmuscle. Petiver. Gazophylacium, t. 94, fig. 3, cap. 54, 17(54. 
Chama piperata Bellonii. Aldrov. Exsang., p. 471, 1623. 
Trigonella plana. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 200, t. 13, fig. 11, 1778. 

— — Desk. Expe'd. Sci. Algerie Moll., pi. 44 to 64. 

— — Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 45, 1846. 

— — Gray. List of Brit. Moll., p. 45, 1851 . 
Venus borealis. Penn. Brit. Zool., vol. iv, p. 96, pi. 48, fig. 28. 



236 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Mya Hispanica. Chemn. Conch. Cab., torn, vi, p. 31, t. 3, fig. 21, 1782. 

— orbiculata. Speng. N. H. S. Sk. H., i, p. 38, No. 13, sec. Schum. 

— Gaditana. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3221, 1788. 

Solen callosus. OlivL Zool. Adriat., p. 98, t. 4, figs. 1, a — c, 1792. 
Mactra Listeri. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3261, 1788. 

— — Woodw. Geol. of Norf., p. 43, t. 2, fig. 7, 1833. 

— piperata. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3261, 1788. 

— compressa. Mont. Test. Brit., pp. 96 and 570, 1803. 
Ligula. compressa. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp., p. 23, 1808. 
Tellina plana. Don. Brit. Shells, pi. 64, fig. 1, 1801. 
Lutraria compressa. Lamk. An. s. Vert., torn, v, p. 469, 1815. 
Listera compressa. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 51, pi. 5, figs. 1, 2, 1822. 
Lutricola compressa. Blainv. Malac, pi. 77, fig. 2, 1825. 
Amphidesma compressum. Flem. Brit. An., p. 432, 1828. 

— transversum? Say. Amer. Conch., pi. 28, mid. fig. 
Lavignon calcinella. Recluz. Illust. Conch, p. 8, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

Scrobicularia arenaria. Schum. Essai d'un Nouv. Syst. des Vers., p. 127, pi. 8, 

fig. 3, a, b, 1817. 

— piperata. Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 8, 1844. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 326, pi. 15, fig. 5 ; 

and pi. k, fig. 6, 1848. 

— plana. Aider. Cat. Moll. North, and Durh., p. 90, 1848. 

Abra Listeri. "Leach," 1819. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1847, vol. xx, p. 272. 
La calcinelle. Adans. Senegal, p. 232, t. 17, fig. 18, 1757. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovatd, transversa, compressa, subcequilaterali, concentrice striata ; 
cardine bidentato ; sinu palliari magno, prof undo. 

Shell ovate, transverse, compressed, nearly equilateral, concentrically striated ; 
hinge with two teeth ; palleal sinus large and deep. 

Length, inch. Height, 1§ inch. 

Locality. (?) Red Crag, Sutton. 

Mam. Crag, Bramerton, Chillesford. 

Clyde Beds. Recent, Mediterranean, Britain, and Scandinavia. 

One specimen only of this long-known and common recent species was found by 
myself, many years ago, and, I think, in the Red Crag at Sutton. I believe it is not 
rare in the neighbourhood of Norwich. As the living species is subject to consider- 
able variation in its outward form, there is no difficulty whatever in finding the exact 
resemblance of our fossil among recent specimens. The habits of the living animal 
lead it almost exclusively to the estuary portion of the sea, which may perhaps be a 
reason why it has not been more frequently met with. I have obtained one specimen 
from Clacton, in association with Unio, Cardium, 8fc. There is a slight difference 
in the tumidity of the two valves, causing thereby a difference in the palleal impression, 
like that in some of the Tellcns. 



BIVALVIA. 



237 



Abra,* Leach. 1819. 



Tellina (sp.) Poli. 1791. J. Sow. 
Ligula (sp.) Mont. 1803. 
Amphidesma (sp.) Lamk. 1818. 
Abra. Risso, 1826. Gray, 1851. 
Mactra (sp.) W. Wood, 1825. 



Erycina (sp.) Phil. 1836. 
Syndosmya. Rectus, 1843. Lovin, 1846. 
Forbes and Ilanley, 1848. 

CUMMINGIA (sp.) G. 2?. SOW. 



Generic Character. Shell thin, transversely elongate, more or less inequilateral ; 
surface smooth, and in the recent state covered by an epidermis. Hinge furnished 
with one or two small cardinal, and two distinct lateral teeth ; cartilage placed in an 
oblique, spoon-shaped process, projecting inward ; ligament small, external. 

Animal of the form of the shell, with the edges of its mantle disconnected through- 
out, and finely fringed ; siphons sometimes very long, slender, and separated the 
entire length, with simple orifices ; foot large, and somewhat geniculated or bent. 

This genus is closely allied to the preceding one, the ligament and cartilage being 
distinctly separated ; but it differs otherwise in the arrangement of the hinge, the 
shells of this group being furnished with distinct lateral teeth. 

The shells are generally small, thin, and colourless, with an unequal degree of 
tumidity in the two valves on the posterior portion, and a difference in form, conse- 
quently, in the sinus of the mantle mark. 

In the recent state, the species live in sand and mud, have a vertical range of 
1 50 fathoms, and extend from the coast of Norway to the Mediterranean. 



1. Abra alba, W. Wood. Tab. XXII, fig. 10, a, b. 

Mactra alba. W. Wood. Linn. Trans., vol. vi, pi. 16, figs. 9—12, 1802. 

— Boysii. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 98, pi. 3, fig. 7, 1803. 

Tellina pellucida? Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 514, t. 12, fig. 8, mala. 
Ampidesma Boysii. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 53, pi. 5, figs. 4, 5, 1822. 

— — Smith. Mem. Wern. Soc, vol. viii, p. 93. 

— album. Flem. Brit. An., p. 432, 1828. 

— semidentata? Scacchi. Catalogue, p. 5. 
Erycina Renieri? Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 12, t. 1, fig. 6. 
Syndosmya alba. Recluz. Rev. Cuv. Zool., p. 362, 1843. 

— — Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 44, 1846. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 316, pi. 17, figs. 12—14, 

1848. 

Ligula Boysii? Forbes. iEgean. Invert., p. 180, 1843. 

— alba. Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 93, pi. 3, fig. 14, 1844. 
Abra — Gray. List. Brit. Moll., p. 43, 1851. 



t 



* Etym. hfipos, thin, delicate. 



238 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Spec. Char. Testa ovatd vel ellipticd, teniii, lavi, incequilaterali ; latere antico majiore, 
rot uit data latere postico angulato, subcarinato ; dentibus lateralibus parvis, tenuibus ; 
sinu palliari magno, prof undo. 

Shell ovate or elliptical, thin, smooth, inequilateral ; anterior side the larger, and 
rounded ; posterior angulated, and obscurely carinated ; lateral teeth small, thin ; 
palleal sinus large and deep. 

Length, \ inch. Height, f- inch. 

Localitg. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton, Bawdsey, Walton Naze. 
Clyde Beds (Smith), Bracklesham [Dixon). 

Recent, British and Scandinavian Seas. 

This is abundant in the Coralline Crag, and, although a thin shell, I have found 
many specimens in the Red Crag at Bawdsey, some of which had the valves united. 
It differs from A. tenuis in being less equilateral, though it is more so than the 
succeeding species, A. fabalis, and on the siphonal side it preserves a sort of 
ntermediate character between the two, being less pointed than the one but more so 
than the other. There is an unequal tumidity in the two valves, causing thereby an 
inequality in the palleal sinus. The strise or lines of growth are somewhat more 
strongly marked in this than in the succeeding species. 

2. Abra fabalis, S. Wood. Tab. XXII, fig. 12, a, b. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovatd, vel elo?/gato-trapezoidali, inaquilaterali, tenui,fragili, Icevi ; 
latere antico longiore, rotundato ; latere postico angidato ; margine ventrali arcuato ; 
dentibus lateralibus elongatis ; fovea ligamenti mediocre. 

Shell ovate, or elongately trapezoidal, inequilateral, thin, fragile, and smooth ; 
anterior side the longer, and rounded ; posterior angulated ; ventral margin curved ; 
lateral teeth thin and elongated ; ligamental area moderate. 

Length, f inch. Height, \ inch. 

Localitg. Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

This shell presents so great a difference to the preceding (alba) as to entitle it, in my 
opinion, to an isolated position ; being more elongated and slender, with the posterior 
side more pointed, and it also is a thinner shell, with a more delicate and less 
pronounced dental apparatus ; less elongated than A. prismatica, but intermediate 
between the two, differing, however, from A. intermedia in being much more inequi- 
lateral, that shell having the umbo nearly central, while in this one the anterior side is 
at least two thirds larger than the posterior one. Our shell somewhat resembles Tellina 
longicollis, Scacchi, Erycina longicollis, Philippi ; but the hinge of that species is even 
more slender, with more elongated lateral teeth, and the support for the cartilage is 
smaller. 



BIVALVTA. 



239 



3. Abra prismatica, Montague. Tab. XXII, fig. 13, a, b. 

Ligula prismatica. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp., p. 23, pi. 26, fig. 3, 1808. 

— — Brown. Illust. Conch., Gt. Brit., pi. 14, fig. 5, 1827. 

— — Forb. Rep. ^Egean. Invert., p. 181, 1843. 

Abra — "Leach." Lamk. Hist, des An. s. Vert., torn, v, p. 492, 1818. 

Mya — Turt. Conch. Diet., p. 103, 1819. 

Syndosmya — Recluz. Rev. Cuv. Zool., p. 367, 1843. 

— • — Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 45. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 321, pi. 17, fig. 15. 

Tellina stricta. Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 515, t. 12, fig. 3, 1817. 

— donaciformis. Nyst. Rech. Coq. Foss. d'Anv., p. 5, pi. 1, fig. 17, 1836. 
Ligula — Id. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 92, pi. 4, fig. 9, 1S43. 
Amphidesma prismaticum. Turt. Brit. Biv., pi. 5, fig. 3, 1822. 

Erycina angulosa. "Bronn." Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 9, 1844. 

Spec. Char. Testa elongato-ovatd, inaquilaterali, Icevigatd, tenui ; latere posiico duplo 
breviore; subrostrato ; dentibus lateralibus elongatis. 

Shell elongately ovate, inequilateral, smooth, and very thin ; posterior side half the 
length of the anterior, and pointed ; lateral teeth elongated. 

Length, § inch. Height, |- inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Clyde Beds. Recent, iEgean, British, and Norwegian Seas. 

I have met with this shell only in the Cor. Crag, and there not very abundantly. 
If there be any difference between this and the existing form, it is that the 
fossil appears rather the more tumid of the two. The ligamental area is small, and 
there are two small lateral denticles or dorsal elevations in the left valve, rather 
remote from the umbo, with one cardinal tooth ; and two lateral denticles, and 
two cardinal teeth in the right valve ; palleal impression not visible. The siphonal 
side is somewhat pointed and slightly compressed, forming an obscure angle or 
ridge on that side from the umbo to the posterior extremity. This species in the 
living state is said to have a vertical range of 100 fathoms, with a wide geographical 
extension from Norway' to the iEgean, and there appears very little doubt that the 
fossil called Erycina angulosa, from the Upper Tertaries of Calabria, belongs to the same 
species. It is found also in the Belgian Crag of Anvers. Ligula fragilis, Bosquet, 
'Bull, de l'Acad. Roy.,' torn, xviii, pi. 11, p. 305, fig. 1, a — d, a shell from Klein 
Spauwen, strongly resembles our species, but it is, I believe with that author who has 
pointed out the differences between the Belgian shells, quite distinct. Amphidesma 
subreflexa, Conrad, p. 37, pi. 19, fig. 6, if one might judge from the figure alone, may 
perhaps be united with A. prismatica. 



240 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



4. Abra obovalis, S. Wood. Tab. XXII, fig. 11. 

Amphidesma obotale. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Erycina ovata ? Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 13, t. 1, fig. 13, 1836. 

Tellina rubiginosa? Poli. Vol. i, p. 48, t. 15, fig. 31, 1791, sec. Phil. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovata, crassiusculd, subcequilaterali ; antice rotundatd, convexd ; 
postice angulatd, compressiuscidd ; dentibus lateralibus magnis, elevatis, approximatis ; 
apicibus prominulis j impressione palliari magno prof undo. 

Shell ovate, rather thick, nearly equilateral, smooth ; anterior side rounded, some- 
what tumid ; posterior angulated, and slightly compressed ; lateral hinge teeth large, 
elevated, and proximate ; apices rather prominent ; palleal impression large and deep. 

Length, \ inch nearly. Height, f- inch. 

Localitg. Red Crag, Sutton. 

Mam. Crag, near Norwich. 

Only two specimens of this species have come under my observation ; one was from 
the Mam. Crag, given to me by Mr. Charlesworth, the other I found in the Red Crag at 
Sutton : they are both unfortunately the right valve. Perhaps the shell described by 
Philippi above referred to is the same species, but the figure is by no means good, and 
the description does not altogether accord with the Crag shell, which is thick, and not 
thin, as therein described ; our shell has a remarkably thick hinge and a large, angular, 
or spoon-shaped area for the cartilage, behind which are two small cardinal teeth, and 
at a little distance are two prominent angular denticles ; the posterior one close to the 
extremity of the hinge pit ; the palleal sinus is very large, extending into the shell more 
than two thirds of its entire length. It differs from A. tenuis in being more pointed, 
and it has a more strongly marked hinge. 

A shell much resembling this species has been obtained on the N. E. Coast of 
America, called Cummingia, tellinoides, Conrad, 1830, Gould, ' Invert. Massach.,' p. 56, 
fig. 36, and Stimpson ' Catal./ p. 20, but it is specifically distinct. The Crag shell is 
not so much compressed ; the ventral margin is more convex, and the lateral teeth of 
the hinge larger and more prominent; while the American shell is also different 
externally, being covered with larger and more regular ridges. 

Ergcina ovata, Midden, t. 19, figs. 5 — 8, as well as Amphidesma ovata, Desh. ' Exped. 
Moree, 5 pi. 6, fig. 8, appear, from the figures and descriptions, to be different from our 
shell. 

Mactra,* Linnceus, 1767. 

Callista Callistoderma (sp.) Poli, 1791. Spisula. Gray, 1837; 1851. 

Trigonella (sp.) Da Costa, 1778. Mesodesma (sp.) Desh. 1835. 

Mulinia. Gray, 1836. Hemimactra. Swains. 1840. 



* Etym. fxaKTpa, a kneading trough. 



BIVALVIA. 



241 



Generic Character. Shell transverse, subequilateral, equivalve ; ovate, elliptical, or 
subtriangular, sometimes thin, occasionally thick and ponderous, slightly gaping 
laterally ; surface smooth, or finely striated concentrically. Hinge with a double 
cardinal tooth in the left valve, and a triangular space for its reception in the right, 
with large and elongated lateral teeth on each side : a large triangular pit for the 
cartilage. Ligament small, external. Impression by the mantle sinuated. 

Animal with its mantle freely open almost as far backward as the siphons ; margins 
fringed ; siphons large and extensile, united to their extremities, and the orifices 
ornamented with cirri ; foot long and strong, tongue-shaped, geniculated. 

This genus, constituting a well marked group, has not been much dismembered 
since the time of its original establishment by Linnaeus : a division under the name of 
Spisula, has, however, been proposed by Dr. Gray for those species which have the 
ligament entirely hidden by the dorsal margin, and the more complete union of the 
cartilage with the ligament, and he has reserved the name of Mactra for the species 
which have a small shelly plate interposed between the two portions of the ligament, 
and where it is partially visible when the valves are closed ; this distinction is so 
very ill defined that it is not thought necessary the separation should be here adopted. 
The most distinguishing character is the possession of a sharp diverging or chevron- 
formed tooth, somewhat resembling the letter A reversed, and this is placed imme- 
diately beneath the umbo before the cartilage. Some of the species have the lateral 
teeth and the sides of the sockets, into which they are inserted, covered with rugosities 
or ridges in a direction at right angles to these teeth ; others have these parts 
quite smooth ; the thicker species are generally furnished with those ridges, but the 
thinner ones are not always free or naked : these might almost constitute a sectional 
distinction, but the same differences are observable in the genera Astarte and Cyrena. 

The species of this genus have been found in most parts of the world, living 
principally in shallow water; they are generally buried in the sand, within a short 
distance from the surface. 

In the fossil state they have been obtained in the Lias and Greensand formations, 
and one is recorded as from the Carboniferous series ; but this latter is of doubtful 
character. The species, as well as individuals, are largely developed in the newer 
Tertiaries, and are abundant also at the present day. 

I. Mactra glauca, Born. Tab. XXIII, fig. 2, a, h. 

Mactra glauca. -Boi'n, Test. Mus. Cses. Vinci., p. 51, t. 3, figs. 11, 12, 1/80. 

— helva seu helvacea. Chemn. Conch., Cab., vol. vi, p. 234, t. 23, figs. 232, 233. 

— helvacea. Paijr. Cat. Moll. Cors., p. 29, 1826. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 10 ; vol. ii, p. 9. 

— Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 366, pi. 23, fig. 2, 1848. 

— Neapolitana. Poll. Test. Sicil., vol. i, t. 18, figs. 1 — 3, 1/91. 

32 



242 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Spec. Char. Testa ovatd subtrigonuld, subinceqidlaterali, tenui, lasvi, compressiuscuid ; 
margine dorsali convexiusctdo j dentibus lateralibus remotis, Icevigatis, acutis, tenuibus ; 
fovea cardinali magna ; sinu palliari semicirculari. 

Shell ovate, slightly trigonular, nearly equilateral, thin and smooth, somewhat 
eompressed ; dorsal margin slightly curved ; lateral teeth remote, smooth, sharp, and 
thin ; cartilage pit large ; palleal sinus semicircular. 

Length, 3|- inches. Height, 2| inches. 

Locality. Red Crag, Newbourn. Recent, Mediterranean, British Channel. 

This species, in the recent state, seems restricted to the warmer parts of the British 
Seas, and to the Mediterranean, and as such we might have expected to have found it 
in the lower Crag deposit. Two specimens were found by myself in the genuine, though 
rather disturbed portion of the, Red Crag : there is, I think, little doubt of its having 
been an inhabitant of the sea of this latter Period, as so large and thin a species 
would hardly have escaped destruction in a removal from one formation to another. 
M. stultorum is the shell with which it is most likely to be confounded ; that 
species, however, never attains to so great a magnitude. The dental characters in 
this are strongly marked ; the right valve has two unequal sized cardinal teeth, the 
anterior one short, inside of which the A-formed tooth of the left valve interlocks ; 
the lateral teeth are long, thin and sharp, rather less elevated towards the sides than 
are those of M. stultorum, and in this species the umbo is rather more prominent : the pit 
for the cartilage is of a triangular form, and the mantle sinus is comparatively less. 

Bom seems intitled to priority, as there is very little doubt his figure, though 
not a good one, was intended for this species, and to which Chemnitz (who has given 
a much better representation) has referred. 

Menke has introduced this species into his ' List of New Holland Mollusca.' This 
Australia shell may be what is called by some authors its representative. 



2. Mactra stultorum, Linnaeus. Tab. XXIII, fig. 3, a — d. 

Mactra stultorum. Gualteri. Ind. Test. Conch., t. 71, fig. c, 1742. 
Pectunculus. Leigh. Nat. Hist. Chesh., pi. 3, fig. 6, 1700. 
Cakdium stultorum. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 681, No. 8. 
Mactra stultorum. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1126, No. 99, 1767. 

— — Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 535, No. 2, 1814. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 10, t. 3, fig. 2, 1836. 

— — Fori, and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 3G2, pi. 22, figs. 4—6. 

— cinerea. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp., p. 35, 1808. 

— magna. Woodw. Geol. of Norf., p. 43, t. 2, fig. 10, 1833. 

— straminea? Desh. 2d ed. Lamk. torn, vi, p. 100, 1835. 
Trigonella radiata. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 196, pi. 12, fig. 3, 1778. 
Tellina radiata. Penn. Brit. Zool., ed. 4, vol. iv, p. 87, pi. 49, fig. 30. 



B1VALVIA. 



243 



Spec. Char. Testa ovatd, transversa, subtrigond, wbtequilaterali, Icevi, tenui ; card me 
bidentatd, dentibus lateralibus acutis, elongatis ; sinu palliari semicirculari. 

Shell ovate, transverse, subtrigonal, slightly inequilateral, smooth, and thin ; 
hinge with two cardinal teeth in each valve, with sharp and compressed lateral teeth ; 
impression of the mantle with a semicircular sinus. 

Length, 2\ inches. Height, If inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton. 

Mam. Crag, Bramerton. 

Clyde Beds, Smith; Bracklesham {Dixon). 

Recent, Mediterranean and British Seas. 

A fragment only of this species is in my cabinet from the lower or Coralline Crag, 
and it is not by any means abundant in the succeeding or Red Crag period, but it has 
been found plentifully in the Mammaliferous Crag, near Norwich, and in the Clyde 
beds, and it has become a very common shell in our own seas. 

There is considerable variation among my specimens not only in proportionate 
dimensions but also in the outward form. In fig. a the shell is almost as high as it is 
long, with the dorsal edge rounded ; fig. b, is comparatively much longer, with the 
hinder side angulated and somewhat pointed. The impressions of the adductors are 
rather large, and the sinus of the mantle-mark extends inwards about f ths of the length 
of the shell. The lateral teeth are thin, double in the right valve, and the cardinal 
A-formed tooth diverges nearly at a right angle. 

In the recent state it is littoral in its habits, and has a wide geographical range, 
extending from the south coast of Norway {Forbes and Hartley) into the Mediterranean, 
and it is mentioned by Philippi as having been met with by Ehrenberg in the Red Sea. 

3. Mactra arcuata, /. Soioerbg. Tab. XXIII, fig. a — c. 

Mactra akcuata. J. Soiv. Min. Conch., t. 160, fig. 1, 1817. 
_ _ Woodw. Geol. of Norf., p. 43, 1833. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 78, pi. 11, fig. 7, 1844. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovato-trigonida, inaquilaterali, Icevigatd, subcompressd, tenui; antice 
latiore et breviore, rotundatd ; margine dorsali arcuata ; cardine bidentato, dentibus 
lateralibus perpendicular iter striatis ; sinu palliari linguiformi. 

Shell ovate, or rather ovato-trigonal, inequilateral, smooth, slightly compressed, 
thin; anterior side the broader, short, and rounded, dorsal margin curved; hinge with 
two cardinal teeth, and striated lateral teeth ; pallial sinus tongue-shaped. 

Length, 2>\ inches. Height, 2f inches. 

Locality. Coralline Crag, Sutton, Gedgrave. 

Red Crag, Walton Naze, Sutton, Bavvdsey. 



244 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



This species is not very abundant in the Coralline Crag ; but in the native 
bed at Walton Naze in the Red Crag, specimens are met with in large numbers, 
although somewhat difficult to obtain perfect, owing to their extreme fragility. The 
exterior is always more or less ridged, from the unequal degree of decomposition, and 
the surface is never in its original condition ; but, judging from those in which it is 
partially preserved, it was probably nearly smooth in the living state. 

The ligamental area is large and simple, running close up to the umbo ; and the 
cardinal A-formed tooth very small in the left valve, with a corresponding cavity in the 
right ; the lateral teeth are double in the right valve, deeply ridged on both sides of 
the interior ; the lateral teeth of the left valve are single, and ridged on the outside ; 
the muscular impressions are large, not very deep seated, and the sinus in the mantle- 
mark is somewhat narrow, extending into the interior at least one third of its entire 
length, but variable, being modified by the comparative length of the shell. 

4. Mactra artopta, S. Wood. Tab. XXIII, fig. 4, a, b. 

Spec. Char. Testa trigonuld vel obtuse cuneatd ; tumidiusculd, incequilaterali, antice 
rotundatd, margine dorsali postico rectiusculo ; wnbonibus subprominulis : dentibus lateralibus 
perpendicidariter striatis. 

Shell trigonal or obtusely wedge-shaped, slightly tumid, inequilateral, anterior side 
rounded, dorsal margin of posterior side somewhat straight, umbones rather promi- 
nent, lateral teeth striated perpendicularly. 

Length, 1\ inches. Height, 2 inches. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sudbourne. 

Several specimens of a Mactra, contained in the collections of Mrs. Corder, Mr. 
Perry, and my own, appear to possess a uniformity of character, such as I think 
entitle them to be considered as belonging to a distinct species, differing from M. 
arcuata, which is perhaps its nearest relative, in having the dorsal margin 
less curved than in any specimens of that species which have come under 
my inspection. This shell is also rather more tumid, and it has a more elevated 
umbo, and its whole aspect appears different. I have seen it only from the Coralline 
Crag, in the neighbourhood of Orford. My specimens of M. arcuata, from the same 
Formation, were found at Ramsholt. 

5. Mactra procrassa, S. Wood. Tab. XXIV, fig. 8, a, b. 

Spec. Char. Testa magna, crassd ; irregulariter striata, ovato-trigonuld, inaqui- 
laterali ; antice sub-angulatd, postice rotundatd ; fovea ligamenti magna ; dentibus laterali- 
bus perpendiculariter striatis. 



BIVALVIA. 



245 



Shell large, thick and strong ; irregularly striated externally, ovately triangular ; 
inequilateral ; anterior side obtusely angulated, posterior rounded ; ligamental area 
large ; lateral teeth perpendicularly striated. 

Length, 2J inches. Height, 2 inches. 

Locality. Red Crag, Felixstow. 

One specimen only of this species is all that I have seen. It is from the cabinet of 
Mr. Perry, and was obligingly forwarded to me for publication by Mrs. Corder. 

It somewhat resembles M. solidissima, Chemn. (31. gig an tea, Lamk.), but differs from 
that shell in being much more rounded on the posterior side. The lateral teeth in our 
shell are also considerably larger, and the sinus in the mantle-mark is also different ; 
but that perhaps may depend upon, or would be modified by, the length and form of 
the posterior side. A shell in the British Museum, from South America, M. exalbida, 
much resembles it in form, but in this latter species the lateral teeth are smooth. 

6. Mactra truncata, Montague. Tab. XXIV, fig. 2, a, b. 

Pectunculus crassiuscultjs. List. Hist. Conch., lib. 11, fig. 87. 
Mactra truncata. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp., p. 34, 1808. 

— — Fori, and Hard. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 354, pi. 23, fig, 1. 

— subtrxjnc ata . Donov. Brit. Shells, vol. iv, pi. 126, 1803. 

— • crass atella. Desk. 2d ed. Lamk. torn, vi, p. 107, No. 33, 1835. 

— crassa. Tart. Brit. Biv., pp. 69, 258, t. 5, fig. 7, 1822. 
Spisula — Gray. Mag. Nat. Hist., new series, vol. i, p. 373, 1837. 

Spec. Char. Testa rotundafo-triangulafd, subaquilaterali crassa ; sinu palliari brevi, 
linguiformi ; umbonibus promine?itibus, dentibus later alibus perpendiculariter striatis. 

Shell roundedly triangular, subequilateral, thick ; palleal sinus short, tongue- 
shaped ; umbones prominent, lateral teeth with perpendicular striae or ridges. 

Diameter, \ \ inch. 

Locality. Reel Crag, Sutton, Walton Naze. 

Clyde Beds. Recent, Britain, and Scottish Seas. 

This is at present a rare Crag species. A worn and somewhat injured specimen 
has long been in my possession ; two others, in better condition, have since been 
obtained by Mrs, Corder, and these are all that I have seen. 

7. Mactra solida, Linnceus. Tab. XXIV, fig. 4, a — c. 

Mactra solida. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1 126, 1766. 

_ _ Gold/. Petr. Germ., vol. ii, p. 253, No. 1, t. 152, fig. 5. 

_ _ Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 11; vol. ii, p. 10. 

_ _ Ny S t. Conch. Foss. de Beige., p. 77, pi. 3, fig. 10, 1844. 

— Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 315, pi. 22, figs. 1—5, 1848. 



246 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Mactra vulgaris. Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. vi, p. 230, pi. 23, fig. 229. 
Trigonella zonaria. Da Costa. Brit. Zool., p. 197, pi. 15, fig. 1, 1778. 

— gallina. Id. Brit. Zool., p. 199, pi. 14, fig. 6. 
Spisula solida. Gray. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1837, p. 374. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovato-trigonali, subaquilaterali, crassd, laviusculd ; dentibus 
lateralibus perpendiculariter striatis. 

Shell triangularly ovate, slightly inequilateral, thick, nearly smooth ; lateral teeth 
perpendicularly striated. 

Length, 1 inch. Height, -| inch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Sutton. 

Mam. Crag, Bramerton. 

Clyde Beds. Recent, Mediterranean and British Seas. 

As far as I can ascertain the history of this species, it is of comparatively modern 
origin, although by some mistake it was quoted in my ' Catalogue ' as from the Older 
or Coralline Crag, from which deposit I certainly have not a well-determined specimen, 
and those from the succeeding or Red Crag Period are somewhat doubtful. 

I have one characteristic specimen from Bramerton, corresponding precisely with 
the common living shell, but it does not appear to have been abundant even there, as 
it is not enumerated among the Norfolk Shells by Woodward. 

In the recent state, it is generally a littoral species, living buried in the sand, but 
has been found in water as deep as thirty-five fathoms {M' Andrew) . It is an estuary 
species at the present day. 

8. Mactra ovalis, /. Sowerby. Tab. XXIII, fig. 1, a — d. 

Mactra ovalis. J. Sow. (not Gould.) Min. Conch., t. 160, fig. 5, 1817. 

— dubia. Id. Min. Conch., t. 160, figs. 2, 3, 4. 

— elliptica. Brown. Illust. Conch. Gt. Brit., pi. 15, fig. 6, 1827. 

— — Lov6n. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 45, 1846. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 356, pi. 22, fig. 3. 

— solida. Don. Brit. Shells, t. 61, small figure. 

— congesta? Conrad. Foss. of the Med. Tert., p. 27, pi. 15, fig. 2, 1838. 

— striata. Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 80, pi. 4, fig. 1 a, 1844. 
Spisula elliptica. Gray. List Brit. Moll., p. 32, 1851. 

Spec. Char. Testa elliptica vel ovato-angulatd, subeequilaterali, laevigata, vel tenuis- 
sime striata, tumidiusculd ; dentibus lateralibus rugosis ; margine ventrali arcuato. 

Shell elliptical or angularly ovate, nearly equilateral ; smooth or very finely striated 
transversely ; slightly tumid ; lateral teeth rough or striated ; ventral margin curved. 

Length, 2 inches. Height., 1^ inch. 



BIVALVIA. 



247 



Locality. ? Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Bawdsey, Sutton, Woodbridge. 
Mam. Crag, Bramerton, Chillesford. 

Clyde Beds. Recent, Finmark, Britain. 

The name of ovalis is selected in preference to that of dubia, as being best suited 
to the character of the species, both having been proposed at the same time. 

A considerable range in variation is observable in the numerous specimens found 
in the Red Crag, some of which very closely approach M. solida, so much so that I 
was induced to consider it in my ' Catalogue ' only as a variety, more especially as in 
this, when perfect, the dorsal portion is marked with ridges such as are supposed to be 
a good distinguishing character for that species. The principal difference appears to 
be a greater solidity of substance in the one so named, and the other is of course 
thinner. Our Red Crag fossil has the exterior covered with very fine, close-set, and 
rather irregular striae, while upon the upper or dorsal portion it is more strongly ridged 
than is usual in the recent shell. The variety M. dubia is less elliptical, with the dorsal 
portion ridged, connecting it in that character with M. solida, from which it differs only 
in being rather more oval and thinner. 

In the Red Crag this is one of the most abundant shells, and may be obtained 
in most localities ; but I have never found it at Walton-on-the-Naze. 

9. Mactra subtruncata, Da Costa. Tab. XXIV, fig. 3, a, b. 

Trigonella subtruncata. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 198, 1778. 

Mactra subtruncata. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 93, and Sup., p. 37, pi. 27, fig. 1. 

— — Lovcn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 45, 1846. 

_ _ Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 358, pi. 21, fig. 8; 

pi. 22, fig. 2 ; and pi. L, fig. 3, 1848. 

— — 1 Midd. Malac. Rossic, p. 581, t. 18, figs. 11— 13. 

— — Sismonda. Syn. Meth. Anim. Invert. Ped. Foss., p. 22, 1847. 

— cuneata. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 1 GO, fig. 7, 1817. 

_ _ Woodw. Geol. of Norf., p. 43, t. 2, fig. 10, 1833. 

— Euxinica? Krynichi. Bull, des Not. de Moscou, No. 11, p. 63, 1837. 

— lijibata. Menke. Fide Lov6n. 

Spisula subtruncata. Gray. Mag. Nat. Hist., new series, p. 374, 1837- 

Spec. Char. Testa ovato-triangidari, vel cunciformi, inaquilaterali, crassd ; antice 
breviore subtruncata ; postice producta, angulatd; dentibus lateralibus perpendiculariter 
striatis ; margine ventrali convexiusculo. 

Shell ovately triangular or obtusely wedge-shaped, inequilateral, thick ; anterior 
side the shorter, and roundedly truncate ; posterior side produced, and angulated ; 
beaks slightly prominent ; lateral teeth perpendicularly striated ; ventral margin 
slightly convex. 



243 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Length, 1 inch. Height, § inch. 
Locality. Red Crag, Sutton ? 

Mam. Crag, Bramerton. 

Clyde Beds, Bracklesham, Uddevalla. 

Recent, West Gothland, Britain, Mediterranean. 
This is a common shell in the Mammaliferous Crag in the neighbourhood of 
Norwich. The cuneiform variety (cuneata) differs only in so far as to have one 
side a little more produced than is usual in the recent shell. The specimens are 
always more or less deprived of their outer coating ; but in those best preserved, the 
ridges upon the dorsal area may be distinctly seen. 



10. Mactra obtruncata, 8. Wood. Tab. XXIV, fig. 5, a, b. 

Spec. Char. Testa subcequilaterali, obtuse triangulari, obtruncata ; antice angulatd ; 
postice truncatd aut rotunda id; umbonibus subprominentibus ; area dor soli striata ; dentibus 
lateralibus rugosis. 

Shell slightly inequilateral, obtusely triangular, roundedly truncate ; anterior side 
angular, posterior irregularly rounded ; umbones slightly prominent ; dorsal area 
striated ; lateral teeth denticulated. 

Length, -| inch, nearly. Height, § inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton. 

This shell is not rare either in the Red or Coralline Crag. It much resembles in 
form the preceding species (M. sublruncata), but differs essentially in being reversed. 
In the living species the angular or produced portion is on the side on which 
the ligament is placed, and where the sinuated mark of the mantle is seen ; 
while in this, the anterior side is angulated, though not much produced. It is a 
thick and strong shell, somewhat tumid, with an obtuse ridge on each side, more 
distinctly marked on the anterior, running from the umbo to the ventral margin, 
within which it is slightly flattened. It has long remained in my cabinet, under the 
name of M. subtruncata, imagining it to have been only a reversed variety, like Trophon 
antiquum, var. contrarium, so common in the Red Crag. There appears, however, a 
difference also in the form and direction of the sinus in the mantle-mark, more than 
might be the result of a difference in the length of the siphonal sides of the two 
shells. 

Mactra striata, Smith, 'Wern. Trans./ vol. viii, pi. 1, fig. 22, much resembles, and 
may probably prove to be, this species, but I have not been able to obtain a specimen 
for comparison ; and judging from the representation, it does not appear to have the 
angular form on the anterior side as in our shell. Messrs. Forbes and Hanley referred 



BIVALVIA. 



249 



the Stevenston shell to M. subtruncata, but Mr. Smith tells mc it does not belong to 
that existing British species. 

I have, therefore, proposed the above name for the Crag fossil, not only from the 
state of uncertainty respecting M. striata, but also from the consideration of the name 
being employed for another species. 



11. Mactra constricta, S. Wood. Tab. XXIV, fig. 6, a — c. 

Spec. Char. Testa oblong o-ovatd, inceauilaterali, crassd, laevigata vel tenuissime striata; 
antice longiore, rotundatd, postice angulatd ; margine ventrali constricto ; dentibus laterali- 
bus perpendiculariter striatis. 

Shell ovately oblong, inequilateral, thick, smooth or finely striatedcon centrically ; 
anterior side the longer, and rounded ; posterior angulated ; ventral margin contracted ; 
lateral teeth rough or perpendicularly striated. 

Length, \\ inch. Height, finch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Sutton. 

This is a common shell, and very abundant in some localities. In its adult state 
it assumes a form somewhat approaching M. deaurata, the ventral margin on the 
siphonal side, after a certain period of growth, becomes contracted or constricted, and 
the dorsal margin then slopes suddenly, giving it an angular form. In the young 
shell, as indicated by the lines of growth, it has the oval shape of ovalis, and I con- 
sidered it as a variety only of that species ; but in many of the species of this genus it 
is very difficult to determine to which the immature shell belongs, and I have now 
reason to believe this to be entitled to specific distinction. Mactra Caspia, Eichwald 
(a Tertiary fossil), ' Fauna Caspio-Caucasia, p. 261, t. 38, figs. 21, 22, has some resem- 
blance to our shell ; but it appears to be more equilateral, and too regular in form, 
without the contraction or distortion of the Crag specimens. 

I have been unable to obtain any information respecting the specimen figured by 
Woodward, called M. triangularis, ' Geol. of Norf.,' t. 2, fig. 9, though most obligingly 
aided in the search by my collecting friends in Norwich. 



12. Mactra deaurata, Turton. Tab. XXIV, fig. 7, a, b. 

Mactra deaukata. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 71, t. 5, fig. 8, 1822. 

— denticulata. W. Wood. Intl. Test. Supp. Mactra, pi. 1, fig. 9. 

— modicella? Conrad. Sillim. Journ., vol. xxiii, p. 340. 

— Id. Foss. Med. Tert., p. 25, pi. 13, fig. 3, 1838. 

— jnequilateea. Nyst. Conch. Foss. Belg., p. 79, pi. 11, fig. 8, 1844. 

33 



250 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Mesodesma Jauresii. De Joannis. Mag. de Zool. Moll., pi. 54, 1834. 

_ _ Gould. Invert. Massach., pi. 58, fig. 38, 1841. 

— deaurata. Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 346, 1848. 
Erycina denticulata. Cuvier. {Griffiths.) An. Kingd., t. 22, fig. 2. 
Paphia deaurata. Gray. List Brit. Moll., p. 157, 1851. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, oblongo-ovatd, i?ia?quilaterali, crassa ; transverse striata 
vel subimbricatd ; antice longiore et rotundatd ; postice truncatd ; cardine bidentato ; denti- 
bus lateralibus magnis, striatis. 

Shell transverse, ovately oblong, inequilateral, thick and strong, transversely or 
concentrically striated ; anterior side the longer, and rounded ; posterior truncated ; 
lateral teeth large, and perpendicularly striated. 

Length, \\ inch. Height, finch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Sutton, Walton Naze. 

Recent, North-east Coast of America, Newfoundland. 

The specimen figured was found at Walton-on-the-Naze by John Brown, Esq., of 
Stanway. There is another in my own cabinet, from the Red Crag at Sutton, but not 
in quite so good a state of preservation. It may be thus more fully described : The 
anterior side is much produced, the base line of the shell ascending towards the 
extremity, where it is roundedly pointed, while the siphonal side is very short, and 
obtusely biangulated ; the surface is covered with irregularly elevated lines of growth 
or ridges ; corresponding with the figure and description given by Turton, who says 
it somewhat resembles in outline M. dealbata, but differs in being thicker, and 
also in the teeth, though he does not tell us what these latter are like in either 
species. 

The recent shell is placed by some authors in the genus Mesodesma. A small 
A-formed tooth is present in this left-hand specimen, placed immediately before a 
large ligamental area, as in Mactra, with elongated lateral teeth, which are striated. 

Lutraria,* Lamk. 1799, 

Mactra (sp.) Linn. 

Psammophila. Leach, MS. 1819. Fide Brown. 
Lutrtcola (sp.) De Blainv. 1824. 

Generic Character. Shell transversely ovate or oblong, inequilateral, and gaping 
at the lateral extremities : externally smooth, or slightly striated transversely. Hinge 
with a prominent triangular or diverging tooth in the right valve, with a corresponding 
pit for its reception in the left. Ligament internal, placed in a large spoon-shaped 
depression in each valve. Impression by the mantle deeply sinuated. 



* Etym. Lutra? a luto, to daub, probably from its nmddike exterior. 



BIVALVIA. 



251 



Animal oblong, with very elongated siphonal tubes united almost to their extre- 
mities ; orifices fimbriated. Mantle open in front for the emission of a foot of consider- 
able size. 

The true position of this genus (or what is called its family connexions) is still a 
subject of much diversity of opinion, some placing it near to Mya, while others claim 
for it a close affinity to Mactra. 

Few species of this genus are at present known in the recent state, and as fossils 
they have been recorded in the Older Secondary Formations. The true generic 
position of the latter is doubtful. In the Older Tertiaries it does not appear to have 
been found, but the middle and newer Formations contain about nine or ten species. 

Lutraria elliptica, Lamarck. Tab. XXIV, fig. I, a, b. 

Mactra lutraria. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1126, No. 101, 1767. 

— — Brocchi. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 536, 181 4. 
Lutraria elliptica. Lamk. Hist, des An. s. Vert., torn, v, p. 468, No. 2, 1818. 

— — 1 Basterot. Foss. de Bord., p. 94, 1825. 

— — Phil. Enuni. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 9 ; vol. ii, p. 7. 

— — Besh. Exp. Sci. Alger. Moll., pis. 33, 35, 36. 

— — Sismonda. Syn. Method. An. Inv. Ped. Foss., p. 23, 1847. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 270, pi. 12. 

— — Nyst. Conch. Foss. de Belg., p. 75, 1844. 

— — 1 Gratel. Cat. Zool. de Terr. Tert. de la Gironde, p. 76, 1838. 

— vulgaris. Flem. Brit. An., p. 464, 1828. 

Lister. Hist- Conch. Lib., Ill, fig. 259. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovato-oblongd vel elliptica, inaquilaterali, laviusculd, antice subangu- 
latd, utrinque hiante ; sinu palliari proj "undo. 

Shell ovately oblong or elliptical, inequilateral, somewhat smooth ; anterior side the 
shorter, and slightly angulated ; gaping at both extremities j pallial sinus deep. 

Length, b\ inches. Height, 3 inches, nearly. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sudbourn and Ramsholt. 
Red Crag, Sutton. 

Clyde Beds, and Irish and Lancashire Drift Beds. (Forbes.) 

Recent, Mediterranean, Britain. 
This fine, handsome shell is, I believe, not very rare at Sudbourn, though specimens 
of it are difficult to obtain. My cabinet contains one individual, with the two valves 
united, which I found at Ramsholt. There is a slight difference in our fossil, varying 
somewhat in its outline, more especially on the anterior or shorter side. In the recent 
shell, the dorsal portion is there more convex or rounded ; but in the Crag specimen, 
this part is nearly straight, giving an angular form to that side ; this difference, how- 
ever, does not appear sufficient to affect the specific assignment. Each valve has a 



252 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



large angular-formed or spoon-shaped depression for the ligament, before which, and 
immediately beneath the umbo, is a prominent A-formed tooth in the right valve, 
which fits into an angular depression in the left. The comparative dimensions are 
somewhat variable, like what is observable in the living shell. 

The habitat of the living animal is said to be in oozy sand, or muddy bottoms, 
varying in depth from six to twelve fathoms. 



Macha, OJcen. 1815. 



Chama (golar). Adanson. 

HYPOGiEA IlYPOGiEODERMA (sp.) Poli, 1791. 

Siliquaria (part). Schum. 1817. 
Adasius. Leach, MS. Fide Gray. 
Psammosolen. Bronn. 1831. 



Psammobia (sp.) Turt. 1822. 
Solecurtus (sp.) Blainv. 1824. 
Novaculina? Benson, 1830. 
Cyrtosolen. Herrm. 1847- 
Macha. Agass. 1839. Gray, 1851. 



Generic Character. Shell transverse, of a somewhat oblong form, compressed in 
the middle, equivalved, equilateral ; rounded and gaping at both extremities ; surface 
generally ornamented more or less with oblique grooves or striae. Hinge composed of 
two diverging teeth in one valve, and one in the other, with a large fulcrum for an 
external ligament. Impression of the mantle deeply sinuated. 

Animal oblong, large and thick, mantle widely open in front for the passage of a 
large tongue-shaped foot. Siphons long, deeply separated, but united at their bases. 

This has been justly separated from the Solens, on account of the different position 
of the hinge, though in its habits there is great similarity, and it is capable of burying 
itself rapidly in the sand. 

Fossils, probably belonging to this genus, have been obtained from the middle 
Secondary Period. 



Macha strigillata, Linnceus. Tab. XXV, fig. 3, a, b. 

Solen strigillatus. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1115, No. 30, 1767. ■ 

— — Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. vi, t. 6, figs. 41, 42. 

— — 1 Poli. Test, utriusq. Sic, vol. i, p. 21, t. 12, fig. 1. 

— — Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 5. 

— candidus? Broc. Conch. Poss. Subap., p. 497. 
Psammobia strigillata. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 97, t. 6, fig. 13, 1822. 
Solecurtus strigillatus. Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 5, 1841. 
Macha strigillata. Gray. List Brit. Moll., p. Gl, No. 1, 1851. 
Hypog.ea variegata. Poli. Test. Sicil. utrius., vol. ii, p. 257. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovato-oblongd, subaquilaterali, utrinque rotundatd, in media com- 
pressd, coarctatd ; dimidiam striatam, striis subobliquis inscidptis. 



BIVALVIA. 



253 



Shell ovately oblong, rounded at both extremities, slightly inequilateral, compressed 
in the middle, with a small contraction in the ventral margin ; one half covered with 
oblique striee. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, Britain? Mediterranean. 

My specimens are few and fragmentary. They appear to possess about twenty-two 
divergingly imbricated ridges, or lines, covering about two thirds of the shell. These 
lines are vertical in the centre, one or two sloping a little towards the anterior. 

There are the remains of colour in my specimens, and they correspond in that respect 
with what the British conchologists consider to be distinct, and different from the white 
variety, which is ornamented with the same kind of sculpture. The lines on my 
fossil do not appear to extend quite so far upon the anterior side as in the recent shells, 
but there is little doubt of its identity with either this or M. Candida. Philippi gives 
both as inhabitants of the Mediterranean, as well as fossil in that part of the world, 
distinguishing the two species in the fossil state by the number of rays. This, I am 
afraid, is a questionable distinction ; specimens of the red variety may be observed, on 
which may be counted the same number he has given to each species. 

In that extraordinary book, Pontoppidon's 'Nat. Hist, of Norway,' p. 165, there is 
the figure of a shell called the smaller mussel, which is one of the varieties of this 
species, but it is not enumerated by Loven in his ' Ind. Moll. Scand.' The shell from 
the Older Tertiaries, Solen strigillatus, Lamarck, f Ann. du Mus.' t. 12, pi. 43, fig. 5, is 
distinct ; the one referred to by Basterot (p. 96), from the neighbourhood of Bordeaux, 
I have not seen. 



Solen,* Arist., Linn,, 8fc. 

Solena. Broivne, 1756. 

Hypog^ea and Hypogeoderma (sp.) Poli, 1791. 
Solenarius? Bumeril, 1806. 
Vagina. Megerle, 1811. 

Ensis. Schum, 1817. J. Sow. 1846. Gray, 1851. 
Ensatella. Swains. 1840. 

Generic Character. Shell equivalved, transverse, linear, subcylindrical, straight or 
very slightly curved, gaping widely at both extremities, dorsal and ventral margins 
nearly parallel, umbones near the extremity. Hinge with two teeth in one valve, and 
one in the other, with sometimes a linear lateral tooth. Muscular impressions dis- 
similar. Palleal sinus short and wide. Ligament external, attached to an elongated 
fulcrum. In the recent state, covered with a thick epidermis. 



* Etym. ow\r)v, a tube. 



254 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Animal narrow, and more or less cylindrical, with the mantle united at the borders, 
except in front, where it is open for the passage of a large and truncated foot. Siphons 
short and united, their margins fimbriated. 

The generic character is here intended for the reception of those species known 
under the familiar appellation of Razor Shells, of a form resembling the handle of our 
common razors. A few modern authors still consider that the differences possessed 
by some of the shells of this peculiar form entitle them to a further division, and have 
united, under the name of JEnsis, proposed by Schumacher, the species which possess 
a lateral tooth or lamina, and reserving to Solen those only in which this linear or 
transverse appendage is wanting. 

The hinge of this genus is more anterior than that of any of the Bivalves, being 
situated at the extremity of the shell. Probably a more than usual strength of union 
for the two valves was required at this part to resist the action of its large and 
powerful foot, in consequence of the burrowing habits of the animal.* 

This appears a modern genus, no true species having as yet been described as 
belonging to any Formation more ancient than the Lower Tertiaries, where some of 
the species deviate slightly from the type, the hinge not being quite at the extremity. 
The few shells somewhat of this form, found in the Palaeozoic Rocks, are very 
doubtful Solens. 



1. Solen gladiolus, Gray. Tab, XXV, fig. 8, a — c. 

Solen gladiolus. Gray. Zool. of Beechey's Voy., p. 153, t. 43, figs. 4, 4, 1839. 

— ensis var. major. Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 44, pi. 1, fig. 3, a, b, 1844. 
Ensis complanatus. J. Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 642, figs. 2, 4. 

Spec. Char. Testa elongatd, recta, laevigata; extremitate anticd obtuse truncatd ; in 
valvd sinistra unidentato, in altera bidentato ; dentibm lateralibus elongatis, marginatis. 

Shell lineal or subcylindrical, straight and smooth, anterior extremity obtusely 
truncated ; one cardinal tooth in the left valve, and two in the other ; lateral teeth 
marginal. 

Lengthy 5 inches. Height, 1 inch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Walton Naze and Suffolk. 

Recent, Arctic Seas. 

* Some confusion has existed respecting the anterior and posterior sides of these shells. Poli has 
given a good and correct representation of one of the species of this genus, with its foot protruded at the 
anterior, and the siphons at the opposite extremity. In the ' Ency. Method.,' vol. hi, pi. 312, fig. 4, the 
Solen is depicted with the siphons at the anterior side ; and in pi. I of the ' Hist, of Brit. Moll.,' all the 
animals are there represented as having the foot on the posterior or ligamental side of the shell. This is 
evidently the result of haste, or of the too numerous avocations of the late much lamented and talented 
author of the Malacological portion of that beautiful work, preventing the bestowal of a necessary attention 
for the avoidance of these trifling errors. 



BIVALVIA. 



255 



Fragments of this species are by no means rare, and pervade the whole of the Red 
Crag Deposit. The specimen figured is one of a pair of valves found in situ at Walton 
Naze, but in a very fragile condition, and much reduced in substance. The fragments 
from Suffolk display, generally, a greater solidity in the anterior portion, which is 
that most commonly obtained. 

Much importance has been placed upon differences in proportional dimensions. 
In this, the length is about five times that of its height, while in S. siliqua some speci- 
mens are as one to eight. The greatest difference appears to be in the impression of 
the margins of the mantle ; in this it is more inward, or further from the anterior edge, 
and, on the contrary, the more linear shell (S. siliqua) has the impression nearer the 
extremity, with a slight difference also in the form of the anterior adductor. The 
truncation of this extremity generally forms an angle of about 95°, but this is not 
constant ; and I am inclined to believe (although they are here separated in deference 
to the recent conchologists, who have better materials to work upon) that the two 
forms are merely varieties of one and the same species, the differences of locality and 
other conditions producing all the variations shown by the two shells.* 

2. Solen siliqua, Linnceus. Tab. XXV, fig. 7, a — e. 

Solen siLiaUA. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1113, No. 34, 1 767. 

— — Poll. Test. Sicil., vol. i, pi. 10, figs. 7 — 11. 

— — Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 80, pi. 6, fig. 5, 1822. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 4 ; vol. ii, p. 5. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 246, pi. 14, fig. 3. 

— novacula. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 47, 1803. 

— ligula. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 82, pi. 6, fig. 6. 

— major. List. Hist. Conch., lib. iii, fig. 255. 

Spec. Char. Testa lineari, recta, laevigata ; extremitate subtruncatd non marginatd ; 
in valvd sinistra unidentato, in altera bidentato ; dentibus lateralibus elongatis. 

Shell linear or cylindrical, straight and smooth ; extremity truncated, not mar- 
ginated ; one cardinal tooth in the left valve, and two in the other ; lateral teeth 
elongate. 

Length, 5 inches. Height, § inch. 

* It is possible that a portion of the Red Crag of Suffolk may have been derived from the destruction 
of the Older or Coralline Crag Formation, intermixed with the exuviae of animals belonging to the seas of the 
former period, as well as with other extraneous fossils. The cliff at Walton Naze, however, affords strong 
presumptive evidence that the whole of the Red Crag is not derivative, and that the animals whose remains 
are there deposited, lived and died in the spot where they are now found. Bivalves are frequently obtained 
in this locality with the two portions united, and it seems scarcely possible that such a specimen as the 
above could have been removed out of one Formation to have been deposited, with its two fragile valves 
in th eir natural position, in the mud or sand of a succeeding period. 



25G 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Locality. Red Crag, Sutton. 

Clyde Beds, and Irish Drift. 

Recent, Mediterranean, Britain. 
This shell, I believe, has not been met with in the Coralline Crag : in the Red 
Crag it is not by any means abundant, and always in a fragmentary state. In my best- 
preserved specimen, the anterior termination is rather more rounded than that of 
the recent species to which it is assigned, but I have not enough to say if such be a 
constant character.* 



3. Solen ensis, Linnaus. Tab. XXV, fig. 6, a—f. 

Solen ensis. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1114, No. 35, 1767. 

— — Poli. Test. Sicil., vol. i, p. 18, t. 11, fig. 14, 1791. 

— — Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 479, 1814. 

— — Gould. Invert. Massach., p. 29, 1841. 

— — Desk. Exp. Scient. Alger., p. 184, pi. 11, figs. 1 — 4. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Foss. Belg., p. 44, pi. 1, fig. 4, a, b, 1844. 

— — Lovdn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 49, 1846. 

— — ? Grateloup. Cat. Zool. Invert. Gironde, p. 68, No. 819, 1838. 

— — Sismonda. Syn. Ped. Foss. Invert., p. 23, 1847. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 250, pi. 14, fig. 2, 1848. 

— curvus. List. Hist. Conch., t. 31 1, fig. 257. 

— ensifokmts. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

— — J. Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 642, fig. 1. 

— — ? Conrad. Foss. Med. Tert., p. 76, pi. 43, fig. 8, 1845. 

— Hausmanni ? Gold/. Pet. Germ., vol. ii, p. 277, pi. 159, fig. 6, a— c, 1842. 

Spec. Char. Testa lineari, arcuatd, extremitate anticd curvatd, non marginatd ; in 
' a Ira sinistra unidentato, in altera bidentato. 

Shell linear, curved, anterior extremity rounded, not marginated ; one cardinal 
tooth in the left valve, and two in the right. 
Length, 3 inches. Height, \ inch. 
Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton, Ramsholt, Sudbourn. 
Red Crag, Sutton, Walton Naze. 
Irish Drift {Forbes). 

Recent, N. E. Coast of America, Brit. Seas, Mediterranean, Sea of Okhotsk {Middeudorf). 
This species first appears in the Coralline Crag, where it is not very abundant; 

* Since the above was written, I have obtained an imperfect specimen (fig. 7, a, b) of what appears to 
belong to this species, judging from its linear character, in which the muscular impressions are, like those 
of S. yladiolus, at a greater distance from the anterior margin, and which I first imagined to be a tangible 
distinction. I now believe the two may be specifically united. 



BIVALVIA. 



257 



but at Walton Naze, in the Red Crag, small specimens and fragments may be plenti- 
fully obtained. 

The «ame proportional and other differences exist between this and the recent 
British shell as between S. siliqua and S. gladiolus, and on that account I imagined it 
to be specifically distinct when my ' Catalogue' was drawn up, and proposed for it the 
name of S. ensiformis, from its near relationship ; but I now believe the Crag shell to 
be entitled to no more, if scarcely so much, as a distinct variety, the form and position 
of the muscular impression varying according to the greater elongation of the shell 
being nearer the extremity in the more lengthened or attenuated varieties, this elonga- 
tion probably being dependent upon some peculiarity of habit or locality. 

In some specimens given to me as Solen Americanus, the proportional length is even 
greater than in the recent British shell, and with a rounded termination ; and none 
of the specimens that I have seen from America appear entitled to a specific appellation 
different from that of ensis. 

S. marginatus has, in the living state, a wide geographical range, being found on 
the coast of Finmark (Loven), and according to Von Hemprich is an inhabitant of the 
Red Sea ; but I have never met with a fragment in any of the Crag Formations that 
could be justly assigned to that species. 

S. {Ceratisolen) legumen is given by Mr. Smith in his 'List of Shells from the Clyde 
Beds.' 



Cultellus,* Schumacher > 1817. 

Cultellus. Desmoul. 1832. 

Solen (sp.) Spengler, Linn., Chemn. 

Generic Character. " Testa aqmvalvis, transversim oblongd, subcomplanatd utrinque 
Mans. Car do in valvd dextrd ; dentes duo cardinales subcompressi alter erectus, alter 
decumbens. In valvd sinistra cardinales ires medius sub-bijidus, apicibus divaricatis 
anterior decumbens. In utraque valvd callus marginalis." — Schum. 

Type. Solen cultellus. Animal ? 

There is, I think, full justification for considering this as entitled to generic isola- 
tion ; the very peculiar form of the hinge furniture, as well as the position of the 
ligament (being removed to some distance from the extremity), are characters very 
different from those of Solen. 

There are at present but few species known, either in a recent or fossil state, 
possessing the above characters. Two or three shells, with this peculiar form of hinge, 
have been obtained from the Older Tertiaries, but I am not acquainted with any of an 
anterior date. 

* Etym. Cultellus, a little knife. 

34 • 



.258 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Cultellus tenuis, Philippi. Tab. XXV, fig. 2, a — d. 

Solen tenuis. Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 6, pi. 1, fig. 2, 1836. 

— — Id. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 5, 1844. 

— genuis. Nyst et West. Nov. Rech. Coq. Foss. d'Anv., p. 3, No. 4, 1839. Mis- 

print. ? 

— tenuis. Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 46, pi. 1, fig. 5, 1844. 
Cultellus cultellatus. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

— — J. Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 642, figs. 5 — 8. 

Spec. Char. " Testa oblongo-lineari, recta, utrinque rotundatd, tenuissimd ; cardinibus 
lateri antico approximatis, in valvuld dextrd bidentatis, in sinistra tridentatis." — Philippi. 

Shell linearly oblong, straight, rounded at both extremities, very thin ; very inequi- 
lateral ; two cardinal teeth in the right valve, and three in the left. 

Length, \\ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

This shell is rare in my cabinet. Two specimens of the right valve, and one of the 
left, from Walton-on-the-Naze, are all that I have seen. 

The Coralline Crag at Sutton has furnished numerous fragments sufficient to justify 
the belief in their identity with the Belgian fossil and the Mediterranean species, 
but it is not S. pellucidus, Penn. M. Philippi's figure shows a much greater 
inequilaterality than our fossil, one side being four times the length of the other 
(probably an error of the artist). In the Crag shell the proportions are as two and 
a half to one. 

It is somewhat broader or higher on the siphonal side, and equally rounded 
at both extremities. The right valve is furnished with two cardinal teeth, the 
anterior- one is vertical and compressed, the other larger and diverging. In the left 
valve are three teeth, the centre one is large, and deeply cleft or bifid, one por- 
tion decumbent, almost parallel with the ligamental fulcrum. The muscular marks 
in my specimens are indistinct. 

The shell to which this appears to bear the nearest relationship (judging alone 
from the drawing of the exterior), is one obtained in the Corea, figured by Messrs. 
Reeves and Adams (Solen albida), ' Voy. of the Samarang, 1850/ p. 84, pi. 23, fig. 15. 



Thracia, Leach, MS. 1819. 



Mya (sp.) Montague, 1803. 
Ligula (sp.) Id. 1808. 
Amphidesma (sp.) Lam/c. 1818. 
Anatina (sp.) Id. 1818. 

Ixartia. Leach, MS. 1819. 
Turacia. Blainv. 1825. Rang. 1829. 



Osteodesma (sp.) Blainv. 1825. 
Odoncinetus. Da Costa, 1829. 
Corimya (sp.) Agass. 1842. 
Odontocineta. Id. 
Cinetodonta. Herrm. 1847. 



BIVALVIA. 



259 



Generic Character. Shell transversely ovate, inequivalve, often nearly equilateral ; 
tumid or compressed, generally thin, slightly gaping ; surface smooth or minutely 
granulated. Hinge with an internal cartilage attached to a projecting callosity. Often 
a small cleft in the umbo, formed by the ligament. Impressions by the adductors 
unequal ; mantle-mark deeply sinuated. 

" Animal ovate ; mantle closed, except for the passage of a compressed linguiform 
foot; siphons rather long,. separated to their bases, and furnished with fimbriated 
orifices, which are often inflated into a globular form." — Clark. 

M. Deshayes having discovered a detached ossiculum in the hinge of one or more 
species possessing somewhat similar external characters, presumed it to exist in all, 
and proposed, in consequence, a family {Orfeodesmida?) founded upon this character, 
distinguishing the genera by the peculiar form of this " little bone," and its position 
in the hinge, it being held between the cardinal callosities by a portion of the internal 
ligament, sometimes close to the anterior, at others on the opposite part of the 
cartilaginous area. 

The distinctions founded upon such characters are but doubtfully sufficient for 
generic separation, even where its position could be correctly determined. There is, 
however, a peculiarity in the calcareous callus of the hinge, or support for the 
ligament, in this genus, sufficient to prevent its being confounded with any other. 

The shells are generally thin, with a rugose or scabrous exterior. They are 
probably of great antiquity, as fossils of this form are found in the lower Oolites, and 
doubtfully so in the Carboniferous series. 

In the living state, the species frequent sandy or sandy-mud shores, and have a 
range from low-water mark to very considerable depth. Dead shells have been found 
as deep as 110 fathoms. 

1. Thracia pubescens, Pulteney. Tab. XXVI, fig. 1, a — d. 

Mya pubescens. Pult. In Hutchins' Dorset., p. 27. 

— — Turt. Conch. Diet., p. 99, fig. 35, 1816. 

— declivis. Donov. Brit. Shells, vol. iii, pi. 82, 1801. 
Anatina myalis. Desk. 2d ed. Lamlc, vi, p. 80, 1835. 

— — Crouch. Int. to Lamk. Conch., p. 7, pi. 4, fig. 1, a, b, 1827. 

— pubescens. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 45, 1822. 
Amphidesma pubescens. Flem. Brit. An., p. 431, 1828. 
Thracia pubescens. Kiener. Coq. viv. Thracia, p. 5, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

— — Desk. Exp. Moree. Zool., p. 87, pi. 18, fig. 1. 

— Couth. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, p. 135, 1839. 

— — J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 631, fig. 1, 1844. 

— — Forbes. iEgean Invert., p. 182. 

— — For b. aud Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., p. 226, pi. 16, figs. 2, 3. 
Montagui. Leach, MSS., 1818. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xx, p. 272, 1847. 

Llgula pubescens. Mont. Test. Brit. Supp., p. 23, 1808. 



260 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Spec. Char. Testa ovato-oblongd, transversa, convexiusculd, tenui, suhaquilaterali, 
antice rotundatd, postice truncatd, et angulatd ; punctis minutissimis asperatd ; callo 
ligament I fcro mag no. 

Shell ovately oblong, transverse, slightly convex, thin, subequilateral, anterior side 
rounded, posterior truncated and angulated, exterior minutely granulated ; hinge with 
large projecting callus, divided by a ridge. 

Length, 2^ inches. Height, 2^ inches. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton and Gedgrave. 

Clyde Beds. Smith. Recent, Britain and iEgean. 

A thin and fragile shell, not very rare, but difficult to obtain. Like most of the 
specimens of this genus found in the Crag, they are somewhat distorted from com- 
pression, and one or other of the valves in consequence cracked, thereby altering a 
little the natural appearance of the shell. On closely comparing it with the existing 
species, it may be remarked that the left valve is rather less contracted, — that is, the 
ventral margin is more convex, or not so straight, as in the living shell, and the umbo 
apparently less prominent ; but the few specimens that I have seen are all pushed a 
little out of their natural position, and these trifling differences would probably 
disappear in a larger and better series. 

2. Thracia phaseolina, Lamarck. Tab. XXVI, fig. 2, a — c. 

Myadeclivis. Turt. Conch. Diet., p. 98, 1816. 
Anatina declivis. Id. Brit. Biv., p. 47, 1822. 

— PUBESCEN8. Id. Brit. Biv., p. 45, t. 4, fig. 3 (young). 
Amphidesma phaseolina. Lamk. Hist. Nat., torn, v, p. 492, No. 11, 1818. 
Thracia phaseolina. Keiner. Coq. viv. Thracia, pi. 2, fig. 4. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 19, t. 1, fig. 7, 1837. 
Odoncineta papyracea. Da Costa. Test. Sicil., p. 23, pi. 2, figs. 1 — 4, 1829. 
Thracia phaseolina. Forb. and Hani. Hist, of Brit. Moll., p. 221, pi. 17, figs. 5, 6 ; 

and pi. h (animal), fig. 4, 1848. 

— — Couth. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., p. 147, 1839. 

— — Lov6n. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 46, No. 321, 1846. 
Tellina papyracea. Poli. Test. Sicil., t. 15, fig. 18. 

Spec. Char. Testa elongato-ovatd, transversa, subaquilaterali, tumidiusculd, tenui; 
antice rotundatd, postice truncatd ; margine ventrali convexiusculo. 

Shell elongato-ovate, transverse, nearly equilateral, thin, and fragile ; anterior side 
rounded, posterior truncated ; ventral margin slightly rounded. 

Length, 1 inch. Height, f- inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Recent, Britain, Mediterranean, Scandinavia. 
Small specimens are by no means rare at Sutton ; and as the recent conchologists 
profess to have sufficient evidence for the separation of this from the young of T 



BIVALVIA. 



201 



pubescens, I have followed their example, although the characters for specific separation 
are not clearly defined, — the distinction appearing to rest solely upon one being more 
transverse than the other. There is, I think, little doubt but the so-called two species 
lived in the sea that deposited the Coralline Crag. 

Two or three fragments of what may be this species, or the young of the preceding j 
are in my cabinet, from the Red Crag of Sutton ; and a specimen belonging to this 
transverse form is in the cabinet of Mr. Morris, from Uddevalla. 

Thracia detruncata, of my 'Catalogue' (fig. 1, e), is probably only a distorted 
specimen of a young individual of either this or of the preceding species. 

The umbo is cleft by the ligament, which must have been visible when the valves 
were closed. 



3. Thracia inflata, /. Sowerby. Tab. XXVI, fig. 6, a — e. 

Thracia convexa. 1 S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

— inflata. /. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 631, figs. 2—4, 1845. 

— Conbadi. 1 Couth. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, p. 153, pi. 4, fig. 2, 1839. 

Spec. Char. Testa obovatd, convexa, inflata, sublcevigatd, tenui, fragili ; antice 
rotundatd, postice subtruncatd et angulatd ; margine ventrali arcuato. 

Shell obovate, convex, tumid, nearly smooth, thin and fragile ; anterior side 
rounded, posterior angulated and pointed ; ventral margin curved. 

Length, 3-§ inches. Height, 2| inches. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sudbourn. 

This species appears to be restricted to the neighbourhood of Orford, where it is not 
at all scarce, though the specimens are rarely in perfect condition : they are generally 
more or less compressed, and the inflated character destroyed. Amongst my specimens 
a considerable variation may be observed, some being much more elongated than 
others. 

The right is the thinner and more inflated valve, and the one that is generally 
fractured and compressed. Impressions by the adductors are unequal in size, and the 
sinus in the mantle-mark is rounded and rather deep. A small sinus is visible at the 
umbones, through which the ligament must have protruded ; but that part of the shell 
being particularly thin, it is there generally destroyed or injured. The hinge is an 
elongated callosity, on which was placed the cartilage, with a linear depression or 
furrow on the outside of it for the ligamental portion, differing from that of T. pubescens, 
in which this callus is of a triangular form and projects inwardly. The exterior is 
smooth, with the exception of lines of growth and some rugosities, particularly upon 
the siphonal side ; but it has not the shagreen-like sculpture which ornaments the 
entire surface of T. pubescens. 



262 MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 

From the want of a good series of very perfect specimens, it is difficult to say 
whether this be really distinct. T. corbuloides appears to have the anterior side the 
smaller ; and although T. (Jonradi comes very near to our Crag fossil, it differs also in 
the same character, and has a rather more prominent umbo. A difference also is shown 
in the sinus, which is not only deeper, as it would naturally be from the difference in 
the proportion of the sides, but it appears somewhat more angular in the recent 
American shell. I am, however, inclined to believe, that when a better comparison 
can be instituted, it may be found not to differ specifically from T. Conradi. 

4. Thracia ventricosa, Philippi. Tab. XXVI, fig. 5, a — c. 

Thracia pubescens. Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 19, t. 1, fig. 10, 1836. 
— ventricosa. Id. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 17, 1344. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovato-oblongd, tumidd, subaquilaterali, incequwalm, tenui ; antice 
angustatd, postice truncatd, et angnlatd ; valvd dextrd tumidiore ; umbonibus magnis 
recurvatis ; margine ventrali convexinsculo . 

Shell ovately oblong, inequilateral, tumid, inequivalved, thin ; anterior side slightly 
produced, posterior truncate and angulated; right valve the more tumid; beaks large; 
ventral margin slightly curved. 

Length, If inch. Height, 1|- inch. 

Localitg. Cor. Crag, Ramsholt, Gedgrave. 
Fossil, Sicily. 

Two or three specimens only have come into my possession. They are assigned to 
the Sicilian species with a slight degree of doubt, differing somewhat from a 
Sicilian fossil in my cabinet, which I presume to be the T. ventricosa. It is rare to find 
the fossils belonging to this genus in a perfect condition, their extreme thinness being 
insufficient to preserve them in their natural form, and their characters in consequence 
are difficult to determine. » 

Our fossil is finely granulated all over, more particularly so on the siphonal side, 
differing from the preceding {T. inflata), the shells of which are nearly smooth. Philippi 
represents his shell as equivalved; but in my Sicilian fossil there is an evident 
inequality in the valves, and the proportions of the two sides do not exactly cor- 
respond. 

There is a linear depression for the ligamental portion of the hinge, and the support 
for the cartilage is very narrow, giving it almost the appearance of having an entirely 
external ligament. 

T. convexa is said by Messrs. Forbes and Hanley to be found fossil in the Newer 
Tertiaries or Pleistocene Clays of Belfast, as also in the Clyde Beds. 



BIVALVIA. 



2G3 



Cochlodesma,* Couthotiy, 1839- 



Spoonhinge. Petiver, 17G4. 

Laternula. Bolten, 1798. 

Mya (sp.) Mont. 1803. 

Ligula (sp.) Id. 1808. 

Auriscalpium. Muhlf. 1811. 

Anatina (sp.) Lamk. 1809. Woodw. 1854. 



Bont.tsa. ieac/j, MS. 1819. Gray, 1851. 
Galaxura. Id. 1819. 
Periploma. ? Schum. 1817. 
Amphidesma (sp.) JVem. 1828. 
Thkacia (sp.) Lovin. 1846. 



Generic Character. Shell thin, transversely ovate, slightly inequivalved, inequi- 
lateral, gaping, rather compressed, right valve the more convex. Hinge with a 
spoon-shaped process in each valve, for the reception of the cartilage, with a 
minute fissure in the umbo, through which the ligament slightly projects. 
Surface smooth, or finely granulated, especially on the siphonal side ; covered in the 
recent state with a fine epidermis. Adductor muscles slightly impressed, with a sinus 
in theimpression of the mantle. 

Animal with its mantle closed, except in front, for the emission of a broad com- 
pressed foot ; siphons long and slender, divided in their whole extent. 

This genus closely resembles that of Thracia, in the animal as well as in the 
shell, differing in the latter, however, by having the support for the cartilage of a more 
spatulate or spoon-shaped form, which is less intimately united along the dorsal edge, 
and in the absence from the hinge of the ossiculum. 

The name Anatina was proposed as a genus by Lamarck in 1809, taking for his 
type Solen anatinus, Linn., a shell in some respects similar to those here included, by 
having a spoon-shaped process projecting inwardly, upon which was placed its internal 
ligament. It has, however, a very wide gape, and the animal has long and united 
siphons, clothed with a wrinkled epidermis ; while the animal of Cochlodesma has 
its siphons long, slender, and divided throughout. The animals, therefore, being 
so dissimilar, they are scarcely entitled to the same name, nor could they be 
included in the above generic diagnosis. 

I have never seen a shell with this form of hinge from any Formation of an age 
anterior to that of the Coralline Crag. 



1. Cochlodesma complanatum, S. Wood. Tab. XXVI, fig. 3, «, b. 

Spec. Char. Testa compressd, elongato-siibovatd, lavi, incecjiiilaterali, tcnui ; antice 
majiore, rotundatd ; postice subtruncatd ; valvd sinistra deprcssd ; sinu palliari mediocre. 
Shell compressed, elongately ovate, smooth and very thin, inequilateral ; anterior 



* Etym. koxXos, shell, and bes^a, ligament. 



2G4 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



side the larger, and rounded ; left valve much depressed ; palleal sinus of moderate size, 
rather broad. 

Length, -| inch. Height, ~g inch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

About half a dozen perfect specimens are in my cabinet : unfortunately they are all 
the left valve. 

In comparing my fossils with a specimen of Cochloclesma Leanum, Couthouy, ' Bost. 
Journ. Nat. Hist.,' vol. ii, p. 170, (a recent species from America, and its nearest 
relative,) the Crag shell appears to be less equilateral, the siphonal side being much 
the shorter of the two, and I have in consequence considered it distinct. Our shell 
maybe further described as rather flatter compressed, the left valve being the more so 
of the two, judging from a fragment of the right one in my cabinet; the umbones are 
slightly prominent, and cleft by the ligament ; the spoon-shaped process is broad and 
strong, projecting towards the anterior ; the exterior shows merely lines of growth, 
with a slight rugosity on one side, but it is not covered with the granulated or 
shagreen surface of C. pratenue ; the palleal sinus extends inwardly, a little beyond a 
line drawn perpendicularly from the umbo. 

2. Cochlodesma pr^teneiium, S. Wood. Tab. XXVI, fig. 4, a, b. 

Anatina pr^etenera. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, ovatd, incequilaterali, inaquivalvi, tenui, fragili ; antiee 
rotundatd convex iuscidd ; postice breviore, truncatd, subrostrafd ; tenuissime granulatd. 

Shell transversely ovate, inequilateral, inequivalved, thin and fragile, with a finely 
granulated exterior ; anterior side the larger, rounded, and slightly tumid ; ventral 
margin curved. 

Length, § inch. Height, \ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

I have about half a dozen specimens of this shell. It differs from C. pratenue in 
having the siphonal side shorter, narrower, and truncated, with a more distinct 
angular slope from the umbo to the ventral margin ; the anterior dorsal edge is very 
thin, and slightly folded over, with a small sinus at the extreme point of the umbo, 
through which the ligament was visible, and probably projected somewhat; the 
exterior is smooth to the naked eye, but under a magnifier appears finely granulated. 
The impressions by the adductor muscles indistinct ; the palleal sinus extends a little 
beyond the cartilage support. 

A small specimen in my cabinet, from the same locality, strongly resembles, and 
is probably the young state of C. pratenue, but the hinge is injured. I have some 
fragments also of what may perhaps be another species, with a very scabrous 



B1VALVIA. 



265 



surface, which passed in my ' Catalogue 5 under the name of A. asperima ; they are too 
imperfect for further notice. The siphonal side appears too short to belong to 
C. prcetenue, and too rugose for the present species. 

Pholadomya, G. Sowerby, 1823. 

Cardium (sp.) Mantell. J. Sowerby. 
Lutraria (sp ) J. Sowerby. 
Cardita (sp.) /. Sowerby. 

Generic Character. Shell very thin, transparent or hyaline, of a nacreous texture, 
transverse, ovate or cordiform, ventricose, equivalved, inequilateral ; anterior side 
short, posterior produced and gaping. Hinge with a small obtuse tooth. Ligament 
external. Mantle-mark deeply sinuated. 

Animal of the form of the shell, with the edges of the mantle united, except where 
open for the emission of the foot, which is bifurcated. Siphonal tubes large. 

Only one species of this genus is known in the living state, and that is an inhabi- 
tant of the tropics and was found at St. Lucia.* The animal of this has been examined 
by Professor Owen, whose observations thereon were made known at the Zoological 
Society in 1842. 

Its position, as indicated by the animal, is considered by that anatomist to be near 
to Panopcea. Dr. Gray, in his arrangement, has placed it between Cardita and Astarfe. 

It is, no doubt, very nearly related to a group of shells largely developed in the 
Secondary Formations, for which M. Agassiz proposed to establish a family under the 
name Myadce, ' Etudes Critiques sur les Mollusques fossiles/ These he separated into 
several genera, the divisions depending sometimes upon the hinge furniture, but in 
most instances upon the outward form of the shell, a dependence by no means safe.f 
These fossils are generally found in a state of casts only, though some few of them 
have been obtained exhibiting portions of the shell attached, showing them to have 
possessed a thin, oftentimes a papyraceous and transparent shell, of a nacreous texture, 
and they were in most instances covered with apapillaceous or scabrous exterior. They 
bear a considerable inter-resemblance in their general character, and are no doubt 
intimately connected zoologically ; but they are of very doubtful relationship to My a, 
the reputed father of the family, whose age we are unable to date beyond the 
Tertiaries. 

* Ph. crispa and Ph. caspica, given by Agassiz in his ' Monog. of the Myadae ' as existing species, 
belong to, or at least are nearly related to, the genus Cardium, and differ only in having elongated siphons, 
and a sinuated mantle-mark (Adacna, Eichwahi). Lyonsia navicula, Reeves, ' Voy. of the Samarang,' 
p. 38, pi. 23, fig. 1 1, may perhaps be an aberrant form of this genus. 

f This family has been ably analysed by Professor Morris in his recent 'Descriptions of the Fossils of 
the Great Oolite.' 

35 



2G6 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Pholadomya is a genus of great geological antiquity, being known as early as the 
Coal Measures, and continued to the present time through the Secondary Periods, 
where it was largely developed, presenting only a few species in the Tertiaries. 

Pholadomya hesterna, /. Sowerby. Tab. XXX, fig. 1, a — d. 

Pholadomya caxN'didoides. iS. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

— hestekna. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 629, 1844. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, ovato-oblongd, aut irregulariter pyriformi, valde inaqui- 
laterali ; antice ventricosd, rotmidatd vel subtruncatd ; postice productd ; mediand parte 
costatd, cost is 10 — 12. 

Shell transverse, ovately oblong or of an irregular pear-shape, very inequilateral ; 
anterior side ventricose, rounded, or slightly truncated ; posterior much produced ; 
centre covered with about 10 or 12 ribs. 

Length, 4 inches. Height, 2^ inches. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Ramsholt and Sudbourn. 

This species, as might be expected, is found only in beds which have undergone no 
disturbance ; and at Ramsholt, where these shells are quietly deposited in the sand, I 
have seen many specimens, but they are exceedingly difficult to obtain, and then with 
only a small portion of its thin shell remaining. Like those from some parts of the 
London Clay, the specimens are in general much distorted. Our figure is from one 
that has preserved its natural form ; and although there is a considerable resemblance 
to the only living species that has as yet been discovered, it seems to be specifically 
distinct. The recent shell, Ph. Candida, is more tumid centrally, and less rounded on 
the anterior side, while on the other it is not so broad, and there is a greater curve in 
the ventral margin. Our shell appears to have been closed on the anterior side, but 
had a gape or opening for its probably lengthened siphonal tubes. The hinge is 
furnished with a small obtuse tooth in each valve, and a marginal lamina or fulcrum 
for the ligament, this is bipartite, separating slightly the cartilage from the ligament ; 
the umbones, like those of the recent shell, approximate so closely as to have been 
fractured by the opening of the valves. The ribs of our shell extend over rather more 
than half the surface, from the obtuse ridge on the anterior side to within about the 
same distance from the other extremity, and they are covered with small obtuse tuber- 
cles ; while the small portions of the shell that are remaining present a finely granulated 
surface, or shagreen, like those of Anatina. This is especially visible near the siphonal 
extremity, but was probably more or less granular all over. Ph. arcuata, Agass., ' Etud. 
crit.,' p. 63, t. 2, b, figs. 1 — 8, resembles our shell, judging from the figure, but appears to 
have had too many ribs. Ph. Esmarkei (Pusch), Goldf., 'Petr. Germ./ vol. ii, p. 272, 
t. 157, fig. 10, a — d, may probably be the same. I have been unable to examine 
specimens of cither, and have therefore retained Mr. Sowerby's name. 



BIVALVIA. 



207 



Poromya, Forbes, 1843. 

Corbula (sp.) Nyst and West., 1839. 
Embla. Loven, 1846. 

Generic Character. " Shell ovate or suborbicular, equivalve, inequilateral, slightly 
produced posteriorly ; surface invested with a scabrous epidermis, beneath which it is 
pearly and minutely punctated ; hinge of a minute cardinal ossicle or erect tooth in 
one valve, lodged in a pit, or rather depression in the other ; no lateral teeth ; ligament 
external ; palleal impression very slightly sinuated. 

" Animal with its mantle open in front ; foot long, narrow, and slender ; siphons 
short, unequal, with 18 or 20 tentacles surrounding their bases." — Ford, and Hani. 

" Testa aquivalvis, postice Mans, truncatd ; ligamentum internum fovea utriusque valvce 
insertum, ante quam in v. d. dens cardinalis, in v. s. fossa cardinalis ; in v. s. dens lateralis 
anticus et posticus ; in v. d. fossa lateralis, denies laterales nulli. Impressio palliaris lata, 
duplicata, postice leviter sinuosa. 

" Animal pallio ventre aperto, postice longe cirrigero, siphonibus i?istructum." — Loven. 
Genus, Embla. 

Mr. Woodward, in his ' Rudimentary Treatise of Recent and Fossil Shells,' has 
concluded the Poromya of Forbes to be a species only of the genus Thetis. 

The establishment of a genus by the above-named eminent and able modern authors 
upon an existing shell, the one describing it as possessing an external ligament, while 
the other considers it to have an internal one, leaves it, as it were, a sort of open 
question, or placing it rather in a doubtful position. The type of the genus Thetis has 
an external ligament, whereas in the recent British shell and Crag fossil the hinge 
furniture is more complex ; and although a portion of the ligament might have been 
seen externally when the valves were closed, the larger or cartilaginous part was 
situated within the edge of the shell, and its action like that of an internal ligament, 
opening the valves by expansion on the removal of pressure ; no portion of which 
internal ligament appears to be present in those fossils constituting the genus Thetis ; 
and as I am imposing no new name for the Crag shell, the correct position must be 
determined by better materials than I possess ; though, judging from my own speci- 
mens, I am inclined to believe with Professor Loven, that the action of its ligament 
was that of an internal one ; and although the greensand fossils are no doubt closely 
related, the difference in position or action of the ligament is sufficient to justify the 
separation.* 

* The boundary line of generic isolation is indeed exceedingly difficult to define. We all of us give 
what we conceive to be a limit, but the want of accordance in this respect shows at least that we are as yet 
very far from having discovered it. The different positions of the ligament in Bivalves, whether acting 
internally by compression and dilatation, or externally by contraction and elongation over a fulcrum, are 
distinctions as good as nine out of ten of the characters that are generally employed for these conventional 
divisions. 



208 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



The recent species Necera hjalina, Hinds, appears to be more nearly connected with 
Thetis, having an external ligament on a thin and semi-transparent shell, differing 
thereby from our fossil, which is a thick one. The two shells figured by Messrs. 
Reeves and Adams in the ' Zoology of the Voyage of the Samarang,' may perhaps 
belong to Thetis, but the position of the ligament is not stated, and the shells are 
described as being quite smooth and thin. 

The Cretaceous fossils of India and Westphalia, assigned to this genus, have not 
as yet had their characters sufficiently well determined. 

I. Poromya granulata, Nyst and Westendorp. Tab. XXX, fig. 5, a—/. 

Corbula granulata. Nyst and West. Nouv. Recli. Coq. Foss. d'Anv., p. 6, No. 10, 

pi. 3, fig. 3, 1839. 

— ? — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 71, pi. 2, fig. 6, 1844. 

— ? — Jeffreys. An. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xix, p. 314; and vol. xx, 

p. 19. 

Poromya anatinoides. Forbes. iEgean. Invert. Brit. Assoc. Report, p. 191, 1843. 

— granulata. Forb. and Hani. Hist, of Brit. Moll., p. 204, pi. 9, figs. 4 — 6, 

1848; and Animal, pi. w, fig. 2, 1853. 
Embla Korenii. Lovim. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 46, 1846. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovatd, vetitricosd, subcequilaterali ; antice rotundatd, postice trun- 
catd, et obtuse angulatd; acideis minutissimiss criberrimis aspera; umbonibus prominenti- 
bus ; dente unico obtuso. 

Shell ovate, ventricose, slightly inequilateral ; anterior side rounded, posterior 
truncated, with an obtuse keel or ridge retreally from the umbo to the ventral 
margin ; beaks prominent ; one obtuse tooth. 

Length, \ inch. Height, § inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Ramsholt, Sutton, and Gedgrave. 

Recent, Mgeau, British, and Scandinavian Seas. 

About a dozen disconnected valves have been obtained by myself, several of them 
sufficiently perfect for fair comparison, and I have considered them as identical with 
the Belgian fossil and the iEgean and Scandinavian shell. 

The hinge of the right valve is furnished with one large obtuse tooth, situated 
immediately beneath the umbo, and in the left there is a corresponding cavity between 
two small prominences for its reception ; behind these, and within the dorsal margin, 
is a depression wherein, I presume, the ligament w r as placed : this cavity is divided by 
a small ridge, which appears to have separated the cartilage from the ligament, and 
the latter probably was visible externally when the valves were closed : there is a 
small depression on the siphonal side at the dorsal edge, what may perhaps be 
called the corslet, produced probably by the opening of the valves ; but there is no 
ridge or fulcrum for the support of an external ligament. The impressions by the 



BIVALVIA. 



2G9 



adductors are rather small and deep, and the mantle-mark has an irregular sinus, by 
no means large. The shell is beautifully nacreous within, and the exterior is 
ornamented with papillae or granulations, studded somewhat like the barrel of a 
musical box. 

In the living state this species has been met with in deep water, while some of its 
associates in the Coralline Crag are very shallow-water forms. Mr. Jeffreys has 
dredged it off the Isle of Skye in 50, and Professor E. Forbes obtained it in the ;Egean 
at the depth of 150 fathoms. 

At page 148 {ante), I had supposed the genus Thetis to have been nearly related 
to Lucinopsis, but this allocation is probably incorrect. In Mr. Woodward's ' Rudi- 
mentary Treatise of Recent and Fossil Shells,' it is arranged in his family Myacida. 
I think, however, the present species, Poromya granulata, cannot be correctly placed, 
as it is there, between the genera Mya and Panopea. 

Corbula giga?itea, J. Sowerby, Thetis gigantea, Woodward, has a granulated exterior, 
with an external ligament, and faint or obsolete costse ; and if it be not a true Phola- 
domya, it forms a connecting link between that genus and Thetis. 



Solen (sp.) Mont. 

Generic Character. Shell transverse, inequivalve, inequilateral, ovate or subrhom- 
boidal, externally smooth and of a nacreous texture, gaping at the anterior extremity, 
one valve flat, the other more or less convex. Hinge with a prominent obtuse tooth 
upon the right or flatter valve, and a corresponding depression for its reception in the 
opposite one. Impressions of the adductor muscles subcircular, with a small or scarcely 
perceptible sinus in that by the mantle. Ligament internal. 

The mantle is described as nearly closed, with a small passage for a narrow tongue- 
shaped foot ; and the siphons are represented as very short, united nearly to their 
orifices, which are fringed, and diverging. 

The inequality of the valves and internal ligament have been considered as charac- 
ters sufficient to approximate this genus to that of Corbula, from which, however, it is 
sufficiently removed, as essential differences exist in the animal inhabitant, but more 
especially in the composition of its shell. In the examination and report by Dr. 

* Etym. Pandora, a proper name. This was given also to the inequivalved Pectens, probably from 
their box-like character. 



Pandora,* Brug. 1792. 



Hypocea and Hypogeoderma (sp.) Poll. 
Tellina (sp.) Linn. 



Calopodium. Bolten, 1798. 
Tkutina. Brown, 1827. 



2G8 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



The recent species Near a hyalina, Hinds, appears to be more nearly connected with 
Thetis, having an external ligament on a thin and semi-transparent shell, differing 
thereby from our fossil, which is a thick one. The two shells figured by Messrs. 
Reeves and Adams in the ' Zoology of the Voyage of the Samarang/ may perhaps 
belong to Thetis, but the position of the ligament is not stated, and the shells are 
described as being quite smooth and thin. 

The Cretaceous fossils of India and Westphalia, assigned to this genus, have not 
as yet had their characters sufficiently well determined. 

1. Poromya granulata, Nyst and Westetidorp. Tab. XXX, fig. 5, a—f. 

Corbula granulata. Nyst and West. Nouv. Reck. Coq. Foss. d'Anv., p. 6, No. 10, 

pi. 3, fig. 3, 1839. 

— ? — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 71, pi. 2, fig. 6, 1844. 

— ? — Jeffreys. An. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xix, p. 314 ; and vol. xx, 

p. 19. 

Poromya anatinoides. Forbes. vEgean. Invert. Brit. Assoc. Report, p. 191, 1843. 

— granulata. Fori, and Hani. Hist, of Brit. Moll., p. 204, pi. 9, figs. 4 — 6, 

1848 ; and Animal, pi. w, fig. 2, 1853. 
Embla Korenii. Lov6n. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 46, 1846. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovatd, ventricosd, subcequilaterali ; antice rotundatd, postice trun- 
catd, ct obtuse angidatd; acideis minutissimiss criberrimis aspera; umbonibus prominenti- 
bus ; dente unico obtuso. 

Shell ovate, ventricose, slightly inequilateral ; anterior side rounded, posterior 
truncated, with an obtuse keel or ridge retreally from the umbo to the ventral 
margin ; beaks prominent ; one obtuse tooth. 

Length, ^ inch. Height, •§ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Ramsholt, Sutton, and Gedgrave. 

Recent, iEgean, British, and Scandinavian Seas. 

About a dozen disconnected valves have been obtained by myself, several of them 
sufficiently perfect for fair comparison, and I have considered them as identical with 
the Belgian fossil and the .ZEgean and Scandinavian shell. 

The hinge of the right valve is furnished with one large obtuse tooth, situated 
immediately beneath the umbo, and in the left there is a corresponding cavity between 
two small prominences for its reception ; behind these, and within the dorsal margin, 
is a depression wherein, I presume, the ligament was placed : this cavity is divided by 
a small ridge, which appears to have separated the cartilage from the ligament, and 
the latter probably was visible externally when the valves were closed : there is a 
small depression on the siphonal side at the dorsal edge, what may perhaps be 
called the corslet, produced probably by the opening of the valves ; but there is no 
ridge or fulcrum for the support of an external ligament. The impressions by the 



BIVALVIA. 269 

adductors are rather small and deep, and the mantle-mark has an irregular sinus, by- 
no means large. The shell is beautifully nacreous within, and the exterior is 
ornamented with papillae or granulations, studded somewhat like the barrel of a 
musical box. 

In the living state this species has been met with in deep water, while some of its 
associates in the Coralline Crag are very shallow- water forms. Mr. Jeffreys has 
dredged it off the Isle of Skye in 50, and Professor E. Forbes obtained it in the vEgean 
at the depth of 150 fathoms. 

At page 148 (ante), I had supposed the genus Thetis to have been nearly related 
to Lucinopsis, but this allocation is probably incorrect, In Mr. Woodward's ' Rudi- 
mentary Treatise of Recent and Fossil Shells,* it is arranged in his family Myacida. 
I think, however, the present species, Poromya granulata, cannot be correctly placed, 
as it is there, between the genera Mya and Panopea. 

Corbula gigantea, J. Sowerby, Thetis gigantea, Woodward, has a granulated exterior, 
with an external ligament, and faint or obsolete costse ; and if it be not a true Phola- 
domya, it forms a connecting link between that genus and Thetis. 



Pandora * Brug. 1792. 



HypoGiEA and Hypogeoderma (sp.) Poli. 
Tellina (sp.) Linn. 
Solen (sp.) Mont. 



Calopodium. Bolten, 1 798. 
Trutina. Brown, 1827. 



Generic Character. Shell transverse, inequivalve, inequilateral, ovate or subrhom- 
boidal, externally smooth and of a nacreous texture, gaping at the anterior extremity, 
one valve flat, the other more or less convex. Hinge with a prominent obtuse tooth 
upon the right or flatter valve, and a corresponding depression for its reception in the 
opposite one. Impressions of the adductor muscles subcircular, with a small or scarcely 
perceptible sinus in that by the mantle. Ligament internal. 

The mantle is described as nearly closed, with a small passage for a narrow tongue- 
shaped foot ; and the siphons are represented as very short, united nearly to their 
orifices, which are fringed, and diverging. 

The inequality of the valves and internal ligament have been considered as charac- 
ters sufficient to approximate this genus to that of Corbula, from which, however, it is 
sufficiently removed, as essential differences exist in the animal inhabitant, but more 
especially in the composition of its shell. In the examination and report by Dr. 



* Etym. Pandora, a proper name. This was given also to the inequivalved Pectens, probably from 
their box-like character. 



4 



270 MOLLUSC A FROM THE CRAG. 

Carpenter, that gentleman seems to think it so peculiar, as almost to constitute a 
family by itself. He describes the exterior as composed of regular prismatic cells, 
the axes of the prisms being perpendicular to the surface, while the interior is 
nacreous. 

No well-determined species have been met with in the fossil state in any Formation 
older than the Paris Basin. A shell from the Carboniferous Series is described by 
Professor M'Coy under this name ; but its claim to a place in this genus is very 
doubtful. 

1. Pandora in^quivalvis, Linn. Tab. XXV, fig. 5. 

Tellina iNjEQUivalvis. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1118, No. 56, 1767. 

— — Poll. Test. utri. Sicil., vol. i, p 39, pi. 15, figs. 5, 6, 9, and 7 

with the animal. 

— — Don. Brit. Shells, vol. ii, pi. 41, fig. 1, 1800. 
Pandora rostrata. Desk. 2d ed. Lamarck, torn, vi, p. 145. 

— — G. B. Sowerby. Spec. Conch. Pandora, p. 2, No. 2, figs. 7 — 9. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, pi. 1, fig. 12, 1836. 

— — Desk. Exp. Scient. Alger. Moll., pi. 24, animal. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 207, pi. 8, figs. 1—4. 

— margaritacea. Lamk. Hist, des An. s. Vert., torn, v, p. 137. 

— — Schum. Essai des Vers. Test., p. 114, pi. 4, fig. 2. 
_ _ Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 40, pi. 3, figs. 11—14, 1822. 

— in/EQ,uivalvis. Flem. Brit. Anim., p. 466, 1828. 

Spec. Char. Testa elongato-ovatd, laevigata, teniri fragili, incequilaterali ; latere postico 
longiore, attenuato subrostrato, hinc in utraque valvd angulato. 

Shell elongately ovate, smooth, thin and fragile, inequilateral ; posterior side the 
longer, attenuated, and somewhat beaked, slightly angulated in each valve. 

Length, -§ inch. Height, ^ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, Britain and Mediterranean. 

My specimens of this species are but few, and those not in good condition. The 
one figured has the siphonal area elongated into the form of a rostrum or beak, and 
corresponds with what the British conchologists have considered a distinct species. 
In the young state, as indicated by the lines of growth, the dorsal margin is more 
convex than concave, and the shell comparatively broader, like P. Pinna, and there is 
no appearance then of a rostrum. 

2. Pandora Pinna, Montague. Tab. XXV, fig. 4, a—c. 

Solen Pinna. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 566, t. 15, fig. 3, 1803. 
Pandora obtusa. Leach. Ross's Voy. Baffin's Bay, p. 174, 1819. 



BIVALVIA. 



271 



Pandora obtusa. Desk. 2d ed. Lamarck, torn, vi, p. 145, No. 2. 

— — G. B. Sowerby. Spec. Conch. (Pand.), p. 2, figs. 1 — 3. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 14, t. 13, fig. 13. 

— — For b. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll,, vol. i, p. 210, pi. 8, fig. 5 ; and 

pi. G, fig. 10, animal. 
Trutina solenoidea. Brown. Illust. Brit. Couch., pi. 13, fig. 5, 1827. 

Spec. Char. Testa obtuse-elongatd; latere poslico versus extremitatem dilatato; margine 
dor sali planiusculo. 

Shell obtusely elongate ; posterior side dilated towards the extremity; dorsal margin 
nearly straight. 

Length., |- inch. Height, § inch. 
Locality. Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

Only two or three specimens of this species have fallen under my observation, and 
I have, in deference to the malacologists, separated this from what is called rostrata. 
Colonel Montague, who, notwithstanding his having described the two shells under 
different generic names, was afterwards of opinion that the one was only the younger 
state of the other. Messrs. Forbes and Hanley consider the characters of the animal, 
as well as those of the shell, to be quite distinct, and have kept the two forms 
separate. My own specimens are not sufficiently numerous or perfect to assist in 
the determination. The two shells are so much alike in the young state as to be with 
difficulty determinable ; and I am inclined to believe with Montague, so far at least in 
their specific identity, that if the one be not exactly the young state of the other, there 
is not more than a local variation between the two. Both appear to have existed 
during the Crag Periods, the rostrata in the Cor. Crag corresponding with the more 
Southern form, while that from the Red Crag resembles the Northern one (probably 
P. glacialis, Leach, 'An. Phil.,' vol. xiv, p. 203, 1819). 



Ne^ra,* J. E. Gray, 1830. 



Anatina (sp.) Lamk. 
Corbula (sp.) Desh. 1835. 
Thracia (sp.) Brown, 1827. 



Erycina (sp.) Risso, 1826. 
Cuspidaria. Nardo, 1840. 



Generic Character. " Shell transversely ovato-pyriform, inequivalve, inequilateral, 
more or less beaked, and gaping posteriorly ; surface smooth or striated, or ribbed 
longitudinally, never punctated, with or without an epidermis ; valves strengthened 
internally with a longitudinal rib ; hinge composed of a cartilage fulcrum, usually 
oblique, and spatulate in each valve, sometimes with a minute tooth beside it, and a 
more or less developed lateral tooth on the rostral side of one or both valves ; ligament 
external (?), small ; muscular impressions large, pallial with a very shallow sinus. 



* Etym. (?) Necupa, proper name. This is also employed for a genus of insects. 



272 



MOLLUSC A FROM THE CRAG. 



"Animal oblong, mantle closed in front, except a plain-edged orifice for the 
passage of a lanceolate foot ; siphons short, united, unequal, the branchial largest, 
both bearing a few long filiform cirrhi at their sides, extending beyond the orifices ; 
anal siphon with a very extensile membranous valve." — Forbes and Hartley. 

1. NejERA jugosa, S. Wood. Tab. XXX, fig. 7, a,b. 

Corbula ? sulcata. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Spec. Char. Testa parvd, transversa, incequilaterali, cequivalvi ? cornpressd, jugosd ; 
antice rotundatd; postice subrostratd, et angulatd ; cardine unidentato. 

Shell small, transverse, inequilateral, equivalved ? compressed, ridged ; anterior side 
rounded ; posterior somewhat beaked, and angulated ; hinge with one tooth. 

Length, ^ inch. I/eight, inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

This shell is not rare in the Coralline Crag, but as yet I have met with it only in 
one locality, and never with the valves united. 

It much resembles the figure of one of the species from the Paris Basin, Corbula 
striarella, Desh., Coq. Foss. des Env. de Par., torn, i, p. 54, pi. 8, figs. 12 — 15, but 
differs in being less than half the size, as well as in other characters ; and I believe it 
to be distinct, depending as I am obliged to do upon the figure and description above 
referred to. 

In our species the hinge of the right valve has one obtuse and somewhat oblique 
tooth on the anterior side of the umbo, with a depression between it and the dorsal 
edge, into which fits an elevated portion of the margin of the left valve, while on the 
siphonal side of this (left valve) is an elongated and elevated projection that interlocks 
within the dorsal edge of the right valve ; between these, and immediately beneath 
the umbo, is an oblique pit, where the ligament was situated, and entirely 
within the shell ; so much so that I doubt whether any part of it could have been 
seen in the living animal when the valves were closed. The dorsal margin 
slopes at an angle of about 45°, and a truncated beak is formed by the siphons ; 
the upper part being somewhat elevated producing an obtuse keel from the umbo upon 
the slope on that side. The exterior has from eight to ten rounded ridges, with 
depressions or sulci between them of about the same breadth ; but upon the younger 
part of the shells these markings are obsolete, being smooth, or nearly so, about the 
umbo. The shell is by no means thin, though the ridges are generally visible upon 
the interior. The adductor-mark on the siphonal side is of a triangular form, and 
deeply impressed, placed rather backward ; and the sinus in the mantle-mark mode- 
rately deep. 

The provisional name given to it in my ' Catalogue' is obliged to be changed, in 
consequence of its having been used by Dr. Lov£n for a very different species. 



BIVALVIA. 



273 



2. Ne,era cuspidata, Olivi. Tab. XXX, fig. 6. 

Tellina cuspidata. Oliv. Zool. Adriat., p. 10], pi. 4, fig. 3, a — c, 1792. 

— — Broc. Conch. Eoss. Subap., p. 515. 

Anatina brevikostius. Broivn. Ed. Journ. Nat. and Geo. Sci., vol. i, p. 11, pi. 1, 

figs. 1—4, 1829. 

Thracia brevirostra. Broivn. 111. Conch. Gr. Br., pi. 44, figs. 1 1 — 14, 1845. 
Ne^era brevirostris. Lovcn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 48, 1846. 

— cuspidata. Forb. and Hani. Hist, of Brit. Moll., p. 195, pi. 7, figs. 4 — 6; and 

pi. G (animal), figs. 4 — 7, 1848. 

— — Forbes. iEgean Inv., p. 185. 

Corbula cusfid ata . Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 17, t. 1, fig. 19 ; and vol. ii, p. 12. 

— subrostrata. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

A fragment only of a shell, which I consider to belong to this species, was found 
by myself in the Coralline Crag at Sutton, but it is insufficient for correct descrip- 
tion : the peculiar form of the siphonal side (the portion I possess) is so characteristic 
that it is introduced here without much hesitation. It appears to have belonged to 
the British or short beaked variety. 



Corbula.* Braguiere, 1792. 

Mya (sp.) Linn. Mont. Lentidium, Cristof. and Jans. 1832. 

Cardium (sp.) Walker and Boys. Potomomya, J. Sowerbij, 1835. 

Tellina (sp.) Olivi. Azara, D'Orb. 1839. 

Aloides, Megerle, 1.S1 1. Corbulomya, Nyst, 1843. 

Generic Character. Shell suborbicular or ovate, inequivalve, inequilateral, tumid, 
closed ; beaks prominent, recurved surface smooth or striated ; in the recent state 
covered with an epidermis. Hinge composed of one thick, conical tooth in each valve. 
Ligament internal. Impression by the mantle with a small sinus. 

Animal short ; mantle open in front for the emission of a thick foot, of 
considerable magnitude ; siphonal tubes short and united to their orifices, which 
are fimbriated : anal opening with a conspicuous tubular membrane. 

Animals constituting this genus are for the most part inhabitants of salt water, but 
some are estuary species, and extend their range in the river to where the water is 
quite fresh. A separation has been proposed, under the name Potomomya, for those 
species which permanently inhabit fresh water, but the characters of shell and animal 
differ in no other respect from those which are truly marine. In this genus, as well as 
in that of Pandora, the two valves are very unequal in size, but this inequality is not 
confined to the siphonal side of the shell, and the sinus of the mantle-mark does not 



*Etym.? Corbula, a little basket. 



30 



274 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



vary in form or magnitude like those so conspicuously shown in some of the 

Tellens. 

The species are not very numerous, even when admitting those which constantly 
inhabit fresh water. They are found sometimes in mud, but more frequently on sandy 
bottoms, and have a considerable vertical range. Fossil species have been found as 
early as the Lower Oolite. 



1. Corbula striata, Walker and Boys. Tab. XXX, fig. 3, a — d. 

Cardium striatum apicibus reflexis. Walk, and Boys. Test. Min. Rar., p. 24, t. 3, 

fig. 85, 1787. 

Tellina gibba. Olivi. Zool. Adriat., p. 101, 1792. 

— — Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 517, No. 15, 1814. 
Mya in^equivalvis. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 38, t. 26, fig. 7, 1803. 
Corbula gibba. Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 65, pi. 3, fig. 3, 1844. 

— — Lovcn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 49, 1846. 

— nucleus. Lamk. Hist, des An. s. Vert., v, p. 496, 1818. 

— — Forbes. Report on iEgean Invert., p. 180, 1843. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic., vol. ii, p. 12, 1844. 

— — Bronn. Leth. Geogn., p. 967, t. 37, fig. 7, a—c. 1838. 

— striata. Flem. Brit. An., p. 425, 1828. 

— — Besh. Exped. Scient. Alger., p. 231. 

— rotundata. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 572, fig. 4, 1827. 

— — Gold/. Petr. Germ., vol. ii, p. 252, pi. 152, fig. 3, a— e, 1842. 

— Olimplica. Costa. Cat. Syst. e. reg. Test delle 2 Sicil., p. 27, 1829. 

— iNjEQUIVALVIs. Macgill. Moll. Aberd., p. 303, 1843. 

— elegans. Nyst. Rech. Coq. Foss. Prov. d'Anv., p. 3, 1835. 

— bicostata. Id. Rech. Coq. Foss. Prov. d'Anv., No. 10, pi. 1, fig. 10. 

— planulata. Id. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 68, pi. 2, fig. 4, 1844. 
Not Corbula striata. Lamk. 

Spec. Char. Testa suhtriangidari, gibbosd, subincequilaterali, valde inaquivalvi, valvd 
dextrd tumidiori, concentrice striata; valvd sinistra complanatd, sublavigatd ; antice 
rotundata, postice trmicatd. 

Shell subtriangular, gibbous, slightly inaequilateral, greatly inequivalve, right valve 
the more inflated, and roughly striated ; left valve nearly flat and smooth; anterior 
side rounded, posterior truncated. 

Diameter, \ inch. 

Locality. Coralline Crag, Sutton, Gedgrave, Ramsholt. 
Red Crag, Sutton, Bawdsey, Walton Naze. 

Recent, Scandinavia, Britain, and Mediterranean. 
In the Coralline Crag at Sutton this is one of the most common shells, and 
although furnished with an apparatus for the firm interlocking of the valves, the two 



BIVALVTA. 



275 



pieces are not often found in their natural position. In the Red Crag even the 
separated valves are by no means abundant. 

Cardium striatum, of Walker and Boys, is evidently the same as our shell, and Dr. 
Fleming adopted that name as most entitled to priority : I followed his example in my 
Catalogue, and see no reason why it should now be changed. In the fossil state, this 
species is liable to great alteration : the outer coating which forms a perfect shell of 
itself, with its thick transverse ridges, comes off, leaving the inner portion perfectly 
smooth. Corbula plamdata, in Sir Charles Lyell's Cabinet, received from Belgium, with 
that name, is, I believe, only this species in its exfoliated or decorticated condition. 

Sir Charles Lyell, in his paper upon the ' Miocene Deposits of America,' has 
considered Corbula elevata, of Conrad, the same as this species, and judging from the 
figure by that author, he is probably correct in that assignment. 

A single valve, of which I have given a representation (fig. 4), may probably be 
C. rosea, but in such a genus as this, in which the species are by no means easily 
defined, I prefer leaving it without description for the present. 

2. Corbula complanata, /. Sowerby. Tab. XXX, fig. 2, a — d. 

Corbula complanata. J. Soiv. Min. Conch., t. 362, figs. 7, 8, 1822. 

— - Desk. Coq. Foss. des Env. de Par., pi. 7, figs. 8, 9, 1824. 

— — Dujard. Mem. de la Soc. de France, torn, ii, pt. 2, p. 256, 1837. 

— — Desk. 2d ed. LamJc. torn, vi, p. 142, 1835. 

— — Grat. Cat. Zool. des An. du Basin Tert. de la Gironde, p. 67, 

No. 794, fig. 3, 1838. 

— — Bronn. Leth. Geogr., p. 969, t. 37, fig. 8, a, b, 1838. 

— donaciformis. Nyst. Reck. Coq. Foss. de Hoesselt et Kl. Spawen, p. 3, No. 6, 

pi. 1, fig. 6, 1836. 

Corbulomya complanata. Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 59, pi. 2, fig. 2, 1814. 
Erycina trigona. Lamk. Ann. du Mus., torn, vi, p. 413, No. 3. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, ovatd, vel donaciformi inaquilaterali, compressd aut 
complanata, laevigata, crassd ; antice majiore rotundatd ; postice angulatd, truncatd, et sub- 
carinatd ; dente cardinali unico in valvd dextrd. 

Shell transverse, ovate, or wedge-shaped, inequilateral, compressed or flattened, 
smooth, and thick ; anterior side the larger and rounded ; posterior angulated, 
truncated, and slightly keeled ; one cardinal tooth in the right valve. 

Length, \\ inch. Height, § inch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Sutton and Walton Naze. 

Fossil in the Paris basin, and at Kleyn Spauwen, the Basin of the 
Gironde, and in the Faluns of Touraine. 

This is a rare shell, though solid and strong, and does not appear to have been an 
inhabitant of the Coralline Crag sea, though a species supposed to have been trans- 



276 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



mitted from the Older Tertiaries. M. Deshayes says the Paris Basin shell is un- 
doubtedly identical with the Touraine species ; the latter corresponds more closely 
with the Crag fossil ; the Kleyn Spauwen shell resembles more (as might be supposed) 
the Paris Basin variety. The Touraine specimens differ slightly from the Crag fossil, 
but not, I think, sufficiently to invalidate their identity. In our shell the siphonal 
side is not so pointed or keeled, and there is a little difference in the dental furniture, 
and the palleal sinus is a trifle larger. 

The ligament is placed in a fossette in the right valve, visible externally, when the 
valves are closed, through a sinus in the umbo ; the left valve has a projection on 
which are placed both ligament and cartilage, separated by a ridge : before this 
ligament is a tooth in each valve. This w r as probably an estuary shell. The locality 
(Roydon), given for it in ' Min. Conch., 5 is an error. 



Sphenia Binghamt ? Turton. Tab. XXIX, fig. 7. 

Sphenia Binghami. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 36, t. 3, figs. 4, 5 ; and t. 19, fig. 3, 1822. 
Spelenia Binghami. Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 190, pi. 9, figs. 1 — 3, 
1848. 

Cokbula Binghami. Hartley. Recent Shells, p. 47; Supp., pi. 12, fig. 4. 
— — Woodw. Man. of Moll., vol. ii, p. 318. 

Spec. Char. Testa minutd, transversa, cuneiformi tenui fragili, laevigata, valde 
incequilaterali ; antice roiundald, postice angnstd, suhrostratd. 

Shell small, transverse, wedge-shaped, thin and fragile, smooth, and very inequi- 
lateral ; anterior side rounded ; posterior produced and somewhat pointed. 
Length, \ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, Britain ? 

The genus Sphenia has been founded upon a single species of Mollusc inhabiting 
our own shores, and is at present not well established : the animal has been examined 
by Mr. Clark who says it is quite distinct from Mya or Saxicava, though not far removed 
from either; perhaps still nearer to Corhula. 

Only two or three specimens, and those not in very good condition, are in my 
Cabinet ; they will not throw any light upon the obscurity which hangs over the 
recent shell. 

My best specimen has a spatulate tooth in the left valve, like that in the young of 
Mya, which it resembles in some characters, but it is much thinner, with something of 
a nacreous appearance ; and the outline also is different from that of the young of Mya 
of the same size : mine is, however, a very doubtful identity of the existing species. 



BIVALVIA. 



277 



Mya.* Limeeus, 1747. 

Mya, Lamk. 1801. 
Sphenia (sp.) Turt. 1822. 

Generic Character. Shell transverse, equivalve, subequilateral, more or less of an 
ovate or oblong form, gaping at the siphonal extremity ; externally striated or 
furrowed by rough or irregular lines of growth ; in the recent state covered by an 
epidermis. Hinge composed of a large, projecting, spoon-shaped tooth or process in 
the left valve, on which is placed the ligament, with a corresponding depression or 
socket beneath the umbo in the right valve. Impressions of the adductor muscles 
near the extremities, with a deeply sinuated line in the mantle-mark. 

Animal of the form of the shell, with the mantle closed except in front for the 
emission of a small tongue-shaped foot. Tubes long, covered with a strong case-like 
coriaceous epidermis, separated at their extremities, with fimbriated orifices. 

This genus is more especially characterised by the peculiar form of the hinge, 
which distinguishes it from all other Bivalves, and as now restricted contains but very 
few species in the recent state. They are confined to the colder regions of the globe, 
where they live buried in mud or sand, sometimes to the depth of a foot, in an erect 
position, with the siphonal extremity upwards, their tubes extending into the 
water; they have a vertical range from low-water-m ark to upwards of 150 fathoms. 
Dead shells have been obtained from even greater depths, but it is no proof in such 
case of animals having a very extensive vertical range : Dr. Sutherland has shown, in 
regard to Arctic species, they are often transported by icebergs into very deep water. 

The secondary fossils figured under this generic name have no relationship 
whatever ; but a small species has been obtained from the upper marine of the Older 
Tertiary Periods that may be referred to this genus, showing then, as now, its some- 
what estuary character, or its tendency to approach the regions of fresh-water. 

1. Mya truncata, Linnceus. Tab. XXIII, fig. 1, a—f. 

Mya truncata. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1112, No. 26, 1767. 

— — Gould. Invert. Massach., p. 42, 1841. 

— — Moller, Ind. Moll. Groenl., p. 21, 1842. 

— — Dekay. Nat. Hist. New York Moll., p. 240, pi. 29, fig. 289, 1843. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 6, 1844 (fossil). 

— — Lovcn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 49, 1846. 

__ _ Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 163, pi. 10, figs. 1, 2; and 
Animal, pi. h, fig. 1, 1848. 



* Etym. /t<va£, a kind of shell-fish. 



278 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Mya truncata. Middendorff. Malacozool. Rossica, p. 585, t. 19, figs. 13 — 15, 1849. 

— — Lyell. Trans. Geol. Soc, vol. vi, 2d series, p. 137, pi. 17, figs. 5, 6, 1839. 

— - Forbes. Mem. Geol. Surv., vol. i, p. 408, 1846. 

— — Hancock. An. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 18, p. 337, 1846. 

— — var. pelagica. King. An. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 18, p. 242. 

— ovalis. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 33, pi. 3, figs. 1, 2, 1822. 

— pullus. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 531. 

— Swainsoni. Lovdn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 49, 1846. 
Sphenia Swainsoni. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 37, pi. 19, fig. 2, 1822. 
Chama truncata. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 233, pi. 16, figs. 1, 1. 

— pholas latus. List. Hist. Conch., pi. 482, fig. 269. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, subovatd, incequilaterali ; antice rotundatd, tumidd, 
clausd ; postice truncata, hiante ; cardinis dente porrecto, rotundato. 

Shell transverse, subovate, inequilateral ; anterior side rounded, inflated, and closed ; 
posterior truncated, and gaping; hinge with one large, rounded tooth. 

Length, 3^ inches. Height, 2^ inches. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Ramsholt, and Gedgrave. 
Red Crag, Sutton. 

Mam. Crag. Chillesford, Bridlington. 

Clyde Beds, Bracklesham, (Dixon). 

Recent, British and Scandinavian Seas, Behring Straits. 
This shell does not appear to have been rare in the Coralline Crag, the oldest 
Formation from which I have seen it ; nor is it scarce in the Red Crag ; and in the 
more recent Deposit at Chillesford it may be abundantly obtained in great perfection 
with the valves in their natural position. Mg a pullus is the young of this species, and 
not of arenaria, as supposed by the authors of the * Hist, of Brit. Moll./ vol. i., p. 172. 
In my ' Catalogue/ I had assigned this as an identity with M. ovalis, Turt., and having 
found this shell in great profusion at Butley, not exceeding it in size, I considered it 
then as distinct. 

This species is subject to considerable variation, more especially in regard to its 
length : those I have met with from the Coralline Crag are all of the longer variety ; 
in the Red Crag the long and short are both obtained, but I have seen none there so 
short and obliquely truncated as the variety found fossil at Uddevalla ; and in the 
Clyde Beds.* At Chillesford, all the specimens I have seen are of the longer variety ; 
that is, with the siphonal side somewhat elongated, while, perhaps, it is somewhat 

* The difference in the form of the mantle-mark in this variety was considered by the late Mr. G. B. 
Sowerby as a character of sufficient importance for a distinct position, and Mr. Smith, in consequence, 
proposed for it the name of Uddevallensis ; but this mark is merely the result of the shortened side of 
the shell. 

It is now well known that many of the species inhabiting the Arctic seas exhibit great variation, and 
still more abnormal forms, than are presented by the varieties of this species, have been recently obtained 
from that part of the world. 



BIVALVIA. 



27!) 



remarkable that the specimens of Panopea Norvegica found at this locality, where 
the general remains are decidedly of an Arctic character, have this side much 
abbreviated. 

In the recent state it is found, sparingly, on the coast of the United States ; and 
M. Middendorff* describes it as an inhabitant of the Sea of Okhotsk and the Behring 
Straits, appearing principally confined to the colder regions of the Northern 
Hemisphere. 

This is the elder of the two species, and has in the living state a great 
geographical range, extending from the Behring Straits, through the Scandinavian 
and British Seas, to the coast of the New World westward, through Davis's Straits, 
and as far as Baring Island, where the short variety has been found in abundance. 
It is thus spread over an area of 280 degrees of longitude, and its range in depth is 
upwards of 100 fathoms. It was formerly an inhabitant of the seas which deposited 
the Sicilian Beds, where it is now found fossil, extending into this region probably 
during the Glacial Period, as it is no longer an inhabitant of the Mediterranean Sea. 

2. Mya arenaria, Linnaus. Tab. XXVIII, fig. 2, a—f. 

Mya arenakia. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1112, No. 27, 1767. 

— — J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 364, 1822. 

— — Gould. Inv. Massach., pp. 40 and 359, 1840. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 57, pi. 3, fig. 1, 1844. 
_ _ LovSn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 49, 1846. 

— — Bekay. Hist. New York Moll., p. 240, pi. 30, fig. 290. 

— — Midd. Malac. Rossica, p. 586, t. 20, figs. 1—3, 1849. 

— lata. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 81, 1815. 

— — W. Smith. Strata Identif. Crag, fig. 9, 1816. 

— subotata. Woodw. Geol. of Norf., p. 43, t. 2, fig. 5, 1833. 

— stjbtrunc ata. Id. Geol. of Norf ., p. 43, t. 2, fig. 6. 

— mercenaria. Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., vol. ii, p. 313, fide Gould. 

— acuta. Say. Fide Gould, p. 40. 

Chama arenaria. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 232. 

Dale. Hist, and Antiq. of Harwich, p. 293, t. 11, fig. 8, 1730. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, ovatd, elongatd, sttbaquilaterali, crassd, rugosd ; antice 
rotundatd ; postice subacmninatd ; cardinis dente denticulo later all acuto. 

Shell transverse, ovate, elongate, nearly equilateral, thick, and rough ; anterior side 
rounded ; posterior somewhat pointed ; hinge tooth with a sharp lateral denticle. 
Length, 3^ inches. Height, 2^ inches. 
Locality. Red Crag, Sutton, Bawdsey, Felixstow. 
Mam. Crag, Bramerton, Bridlington. 
Bracklesham {Dixon). 

Recent, Britain, Scandinavia, and N. E. Coast of America. 

* The figure by Middendorff is not the short variety. 



280 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



This species I have not as yet seen from the Lower or Coralline Crag ; and although 
abundant in the Red Crag, I have never found anything but detached valves, and 
those in the more disturbed portion of that Formation. 

It is subject to great variation ; and I think, with the authors of the ' Hist, of Brit. 
Mollusca,' that the shell called lata by Mr. Sowerby, above referred to, is only a 
modified form of this species, although presenting an intermediate character between 
the truncated posterior of truncata and pointed termination of the ordinary form of the 
living shell, depending probably upon some peculiarly local conditions, as I have never 
met with it but in one locality. The form of the spatulate tooth in the hinge of this 
variety is precisely like that of the recent armaria. It was furnished with a large and 
strong ligament, or rather cartilage, the greater part of which is preserved in most of 
the fossil specimens. 

The cause assigned for this variation {lata), by the authors of the ' Hist, of Brit. 
Mollusca/ appears to me to be somewhat doubtful, this not being, I believe, one of 
the forms found in the estuary portion of the Mammaliferous Crag, where distortions 
are by no means rare, and where, in all probability, the influx of ice or the efflux of 
more than ordinary quantities of fresh water, produced deformities like some of the 
specimens of Purpura lapillus and Litlorina litlorea, found in that Deposit. The 
variation in lata does not appear to be a distortion, as understood in this case, but a 
character that pervaded a whole race, making it what is called a permanent variety. 

The depth of the palleal sinus is a character here not to be much depended upon , 
as, in my large series, considerable differences in regard to depth may be observed ; 
for in some specimens this mark extends considerably beyond the hinge ligament, 
while in others it falls short of it, being modified by the length of the tubes, which 
would probably vary under the influence of external conditions. 

This, in the living state, is generally a very shallow- water species, burying itself in 
sand, near low-water mark ; extending, at times, into rivers as far as where the water, 
when the tide is out, is nearly fresh. Its geographical distribution takes in the whole 
circuit of the Northern Hemisphere, being found, according to Middendorff,* at Sitka, 
in the Sea of Okhotsk, on the coast of Russian Lapland, and Nova Zembla, and, by 
the American authors, on the soast of the United States, as far to the southward as 
nearly to 40°, exhibiting thus an equal, or perhaps a greater, extent of range than its 
elder confrere, truncata. It has not had, however, on our side of the Atlantic, quite 
so great a range to the southward, not having been found, either recent or fossil, in or 
near the Mediterranean. 

The animal of this species is, according to Dr. Gould, extensively employed as bait 
in the cod fisheries of Newfoundland, and is called the long clam, to distinguish it 
from the giant clam, Mactra gigantea, or the round clam or Quahog, Venus mercenaria. 

* The specimen figured by Middendorff appears rather distorted, with a short siphonal side. 



BIVALVIA. 



281 



Panopea.* Menard de la Groye, 1807. 



Mya (sp.) Linn. Broc. 

Cham.epiiolas (sp.) Petiver. 

Glycimeris. Lamk. 1812. 

Panop^ea. Gold/. Phil. Promt. Valenciennes. 



Panopia. Swains. 1810. 
Panopoea. Nyst, 1844. 
Homomya (sp.) Affass. 1845. 



Generic Character. Shell transversely oblong, equivalved, inequilateral, more or 
less gaping at both extremities; surface smooth or marked by rough and somewhat ir- 
regular lines of growth ; elongated impressions by the adductors ; mantle-mark with a 
large; deep sinus ; hinge furnished with one conical tooth in each valve ; ligament 
external, placed on a prominent fulcrum. 

Animal with very long and extensible siphonal tubes united to their extremities ; 
mantle closed throughout its length, except a small opening in front for the passage 
of a short, stout, muscular foot; large and strong adductor muscles. 

This genus is closely related to Mya, in the animal as well as in the shell, differing 
principally by the position of the hinge-ligament, which in this is placed upon a 
prominent ridge, and its action consequently different. The animal has very long 
siphonal tubes, which are incapable of being withdrawn into the shell, and are con- 
sequently thickened, and covered with a strong coriaceous epidermis. 

In 1839, M. Valenciennes published a valuable monograph of this genus, and 
described the animal of one species found on the shore of Port Natal, which 
seems to have been an inhabitant of shallow water, and left dry at the retreat 
of the tide. Its tubes were observed protruding through the sand, and when 
alarmed retreated backward by means of its powerful foot to the depth of several 
feet. 

Some of the Oolitic Fossils belong to this genus. 

Dr. Gray considers the name of Glycimeris, proposed by Klein, 1753, as entitled to 
be used for this genus, but the date is anterior to our starting point, viz. the 12th 
ed. Linn., 1767. 



1. Panopea Norvegica, Spengler. Tab. XXIX, fig. 1, a — e. 

Mya Norvegica. Speng. Skrivt. Natu. Silskal, vol. iii, part 1, p. 46, pi. 2, fig. 18. 
Glycimeris arctica. Besh. 2d ed. Lamarck, torn, vi, p. 70, 1835. 

— Norvegica. Gray. List Brit. Moll., p. 63, 1851. 
Panopea Glycimeris. Bean. Mag. Nat. Hist., viii, p. 562, figs. 50, 51. 



* Etym. Panope, one of the Nereids. Panopea, Hubu. 1816, a genus of Lepidoptera. 

37 



2S2 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Panopea arctica. Gould. Inv. Massach., p. 37, fig. 27, 1840. 

— — Behay. Nat. Hist. New York Zool., p. 246, 1843. 

— — King. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xviii, p. 243, 1846. 
Panopea Bivonje. J. Smith. Wern. Mem. vol. viii, p. 107, pi. 2, fig. 4, 1839. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 8, t. 2, fig. 1, a—c, 1836. 

— Spengleri. Valen. Arch, du Mus., torn, i, p. 15, pi. 5, fig. 3, 1839. 

— — Chenu. Illust. Conch. Panopeea, pi. 4, fig. 2, 4, 4 a, 4 b ; pi. 6, 

fig. 3, a, b ; and pi. 10, fig. 2, a, b. 

— Norvegica. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 610, fig. 2, and 611, figs. 1, 2. 

— — Lovcn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 49, 1846. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 175, pi. 1 1, 1848. 

— — Middend. Malacozool. Rossica (Mem. loc. cit.), p. 593, t. 20, 

fig. 11, 1849. 

Spec. Char. Testa crassd, oblongd vel subrhomboidali, plus minusve inaquilaterali ; 
antice plerumque breviore, portice truncatd et latiore ; cardine edentulo ? impressione pallii, 
interrupta, maculosa. 

Shell thick, oblong or somewhat rhomboidal, more or less inequilateral ; anterior 
side generally the shorter, posterior truncated and broader ; hinge without teeth ; im- 
pression by the mantle interrupted, spotted and irregular. 
Length, 3 inches. Height, 2 inches. 
Locality. Red Crag, Sutton, Butley. 

Mam. Crag, Chillesford, Bridlington. 
Clyde Beds, and Sicily. 
Recent, North America, Britain, Scandinavia, Russian Lapland, and Sea of Ochotsk. 
As yet this shell has been but sparingly obtained from the Red Crag, but it does 
not appear to be very scarce in the native bed at Chillesford, where the valves are met 
with in their natural position. Although my specimens from the Red Crag do not 
amount in number to more than half a dozen, there is a considerable variation among 
them. 

Our fossils are in general more equilateral, that is to say, the siphonal side of the 
shell is less in size, particularly those from Chillesford, than the living specimens, or 
those from the newer Tertiaries of Sicily, where the anterior side does not constitute 
more than a third of the entire shell ; there is, however, no doubt as to the identity of 
the British fossil with the recent species. Among other minor differences may be 
mentioned the ligamental fulcra, which in Crag specimens extend half way across the 
dorsal margin, giving support to large and powerful ligaments, while in the 
living shell this fulcrum is much smaller. The adductor muscle-marks are deeply 
impressed, the shell gapes widely on the posterior side, and there is a considerable 
opening in the fore part of the ventral margin for the extrusion of the foot : the 
surface is much roughened by somewhat irregular lines of growth ; and the centre of 
the shell is contracted or depressed, giving it a couple of obtuse ridges which diverge 
from the umbo. 



BIVALVIA. 



283 



In the living state it has been only obtained in deep water. 

A small obtuse tooth occupies a position immediately beneath the umbo in the 
living shell, but in the fossil this is merely rudimentary. 

The figure by Middendorff has the siphonal side the larger. 

2. Panopea Faujasii, Menard de la Groye. Tab. XXVIT, fig. 1, a—/. 

Panopea Faujasii. Men. de la Groye. Ann. du Mus., torn, ix, p. 131, t. 12, 1807. 

— — Dubois de Montp. Conch. Foss. de Wolhyn. Podol., p. 51, pi. 4, 

figs. 1—4, 1831. 

Panopea Faujasii. Bast. Foss.de Bord., p. 95, 1825. 

— — Bronn. Leth. Geog., p. 973, pi. 37, fig. 6, 1838. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 7, t. 2, fig. 3, 1836. 

— — Gold/. Pet. Germ., vol. ii, p. 274, t. 159, fig. 1, a— d. 

— — Valenciennes. Arch, du Mus., vol. i, p. 13, 1839. 

— — J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 602, figs. 3—5. 

— — Chenu. Conch. Illust., pi. 4, fig. 1,1. 

— Ipsviciensis. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 611, figs. 3, 4. 

— — Valenciennes. Loc. cit. sup., No. 36. 

— reflexa. Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., vol. iv, p. 153, pi. 13, fig. 4, 1824. 

— — Conrad. Foss. Med. Tert., p. 5, pi. 3, fig. 4, 1838. 

— Americana. Id. Foss. Med. Tert., p. 4, pi. 2. 

— Aldrovandi? Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 7, t. 11, fig. 2. 

— gentilis. J. Sow. Min. Conch., vol. vii, t. 610, fig. 1, 1840. 
Mya Panopea? Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 532, 1814. 

Spec. Char. Testa transversa, ovato-oblongd, injlatd ; plus minusve inaquilaterali ; 
postice truncatd et valde hiante ; cardine unidentato. 

Shell transverse, ovately oblong, inflated, more or less inequilateral ; posterior side 
truncated, and gaping widely ; hinge with one tooth. 

Length, 6 inches. Height, 3^ inches. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sudbourn, Gedgrave, Ramsholt. 
Red Crag, Sutton. 

This handsome shell is very abundant as a Crag Fossil, though its great size and 
comparative thinness has caused it to be somewhat scarce in our Cabinets : at 
Ramsholt numerous specimens were found with the valves united. It presents a very 
considerable variation, both in regard to its form, and to the degree of gape on the 
anterior side, and I am inclined to believe the recent Mediterranean shell called 
P. Aldrovandi is merely the descendant of our Crag species somewhat altered by 
local conditions : the Sicilian fossil (specimens of which were obligingly given to me 
by Madame Power) seems to present some differences ; but they are not, I think, of 
sufficient importance for specific distinction ; that shell is, in general, rather more 
inequilateral than the Crag one, but not always so ; and, among my British specimens 



284 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



a considerable variation in that character may be observed. Great reliance has been 
placed upon the size of the gape for the foot on the anterior side, but I believe such 
distinction to be of very little value, as in some of my specimens it is nearly closed, 
while in others it is widely open, and with all intermediate magnitudes. The variety 
Ipsviciensis, found at Ramsholt, appears to differ most from the Sicilian shell, and may 
be considered its extreme range in variation, being more equilateral and straight ; but 
some of my specimens from near Orford, have nearly the same inequilaterality as the 
Sicilian fossil, with the like obliquity. In P. Norvet/ica, a difference exists between the 
comparative magnitudes of the two sides of the recent, as well as between the Sicilian 
fossil, and my specimens from Chillesford, equally evident with what may be seen in 
this species ; and the comparatively greater depth of the sinus results, I conceive, in 
this difference between the two sides, the sinus reaching further back, or apparently 
deeper, in those which are more equilateral than where the siphonal side is so much 
the larger. Similar differences exist in Mi/a truncata ; what has been called 
M. Uddevallensis has one side of the shell very short, giving a material difference 
in proportional dimensions from some undoubtedly of the same species from the 
Coralline Crag, as well as from the more southern portion of the English Coast, as if 
a northern locality had induced an alteration in that character. 

I have given figures of the specimen from the Red Crag, called P. gentitis (fig. 1, 
d, e), which Mr. Sowerby considered as a distinct species. With the exception of its 
being a little more elongated, its characters are so similar to those of fig. 1, a, that I 
believe it to be only an aberrant form of the one abundant in the Coralline Crag. 
The apparent greater depth in the sinus of the mantle-mark, in this specimen, I would 
attribute entirely to its elongated and constricted form : a considerable difference in 
the siphonal scar may be observed in a large series depending in a great degree upon 
the outward form of the shell. 

Figs. 3, 4, 5, of the ' Mineral Conchology/ t. 602, are probably fragments of this ; 
but figs. 1 and 2, of the same Plate, described under the name of P. Faujas, belong, I 
believe, to another species. 



Saxicava.* Fleureau de Bettemie, 1802. 



M ytilus (sp.) Linn. Mont. &c. 

Solen (sp.) Linn. Mont. &c. 

Mya (sp.) Linn. Fabr. &c. 

Donax (sp.) Poli. 

Anatina (sp.) Turton. 

Caudita (sp.) Bruyuihre. 

Irus (sp.) Oken. 

ChaMjBpholas (sp.) Lister. 

Akcineila (sp.) Phil. 1844. Not Schnm. 



Hiatella. Band. 1800. Gray, 1851. 
Clotho? Favj. St. Fond. 1807. 
Byssomia. Cuv. 1817. 
Didonta. Schutn. 1817. 
Pholeobia. Leach, 1819. 
Biapholius. Ld. 1819. 
Rhombus. Blainv. 1818. 
Agina. Turt. 1822. 
Rhomboides. Blainv. 1825. 



Etym. Saxum, a rock ; and cavo, to make hollow. 



BIVALVIA. 



285 



Generic Character. Shell transverse, inequilateral, oblong, or subrhomboidal, 
equivalve, slightly gaping at both extremities, sometimes in front ; hinge with one or 
two cardinal teeth, which are generally obsolete when full grown ; muscular im- 
pressions ovate, strong, and distant ; palleal impression somewhat irregular, with a 
small or moderate sinus. Ligament external. 

Animal oblong, or club-shaped ; mantle united, except where open in front for the 
passage of a digitiform foot, furnished with a byssal groove ; siphons short, separated 
at their extremities ; branchial and anal orifices large, margined with cirrhi. 

Animals of this genus are generally found located in rocks, as the name imports, 
and they are often met with in those situations into which they must have entered at 
a very early age, their extrication being effected only by a fracture of the stone from 
depths of sometimes nearly six inches. It is therefore evident this aperture is formed 
by the animal itself, and as the crypts are not symmetrical, like those of the Pholades, 
the mechanical theory of a rotatory motion, by the rasping of the shell, will not in this 
instance satisfactorily explain the modus operandi. They appear endowed with the 
power of spinning a byssus, by which they are sometimes moored to the sides of the 
cells, and occasionally the ventral opening is of considerable size ; from which 
circumstance a genus was formed by Baron Cuvier, under the name Byssomya, for the 
reception of those shells possessing this character. 

Their peculiar habits producing often great distortion, and their extraordinary 
variation, have caused much perplexity to the naturalist ; the same species has, I 
believe, been placed in five different genera ; and the most distinguished conchologists 
of the present day are still at variance, not only in the determination of the species to 
which the shells now found on our own coasts should be assigned, but even the generic 
limits cannot be agreed upon. A small shell from the Older Tertiaries of this 
country is in the Cabinet of Mr. Edwards, probably belonging to this genus ; and 
M. Deshayes has described some species from the Paris Basin. 

1. Saxicava rugosa, Pennant. Tab. XXIX, fig. 3, a — g. 

Mytilus rugosus. Perm. Brit. Zool., ed. 1, vol. iv, p. 110, t. 63, fig. 72. 

— pholadis. Miill. Zool. Dan., t. 87, figs. 1 — 3. 

— — Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. viii, p. 154, t. 82, fig. 735. 
Mya byssifera. Otho. Fabr. Faun. Groenl., p. 408, No. 8. 

— bustica. Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 533, t. 12, fig. 11, 1814. 
Saxicava rugosa. Forb. and Hani. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 146, pi. 6, figs. 7, 8 ; and pi. f, 
fig. 6. 

— — Lyell. Trans. Geol. Soc, 2d series, vol. vi, pi. 16, fig. 7, 1839. 

— — J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 466. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 20, t. 3, fig. 4, 1836. 

— striata. Fl. de Bellevue. Journ. de Phys., torn, liv, p. 349, 1802. 

— gallic an A. Desk. 2d ed. Lamarck, torn, vi, p. 162, 1835. 



286 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Saxicava pholadis. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 21, t. 2, figs. 11, 1822. 

— — Hancock. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xviii, p. 337. 

— distorta. {Say.) Gould, Inv. Massach., p. 61, fig. 40. 

— sulcata. Smith. Phil. Trans., 1835, pi. 2, fig. 25. 
Pholeobia eugosa. Leach. Ross's Voy. Baff. Bay, p. 174, 1819. 
Biapholus rugosus. Leach MS. An. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xx, p. 272. 
Byssomya pholadis. Bowdich. Bivalves, fig. 43. 

Rhomboides rugosus. Blainv. Man. Malac, p. 573, 1825. 
Hiatella oblonga. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 25, pi. 2, fig. 13, 1822. 
— rugosa. Flem. Brit. An., p. 461, 1828. 

Spec. Char. Testa variabile, oblonga, vel subrhomboidali transversim striata, rugosa; 
utraque extremitate obtusd, aliquando valvarum angulis binis instruclo: latere antico 
brevissimo. 

Shell variable, oblong or subrhomboidal, transversely striated, and rugose ; obtuse 
or rounded at each extremity ; sometimes furnished with two diverging rows or slightly 
imbricated ridges ; anterior side much the shorter. 

Length, 1 inch. Height, |- inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton, Walton Naze. 
Clyde Beds, Bridlington. 

Recent, Britain, Mediterranean, Scandinavia, N. E. Coast of America, 
Nova Zembla, Sea of Ochotsk, and Sitka. 

Small specimens of this shell are abundant in the Cor. Crag. In the Red Crag 
they are sometimes met with, in loose sand, with the valves united, much distorted, and 
with a large, ventral opening. The gigantic specimens obtained in the Clyde Beds, 
and in the recent Deposits of Canada, belong, I believe, to nothing more than a variety 
of this species, where, apparently under favorable circumstances, it had attained to so 
great a magnitude ; but one of my specimens from the Red Crag is not much less, 
giving every reason to suppose the simple difference in size, if not merely a difference 
in age, may be the result of different conditions ; the Red Crag specimens bearing in 
general a sort of intermediate character, as if a reduction in temperature from the 
older to the more modern Periods had been favorable to the fuller development of 
this species. 

Large numbers of individuals are found loose in the Crag, and when in a living 
state, probably passed their lives in adhering by a byssus to the roots of Fuci. Mr. 
Sowerby, in ' Min. Conch./ speaks of a specimen having been found imbedded in 
Septaria, beneath the Red Crag at Holywells. I have never met with the British 
fossils otherwise than in localities where, I believe, they were not excavators. This 
species appears to be generally distributed through the Drift Beds in this country, and 
it is also found in similar Deposits in Canada, Sweden, and Russia. Mr. Smith, of 
Jordan Hill, has recently forwarded to me the drawing by the late Professor E. Forbes, 



BIVALVIA. 



287 



of an individual measuring If inch long, and ^ths of an inch high, which was thought 
to be distinct from rugosa, and called striata. I cannot coincide in that opinion ; it 
appears to me to be only a monstrous form of our variable shell. 

2. Saxicava arctica, Linnaeus. Tab. XXIX, fig. 4, a — b. 

Mya arctica. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1113. 
Cardita litiiophagella. Costa. Fide Phil. 

Mya elongata. Broc. Coq. Foss. Subap., p. 529, t. 12, fig. 14, a, b, 1814. 
Hiatella arctica. Baud. Rec. Mem. Moll., 1800. 
Anatina arctica. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 49, pi. 4, figs. 7, 8, 1822. 
Saxicava arctica. Phil. En. Moll. Sic., vol. i, p. 20, t. 3, fig. 3, 1836. 

— — Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 40, 1846. 

— — B'Orbigny. Moll. Canar., p. 109, No. 195, 1835. 

— — Nyst. Hist. Coq. Foss. Belg., p. 95, pi. 3, fig. 15, a—c, 1844. 

— rubra. Besh. Expe'd. Alger. Moll., pi. 66, figs. 18, 19. 
Saxicava rhomboides. Besh. 2d ed. Lamarck, torn, vi, p. 153, 1835. 
Solen minutus. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1115, No. 42. 

— — Mont. Test. Brit., p. 53, pi. 1, fig. 4, 1813. 

— purpureus. Flem. Brit. An., p. 459, 1828. 
Hiatella minuta. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 24, pi. 2, fig. 12, 1822. 

— — Gray. List. Brit. Moll., p. 89, 1851. 

Tellina rhomboides. Poli. Test. Sicil., p. 81, t. 15, figs. 12, 13, 15 ; and t. 14, fig. 16. 
Donax irus. Olivi. Fide Philippi. 

Mytilus pr^cisus. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 165, t. 4, fig. 2, 1803. 
Pholeobia PRiECiSA. Brown. Must. Brit. Conch., t. 9, fig. 16. 
Agina purpurea. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 54, t. 4, fig. 9. 
Didonta bicarinata. Schum. Essai, p. 125, pi. 6, fig. 2, a, b, 1817. 
Biapiiolius spinosus. "Leach." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xx, p. 272. 
Hypog^a gibba. Poli. Test. Sic, vol. i, p. 251. 

Spec. Char. Testa cr asset, oblongd, vcl rhomboidali, valde intequilatcrali ; concentrice 
striata, aut rugosa ; latere antico brevissimo ; biseriatim oblique acid eis instructo: cardine 
unidentato. 

Shell thick, oblong or rhomboidal, very inequilateral ; rugose or irregularly 
striated with lines of growth ; anterior side very short ; ornamented with two 
diverging imbricated ridges : hinge with one tooth. 

Length, f inch. Height, -| inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton. 

Recent, Canary Islands, Mediterranean, /Egean, British and Norwegian Seas. 
In deference to the malacologists, I have separated these two shells, and placed 
them as distinct species, under the names arctica and rugosa, though I believe there is 
no ground for the distinction. 



288 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



The form of the shell, and the inequilaterality of the valves are not to be depended 
upon for specific separation, neither can any reliance be placed upon the two diverging 
ridges upon the siphonal side, though strongly marked in this, where often these ridges 
are imbricated; the same character may generally be detected in the younger portion 
of the preceding, becoming obliterated in the older shell, and what is called the exca- 
vated lunule,* which is said by the recent conchologists to be the tangible mark of 
distinction between the two, is as prominent and evident in the one as in the 
other. 

The remark made by Dr. Gould upon Saxicava distorta may be also applied to our 
fossils : " it is a perfect Proteus, of which no description can be given that is not 
liable to mislead." The American shell being probably only a variety of a species 
that seems to have a geographical extension reaching from the iEgean to the northern- 
most shores of Finmark, and the N. E. coast of America. 

Saxicava bilineata, Conrad, ' Foss. of the Mid. Tert. of the United States,' p. 18, 
PI. 10, fig. 4, is probably another variety of this species. 

The only imprisoned specimen I have ever found in the Crag, was in the interior of 
one of the large barnacles. I have a recent individual from the Bay of Smyrna, it 
was imbedded in sponge. 

3. Saxicava ? fragilis, Nyst. Tab. XXIX, fig. a — <?. 

Saxicava fragilis. Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 97, pi. 4, fig. 10, a, b, 1844. 
? — rugosa, juv. ? Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 149, pi. G, figs. 1—3, 

1848. 

— — var. Gray. List Brit. Moll., p. 88, 1351. 

Sphekia cylindrica. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Spec. Char. Testa oblongd, vel subcylindraced tenui,fragili, inaquilalerali, lavi {prater 
strias incrementi irregulares) latere postico obtuse angulato ; cardine unidentato. 

Shell oblong, or subcylindrical, thin, fragile, inequilateral, smooth (except the 
irregular lines of growth) ; posterior side with an obsolete, angular ridge ; one cardinal 
tooth. 

Length, § inch. Height, § inch. 
Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Very abundant. All my specimens were found free and loose in the sand with 
the valves separated. 

Our shell in its young state is furnished with one cardinal tooth, and a depression 
for its reception in each valve ; and, like Saxicava, these teeth become obsolete when 

* There is no distinct lunule in these shells, the appearance of such is produced simply by an 
obsoletely-curved ridge in the shell, on the anterior side. 



B1VALVIA. 



289 



the shell is full grown. There is a small sinus in the mantle-mark, and the impressions 
of the adduetors are very distinct. Within these, on both sides, a ridge diverges from 
beneath the umbo ; that on the anterior side is the more prominent. The ligament 
appears to have been supported upon a prominent fulcrum, while the cartilage was 
placed in a depressed line upon the dorsal edge, and there is a small gape on the 
siphonal side. 

The shell above referred to, in the ' Hist, of Brit. Moll./ may possibly be the 
descendant of our fossil, as I had supposed when compiling my Catalogue, (Ann. 
and Mag. of Nat. Hist., 1840, p. 245, infra), but several dead valves of the recent 
species, since obtained from the beach on Stone Point, at Walton Naze, cast a doubt 
upon that identification, the recent shell having the siphonal side much broader than 
the anterior, and is not quite so flat. 

I have no doubt of our fossil being distinct from Saxicava arctica, nor do I think 
there is any good reason for believing it to be the fry of some larger species. It is 
difficult to determine where it ought to be placed, but it appears to conform more 
nearly with the diagnosis of Saxicava than with any other existing genus. I would 
have adopted Jrcinella, proposed by Philippi for the succeeding species, but that this 
name had been twice previously used in the class Molhisca ; and Sphenia, the genus in 
which I had provisionally placed it, has a different hinge with an internal ligament 
like that of Mya, placed upon a spatulate projection. 

3. Saxicava? carinata? Brocchi. Tab. XXIX, fig. 5, a — e. 

Mytilus carinatus? Broc. Coq. Foss. Subap., p. 585, t. 14, fig. 16. 

— — ? Gold/. Pet. Germ., p. 179, pi. 131, fig. 14. 

Arcinella carinata. Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, t. 16, fig. 9. 
Sphenia angulata. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. 

Spec. Char. Testa minutd, transversa, oblonyd, valde inaquilaterali, tenui,fragili ; 
antice brevi, postice carinata, angulata, productd, granulosa ; cardine unidentato. 

Shell minute, transverse, oblong, very inequilateral, thin, and fragile ; anterior side 
short, posterior angulated, carinated, and produced, with a granular surface ; hinge 
with one tooth. 

Length, \ inch. Height, \ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

A few specimens only of this species have come under my observation, and those 
are all in my own cabinet. 

The shell it most resembles is the preceding, from which, however, it differs in 
having the siphonal side much more angular, pointed, and carinated, with also a 
roughened or shagreen-like exterior, most distinctly visible on the posterior slope. 

38 



290 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



There is one obtuse tooth, most prominent in the right, with a corresponding- depression 
in the left valve, and the anterior muscular impression is of an ovate form, deeply 
impressed. 

I have assigned it, with some degree of doubt, as an identity with the Italian fossil, 
depending upon the very imperfect figure by Brocchi. It accords with his description, 
except that it is not " smooth," as he describes it ; but some of my specimens appear 
to have lost their granular exterior, and this may have been the case with the sub- 
Apennine fossil. 

An American shell from the Older Tertiaries, Byssomya petriculoides, Lea, ' Contrib. 
to Geol.,' p. 48, pi. 1, fig. 16, though evidently distinct, more nearly approaches this 
species than Saxicava arctica, to which it has been considered to have belonged. 

Philippi has given the representation of a fossil under the name of Arcinella carinata, 
which I have considered as this species, and he refers to Mytilus carinatus, Brocchi ; 
but there is no description to assist in its determination, and my dependence is entirely 
upon his figure. Arcinella lavis, of the same author, vol. ii, p. 54, t. 16, fig. 10, 
probably belongs to a different genus ; it looks like the left valve of Montacnta bidentata. 

Glycimerts,* Lamk. 1801. 

Cyrtodarta. Daudin, 1792. Fide Gray. 

Generic Character. Shell equivalved, inequilateral, elongately oblong, thick, strong, 
flattish or compressed, gaping widely at each extremity. Hinge edentulous ; ligament 
external. In the recent state covered with a thick epidermis. Two deep impressions 
by the adductor muscles, with a small sinus in the rugged and irregularly-shaped 
mantle-mark. 

Animal of the form of the shell, with the lobes of the mantle thick, and the edges, 
united, except immediately in front, where there is an opening for the passage of a 
small cylindrical foot ; siphons united to their extremities, thick, and fleshy, with a 
wrinkled epidermis, and incapable of being withdrawn into the shell ; orifices fringed ; 
branchiae long and thick, two on each side. 

One recent species only of this genus has yet been noticed, and that has been 
long known. It is an inhabitant of the arctic regions, and the N. E. Coast of America, 
but not met with in our own seas. The animal of this has been examined by M. 
Audouin, and its details published in the 'Ann. des Sc. Nat./ 1S33, from which it 
appears to have somewhat of an isolated position. M. de Blainville placed it among 
the Naiades. In the shell and its hinge-furniture it has considerable resemblance to 
Pa/iopea Norveyica. 

In Mr. Edwards's cabinet is a species from the lower division of the Older 
Tertiaries. 

* Etym. yXvKis, dulcis, and /uepts, a species so called by Pliny from its sweet taste. 



BIVALVIA. 



291 



1. Glycimeris angusta, Nyst and Westendorp. Tab. XXIX, fig. 2, a — d. 

Glycimeius angusta. Nyst and West. Nouv. Rech. Coq. Foss. d'Anv. (Bull, de l'Acad. 

des Sc. de Bruxelles, torn, vi, 1839), p. 4, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

— — Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 55, pi. 11, fig. 1, 1844. 

— vagina. 5. Wood. Catal. of Crag Shells in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. vi, 

p. 245, 1S40. 

— — J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 636, 1844. 

Spec. Char. Testa elongato-dblongd. crassd, rugosd, tortd, valde incequilaterali ; pos- 
tice breviorc, truncatd, subangulatd ; antice productd, attenuatd ; valvis intus incrassaiis. 

Shell elongately oblong, thick, rough and twisted, and very inequilateral ; pos- 
terior side the shorter, truncated, and somewhat angular ; anterior produced, slightly 
pointed ; valves thickened within. 

Length, 4 inches. Height, \ \ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Gedgrave, Sudbourn, and Ramsholt. 
Red Crag, Sutton. 

This strong shell is by no means rare in the Coralline Crag, and fragments of it are 
not unfrequently met with in the Red Crag. Some differences exist between this and 
the recent species, My a sitiqua, Chemn., vol. ii, p. 192, t. 198, fig. 1934; the siphonal 
side being shorter in the Crag shell, as well as broader, and the anterior more pointed ; 
there is also a greater twist or contortion in the valves, and the muscular impressions 
are somewhat different ; that of the anterior adductor is more elongated, increas- 
ing in breadth towards the anterior, and extending to the verge of the impression by 
the mantle on that side ; the posterior adductor is situated further backward than in 
the recent shell, almost touching the extreme edge, below which is the small sinus of 
the mantle-mark. The shell is much twisted, so that the valves, when united, touch 
only at the hinge and basal edge of the anterior margin. There is a large and pro- 
minent fulcrum for the ligament, extending nearly to the posterior extremity of the 
shell ; between it and the umbo is a cavity for the cartilage, with a callosity or obscure 
tooth immediately under the beak. 

There is a slight appearance of erosion at the umbones of some of my specimens, 
and the exterior is smooth, with the exception of lines of growth. Traces of irregular 
lines may be sometimes seen both longitudinally and transverse ; these were probably 
produced by the rugosities of its thick epidermis. 

In this, contrary to the generality of Bivalves, the siphonal side is much the shorter 
of the two. 

A recent species of this Genus is in the cabinet of my friend J. W. Flower, Esq., 
said to be from Moreton Bay. It approaches rather nearer to our fossil than does the 
Arctic shell, in having a greater twist, but it differs also slightly in form. 



292 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG, 



Gastroch^ena,* Spengler, 1783. 



Uperotus (part). Guettard, 1774. 
Ch.ena (part). Retzius, 1788. 
Mya (sp.) Pennant. 
Pholas (sp.) Chemn. Poli. 



Fistulana (sp.) Brug. 1792. 
Trapezium (sp.) Megerle, 1811. 
Gastkociiina. Sioains. 1840. 



Generic Character. Shell equivalve, inequilateral, oval or wedge-shaped, with a 
large ventral opening ; hinge linear ; a single laminated obscure tooth in each valve. 
Ligament external. 

Tube calcareous, pyriform ; posterior opening narrow, with a bipartite or divided 
aperture. 

Animal cuneiform, siphons united to their extremities, orifices fringed, mantle 
closed, with the exception of an opening for a small, finger-shaped, curved, and 
pointed foot, sometimes furnished with a delicate byssus. 

Animals of this genus are generally enclosed in the thick shelly substance of some 
mollusc, or in the centre of a mass of coral, their excavations being produced by an 
operation of the animal itself. The mode by which this is effected is not yet satisfac- 
torily determined, a difference of opinion still existing as to whether it is caused by 
the action of a solvent, or by the mechanical operation of surface abrasion. 

Some specimens do not attempt to excavate, but merely to enclose themselves in 
their own flask-like cases, to which occasionally foreign materials are added. 

Species of this genus have been found in the Oolite Formations, and in the Older 
Tertiaries, but nowhere in any abundance. 



1. Gastroch/ENA dtjbia, Pennant. Tab. XXX, fig. 11, a — d. 

Mya dubia. Penn. Brit. Zool., vol. iv, p. 82, pi. 44, fig. 19, 1777. 
Chama parva. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 234, 1778. 
Mya pholadia. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 28, 1803; and Supp., p. 20, 1808. 
Pholas faba. Pulteney. Hntcliin's Hist. Dorset, p. 27. 

Gastroch/ENA modiolina. Lamk. Hist, des An. s. Vert., torn, v, p. 447, 1818. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist, of Brit. Moll., p. 132, pi. 2, figs. 5—8, 

pi. F, fig. 5. 

— pholadia. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 18, pi. 2, figs. 8, 9, 1822. 

— — Lukis. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. vi, p. 404, fig. 52, a — g. 

— cuneiforjiis. Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 2, 1836. 

— polii. Id. „ ,, „ vol. ii, p. 3, 1844. 

— iiians. Flern. Hist. Brit. An., p. 458, 1828. 

— fulva. Leach, MS. 1818. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xx, p. 272. 

— dubia. Desk. Traite Elem. Conch., pi. 2, figs. 4, 5. 

— Poliana. Phil. In Wiegman Archiv. Nat., pi. 7, fig. 1, 1845. 



* Etym. yaorrip, ventral, and yaivw, to gape. 



BIVALVIA. 



293 



Gastroch^na faba. "Leach, MS." 181". Fide Gray. 
Mytilus ambigvjus. Billw. Cat. of Recent Shells, p. 304, No. 9. 
Pholas pusilla. Poli. Test. Sic., vol. i, p. 50, t. 8, figs. 12, 13, 1791. 

Spec. Char. Testct elongatd, cuneiformi, tenui, fragili ; hiatu magno ovato; striis 
inci -emeriti valde conspicuis ; umbonibus subterminalibus vix promimdis ; car dine subcalloso. 

Shell elongate, wedge-shaped, thin and fragile, with a large ventral gape ; lines of 
growth conspicuous ; beaks nearly terminal, scarcely prominent ; hinge with an obtuse 
callosity. 

Length, f- inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton. Recent, Mediterranean, Britain. 

INumerous fragments of the calcareous tube of this species are met with in the 
Red as well as in the Coralline Crag; and I have found the valves imbedded in the 
globular masses of coral so abundant in the latter Formation, and also in the thickest 
part of the common oyster. These excavations made by the animal appear all to have 
been lined with a calcareous coating, as well in the thick shell of the oyster as in the 
porous substance of the coral ; and the exterior of this marsupium, or purse-like 
envelope, is always more or less granular, wherever it is exposed. My specimens 
present considerable variation in regard to magnitude, some of the valves having 
twice the length of others, though all appear to have formed a calcareous lining to 
their excavation, and as such, it is presumed, they have attained to full maturity. I 
have none so small as to be considered the young, without the lining, assuming it not 
to have the power of increase after it has once formed its own envelope.* 

This calcareous flask-like covering is terminated posteriorly with a tube for the 
protection of the siphons, which project a little beyond the surface of the coral, and 
the neck of this is often of considerable thickness. At a distance of about a quarter, 
or sometimes half an inch within the tube, a calcareous partition is seen (fig. 1 1 d), 
with a linear opening crossed in two places, assuming the form of a double dagger, 
each siphonal aperture having the appearance of a cross. This opening appears to be 
variable in different species, but whether the form be a good specific distinction I am 
not able to say. 

* In the case of the Gastrochcena, it is probable that only when it has attained to full maturity does 
it form a lining to its crypt, or a covering to itself; this being, as it were, exterior and detached from the 
vital portions of the animal, may be incapable of alteration, but it probably possesses the power of dissolving 
or destroying this case, and constructing another, as occasions require, by the same means it has employed 
for the enlargement of its domicile. The prevailing opinion is, that the shell, or cxo-skeleton, as it is called, 
being extra-vascular, is not susceptible of alteration by interstitial increase, but we know that absorption 
does take place ; and the examination of shell-structure by the microscopist shows us clearly its highly 
organized condition, permeated with vessels for the conveyance of fluids ; and it is exceedingly difficult to 
explain in any other way some of the operations of the Mollusca, more especially the alterations in magnitude 
of the hinges of the Bivalves, for example, during the growth of the animal. 



294 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



In some specimens, the terminal tube projects a little distance beyond the surface 
of the coral, and of course, when alive, has its siphons always free. Occasionally the 
coral has either grown faster than the mollusc, or, what is more probable, had con- 
tinued to increase after the death of the imprisoned animal, the terminal opening having 
been closed up by the growth of the coral. 



Pholas,* Linnaus. 



Dactylus. Pliny. 

HypoGjEa. Hypogeoderma. Poli, 1791. 
Zirf/ea. Leach, MS. 1817. Gray, 1851. 
Thovana. Id. 1818. 



Barnia. Leach, MS. 1819. 
Dactylina. Gray, 1847. 
Anchomasa. Leach, MS. 1819. 



Generic Character. Shell ovate or transversely elongate, equivalved, inequilateral, 
externally rough or imbricated, more or less ornamented with radiating ridges, gene- 
rally gaping at both extremities, occasionally furnished with accessory valves, and a 
reflected callosity over or before the beaks ; a large, curved, testaceous appendage 
projects immediately beneath the umbo ; no teeth or hinge ligament ; and the impres- 
sion of the mantle is deeply sinuated. 

Animal thick and club-shaped ; lobes of the mantle open in front, and reflected 
dorsally, by which the accessory valves are formed ; siphonal tube long and extensile, 
divided at the extremity, and bordered with cirrhi ; foot thick and truncated. 

This is, generally speaking, a marine genus, and most of the species are inhabitants 
of shallow water, ranging to about 25 fathoms. Ph. rwicola, Reeves and Adams, 
'Voyage of the Samarang,' pi. 25, fig. 5, is said to have been found burrowing in 
floating logs at Gunung Taboor, on the Pantai River, twelve miles from the sea, and 
where the water was quite fresh. This species is divided by a depressed line or sulcus, 
like Ph. crispata, and has, at the pedal opening, a calcareous covering, but without an 
accessory cup at the base of the siphons. 

It is extremely difficult to define the generic limits of this group of shells. Some 
are furnished with an umbonal shield, consisting of several pieces ; some have only 
a single dorsal valve, while in others this appendage is rudimentary or absent. These 
differences are considered to be only of specific value with many naturalists, while 
others make them generic distinctions. 

The name given implies that the habits of these animals are those of excavators, 
and they are found to burrow in various materials, sandstone as well as calcareous 
rocks, wood, &c. The species do not always confine themselves to one kind for their 
habitations, and in all probability the mechanical mode is the one most generally 



* Etym. <pw\ew, to burrow, or hide in a hole. 



13IVALVIA. 



295 



employed ; but whether the shell is the instrument used for such a purpose is not so 
satisfactorily determined. We sometimes find specimens with the asperities of the 
shell worn down, where the animal has located itself in mud ; and at other times 
specimens have never had their roughened surfaces at all abraded. We know also 
that other animals than those belonging to the Mollusca, such as have no rough or 
hardened exterior, are able to penetrate deeply into stone as well as into wood. 



1. Pholas cylindrica, J. Sowerby. Tab. XXX, fig. 8, a — d. 

Pholas cylindiuca. J. Sow. Min. Conch., t. 198. 

_ _ Nyst. Coq. Foss. de Belg., p. 41, 1844. 

Dale. Hist, and Antiq. of Harwich, p. 295, t. 13, fig. 6, 1730. 

Spec. Char. Testa elongatd, subcylindricd, tenui, fragili, valde inaquilaterali ; latere 
antico abbreviate), postico porrecto, accuminato ; costatd, costis anticis dentato-muricatis^ 
costis posticis ad extremitatis evanescentibus. 

Shell elongate, subcylindrical, thin, and fragile, very inequilateral ; anterior side 
short, posterior prolonged, and obtusely pointed ; costated ; ribs on the anterior side 
toothed and rough, and on the posterior obsolete towards the extremity. 

Length, 3 inches. Height, I inch, nearly. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton and Walton Naze. 

This species is very abundant at Walton-on-the-Naze, but, from its fragility, speci- 
mens are difficult to obtain in perfect condition. In the Coralline Crag I have met 
with only a few fragments. 

It most nearly resembles the British species, P. parva, from which it may, however, 
be distinguished by its being more inequilateral, the siphonal side occupying at least 
two thirds of the entire shell, and the opening for the foot on the ventral portion of 
the anterior side is larger and deeper. The shell is reflected over the back, covering 
the umbones, but the reflected portion is not partitioned like that of Ph. dactylus, and 
there is a tubercle at the middle, flattened by the pressure of the valves ; the large 
and subovate impression of the adductor muscle is placed about midway between the 
umbo and the posterior extremity, and the line of the mantle-mark extends inwards 
a little beyond it; the plate or tooth curves from immediately beneath the beak, and is 
slightly spatulate in form. There is a small opening in the dorsal portion of the 
anterior side, which was no doubt covered by an accessory piece. Fragments of such 
a valve have been found by myself at Walton, most probably belonging to this species, 
(fig. 8, d.) 

The figure given by Dale, above referred to, is no doubt our shell, as he says Dr. 
Woodward found it in Harwich Cliff ; and as it is abundant at Walton Naze, its 



29 G 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



proximity to that locality would fairly justify its being so considered, though he refers 
to Lister's figure, No. 276, which is Ph. dactylus, not as yet found in the Crag that I am 
aware of. 

Pieces of indurated clay are occasionally met with at Walton Naze that have been 
perforated by this species ; and I have a small portion, little more than two inches 
square, and half an inch thick, full of small specimens. These shells had effected an 
entrance from both sides, meeting in the middle ; and one side contains almost as 
many as the other, showing the probability of the stone having been moved by the 
action of the water, to have permitted an ingress at both surfaces. A specimen of 
wood in my possession, from the Red Crag, but now in a lapideous state, contains an 
individual of this species, which, like Ph. parva, its very near relative, did not appear 
to confine itself to one kind of habitation. Some of these shells were at times only half 
immersed, as specimens have often the upper portion covered by the remains of a 
membranipora. 

2. Pholas crispata, Linnceus. Tab. XXX, fig. 9, a — c. 

Pholas crispata. Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1111, No. 25, 1767. 

— — Penn. Brit. Zool., 1st ed. p. 77, pi. 40, fig. 12, 1776. 
_ _ j)on. Brit. Shells, vol. ii, t. 62, 1801. 

— — Gould. Inv. of Massach., p. 27, 1841. 

— — Dekay. Hist. New York Moll., p. 247, pi. 32, figs. 506, and 506 a. 

— — Cuvier. Regne Anirn., pi. 113, fig. 3, animal. 

— bisfrons. Da Costa. Brit. Conch., p. 243, t. 16, fig. 4, 4. 

— parva. Id. Brit. Conch., p. 247. 

— — Donovan. Brit. Shells, vol. ii, pi. 69, 1801. 

— latus. List. Hist. Conch., lib. iii, fig. 379 a, with the animal, 1685. 
Solen crispus. Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3228. 

ZiRFiEA crispata. Gray. List Brit. Moll., p. 53, 1851. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovatd, crassd, subaquilaterali, antice breviore, rostratd, et costatd ; 
costis dentato-mtiricatis, latere postico rotundato ; eoutremitatis hiantissimis ; sulco unico 
submediano, obliquo. 

Shell ovate, thick, slightly inequilateral, anterior side the shorter, beaked and 
ribbed ; ribs furnished with roughened and prominent denticulations ; extremities 
widely gaping : divided by a submedial oblique suture. 

Length, 3 inches. Height, \\ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Red Crag, Sutton, Walton Naze. 

Mam. Crag, Bridlington. Fossil, Sweden. 

Recent, Britain, Scandinavia, and N. E. Coast of America. 
Although essentially a boreal species, it lived in the seas of the Coralline Crag, a 



BIVALVIA. 



297 



fragment of a specimen having been there found by myself. It seems to have become 
much more abundant in the succeeding Period, as it is by no means rare at Walton 
Naze, but difficult to procure, the shells generally separating at the suture. It has also 
been found in the Drift Beds in Ireland, and ranges, in the living state, on the N. E. 
Coast of America, as far as South Carolina. The characters of this species are well 
marked, so as not easily to be confounded with any other. It is found in a very modern 
Tertiary Deposit at Bracklesham, where specimens have been obtained measuring 
4^ inches in length, in company with Ph. Candida. 

Ph. dactylus is in Mr. Smith's ' List of Clyde Fossils.' 



Pholadidea, Leach, 1819. 
Pholas. Turton. 

Martesia. Leach, 1818. Blainv. 1824. 
Jouannetia? Desmoul. 1828. 
Pholldea. Swains. 1835. 

Generic Character. Shell ovate or oblong, equivalve, inequilateral, externally 
rough or imbricated. Anterior extremity open in the young, but closed in the adult 
shell. Posterior extremity truncated and gaping, furnished with a coriaceous or 
testaceous cup when full grown. 

Animal club-shaped ; mantle closed, except a small opening in front for the passage 
of a truncated, sucker-shaped foot. Siphonal tube long, terminating in a disk, sur- 
rounded with cirrhi ; terminal openings also fringed. 

This genus has been founded upon a species of one of the rock-boring molluscs, 
whose great peculiarity is, that when it has arrived at the full stage of existence, it 
closes the previously large opening in front with a thin calcareous covering ; and at its 
posterior termination there is added a small testaceous cup at the base of the siphons. 
If this be entitled to generic distinction it must rest its claim upon the latter character, 
as many of the Pholades have a large pedal opening in their young state for the active 
employment of that organ, possessing the same habits as the animal of this genus, in 
closing the aperture when full grown by a calcified membrane. Some other species 
also endowed with this habit, though not strictly according with the diagnosis of this 
genus, appear to be very closely related, viz., Pholadopsis, Conrad, and Triomphalia, 
Sowerby, but the valves are of unequal magnitude. Other species, possessing two 
radiating furrows, have been proposed for a genus by Conrad, under the name Para- 
pholas. 

The prolongation of the shell at the posterior side appears to be the commencement 
of what, in proximate genera, become a lengthened calcareous tube for the protection 
of the elongated siphons, as pointed out by Messrs. Forbes and Hanley, w T hen con- 

39 



298 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



sidering this as the connecting link between the Pholas and the Teredo ; and it may be 
further remarked, that the habit of closing its anterior opening, when the animal has 
attained to full maturity, is very analogous to the closing of the anterior portion of the 
tube in the adult or senile species in the Teredo and other tube-forming Bivalves. 

Pholades have been found fossil as early as the Lias, and, as it might be supposed, 
were present in the Tertiary Formations. One species, in the Paris Basin, forms a 
calcareous lining to its burrow. 



Pholadidea papyracea, Solander. Tab. XXX, fig. 10. 

Pholas papyracea. Solander, MSS., fide Turton. Portland Cat., p. 82, lot 1828. 

— — Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 2, pi. 1, figs. 1—4, 1822. 

— — G. Sow. Gen. of Shells, No. 24, fig. 3. 

— — Reeve. Conch. Syst., pi. 24, fig. 3. 
Pholadidea Goodallii. Diet, des Sc. Nat., t. 37, p. 532. 

— striata. Cuv. An. Kingd. (edit. Griffith), pi. 8, fig. 1. 

— lamellata. Turt. Brit. Biv., p. 4, pi. 1, figs. 5, 6. 

— Loscombiana. Goodall in Turt. Conch. Diet., p. 147, 1819. 

— papyracea. Forb. and Hani. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 123, pi. 5, figs. 3—6. 

— — Gray. List Brit. Moll., p. 52, 1851. 

Spec. Char. "P. testa clavatd, latere antico clauso obtusissimo, postico hiante truncate 
accessorio producto annulari." 

" Shell club-shaped, closed and very obtuse at the anterior end, open and truncate 
at the other end, which is furnished with a produced accessorial ring." — Turton. 

Length, \\ inch. Height, f- inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, South Coast of Britain. 

A few fragments, in my cabinet, indicate so strong a resemblance to the recent 
British shell, that I do not hesitate to refer them to that species. One piece has the 
obtuse anterior extremity, with the smooth surface of the enclosed portion of the gape 
peculiar to the adult shell ; while two fragments of the siphonal side are truncated, and 
marked with concentric lines like the recent species, without any radiating ridges. 
They are, however, unfit for description ; and I have therefore copied the diagnosis 
from Turton. 

Teredo,* Linnceus, 1767. 



Teredo. Sellius, 1732. Adamson, 1757. 
Sipiionium. Brown, 1756. 
Serpula (sp.) Linn. Schrbet. 
Uperotus (sp.) Guettard, 1774. 
Xylopiiagus. Gronov. 1781. 



Teuedarius. .Dumeril, 180G. 
Septaria. Lunik. 1818. 
Xylotrya. Leach, MS. 1817. 
Bankia. Gray, 1840. 
Malleolus. Gray, 1848. 



* Etym. repnhwv, Pliny, a repf/w, to bore. 



BIVALVIA. 



299 



Generic Character. Shell convex, tumid, inequilateral, equivalved, presenting, with 
the valves united, an orbicular or nearly spherical outline, having a large angular 
opening in front, and a rounded or ovate aperture posteriorly ; covered or ornamented 
externally with ridges or strise, caused by the slightly reflected or thickened edges of 
the margin ; a testaceous process or tooth, of a somewhat spatulate form, curves and 
projects inwardly from beneath the umbo ; one distinct muscular impression ; ligament 
obsolete. 

Animal worm-shaped ; mantle open in front ; siphons very long, bifurcating at 
their extremities ; orifices fringed ; foot rudimentary. 

The valves are situated at the anterior extremity of an irregular, subcylindrical, 
elongated, and somewhat flexuous testaceous tube, which appears to be formed for the 
purpose of lining the cavity made by the animal. This tube, in some species, is large, 
thick, and heavy, while in others it is thin and semi-transparent ; the variation, per- 
haps, depending upon a necessary protection against lateral pressure. At the posterior 
termination are two pennate or palmate opercula, called pallettes by Adanson, or 
calamules by Deshayes, by which the aperture is closed at the will of the animal, one 
probably employed as a lid to each siphon ; and this end of the tube, in some species, 
is partitioned with segments or semi-camerations, but for what especial purpose has 
not been satisfactorily ascertained. The growth of the animal, and necessarily the 
enlargement of the valves, causes a corresponding increase in the size of the tube, 
which is lengthened at the anterior extremity, while the posterior part is kept on a 
level with, or a little beyond, the surface of the wood, so as always to keep the siphons 
free.* The addition of calcareous matter is made to the larger end only, which is 
kept open until the animal has attained to full maturity, when it is closed with a convex 
or dome-shaped termination. 

The habits of most of the species lead them to excavate timber of all kinds. T. 
corniformis burrows in the husks of the cocoa-nut ; and T. arenaria locates itself in mud. 
The tube of the latter animal (figured and described by Mr. Griffiths, in the ' Phil. 
Trans.' for 1806, p. 269, from a specimen found on the N. W. Coast of Sumatra) mea- 
sured 5 feet 4 inches in length, and 9 inches at its greatest circumference ; the posterior 
termination was longitudinally divided into two separate tubes for about 8 or 9 inches, 
and the larger end was closed, where the animal had constructed two separate septa 
a few inches within. The character of a longitudinal division for the two siphons is 
sometimes observable in the European species of this genus, and they terminate di- 
vergingly ; but this, probably, is not constant, and only dependent upon circumstances. 
The tube of T. arenaria presents, when fractured, a crystalline or radiating structure. 
The tubes of our fossil, and other European Teredines, are composed of numerous 

* In the kindred genus Xylophaga, the animal does not furnish itself with a calcareous tube, as it 
never retreats far from the surface of the wood into which it has penetrated, consequently has no elongated 
siphons. 



300 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



concentric layers, thickened with the age of the animal. If the Sumatra species cor- 
respond in all other respects with this genus, it will slightly diminish the value we 
have hitherto placed upon structural composition. 

This genus is found abundantly imbedded in the fossil wood of the London Clay, 
and the fruits or seed-vessels of Sheppey (Nipadites, Bowerbank) are sometimes per- 
forated by these animals. The tubes are of various sizes, some of them much smaller 
than others, the larger ends of which are generally closed, and consequently presumed 
to have attained to the full period of individual existence. The closing of the larger 
end is an operation performed also by other genera, such as Clavagella and Aspergillum, 
which have a perforated termination, and the valves are fixed or soldered into the sides 
of the tubes. This fixing of the valves is only done when the animal constructs the 
roof to its dwelling, as, if fixed at an earlier period, they would appear at irregular 
distances ; and I believe the valves of these genera, like those of Teredo, are loose and 
free while the animals are growing, and only imbedded in the walls of the tubes at the 
time they have closed or imprisoned themselves by the construction of their dome- 
shaped or perforated disk. 

There is no true ligament in this genus for the union of the valves, but a powerful 
muscle forms a deep impression upon the shell at the exterior of the dorsal margin, 
and is the only hinge on which the valves are moved. 

A species has been found in the Lias in dichotyledonous wood. 

The natural history of this " calamitas navium," as it was called by Linnseus, is 
graphically given by the authors of the ' Hist, of Brit, Moll.,' with the various opinions 
respecting these wood-eating animals, and their allies, the stone-eating Pholades. This 
subject is far from being exhausted, differences of opinion as to the modus operandi 
exist at the present day, and have done so ever since the time of Pliny, who imagined 
the animal of the Teredo to be a worm, and its two valves the formidable jaws by which 
it was capable of inflicting upon mankind such dire calamity. The species are not 
numerous, even in the recent state, but the individuals have multiplied to an alarming 
extent, and at one time threatened to submerge the States of Holland. 



Teredo Norvagica, Spengler. Tab. XXX, 12, a — d. 

Teredo Norvagicus. Spengler. Skrivt. af Naturh. selsk., vol. ii, part 1, p. 102, pi. 2, 
figs. 4—6 b, 1792. 

— Norvagica. Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 50, 1846. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 67, pi. 1, figs. 1 — 5, 

1848. 

— Norvegica. Thompson. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xx, pp. 157, 163. 

— — Adanson. Acad. Scien. Par., t. 9, figs. 1 — 8. 

— isavalis. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 527 ; and Supp., p. 7. 



BIVALVIA. 



301 



Teredo navalis. G. Johnston. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, p. 23, fig. 7, b, 1829. 

— — Dekay. Nat. Hist. New York, p. 34, fig. 325. 

— Beuguieri. Delle. Chiuje. Mem., vol. iv, pi. 54, figs. 9 — 12. 

— — Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 2 ; and vol. ii, p. 3/ 

Spec. Char. Testa tumidd, convened ; angularibus striatis ; utraque hiante, hiatu postico 
magno angulato ; antico ovato. 

Shell tumid, convex, subspherical ; marked externally with angular striae ; gaping 
widely on both sides ; posterior with a large angular opening ; anterior ovate. 

Diameter, \ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton, Ramsholt. 

Red Crag, Sutton. Recent, Norway, North America, Britain, 

Mediterranean, and Black Sea. 

A single valve, in my cabinet, is all that I have seen from the Crag, and this I 
believe to be navalis of Mont. Fig. 1 2, c, represents a fragment of the posterior por- 
tion of the tube, probably of this species, showing the camerated structure ; but there 
is no appearance of longitudinal division. It is, however, too imperfect for any safe 
reliance in that respect.* Fragments of tubes are not unfrequently met with in the 
Red, as well as in the Coralline Crag, perhaps belonging to the same animal. They 
are thick and strong, with a diameter varying from |-th to \t\\ of an inch. 

The valves of the different species of this genus preserve a great similarity, and it 
is said they can only be determined specifically by the pallets or styles at the posterior 
orifice, and as these have not, that I am aware of, been found in the Crag, the present 
appropriation, if the above be true, may be considered doubtful. 

This portion of the Monograph contains the descriptions of forty-six species of 
Bivalves from the Lower or Coralline Crag Formation. Of this number, there are 
thirty-two identical with forms still in existence. From the Red Crag are described 
thirty-nine, out of which I have considered twenty-five as living species. Hence it 
will be seen that the former gives an amount of identification as high as 69 per cent., 
with a consequent extinction of 31 ; while the latter (Red Crag) has an amount of 
extinction as high as 36 per cent., giving, by this estimation, a greater antiquity to the 
higher or newer of the two Formations ; and even presuming a better examination 
might bring the Red Crag on to an equality with the Coralline, the two Formations 
do not appear by this test to be capable of separation. 

May it not be asked whether it is necessary, in order to ascertain the age of a 
Tertiary Formation by the per centage system, and to assign it to one of the tripartite 
or quadrupartite divisions of the Cainozoic series, we are to take the whole of the 

* This part of the tube, according to Montague, affords little or no assistance in the determination of 
the species : the number of these camerations or partitions vary from four to as many as twenty; indeed, 
in one specimen he examined, he counted not less than twenty-nine. 



302 



MOLLUSCA FROM THE CRAG. 



Marine Fauna of the entire deposit, or may we be permitted to select a part only for 
such examination, and if so, what part ? 

The Mollusca herein described bear so close a resemblance to animals now living in 
our own seas, as to give good reason to believe their geological relationship to be much 
nearer to the present Period than to the Eocene ; and if an amount of extinction of 
more than one half of its species be necessary to entitle a Deposit to be considered as 
belonging to what is called the Miocene or Middle Tertiary, our present identifications 
do not fulfil those required conditions, even for the lowest or oldest (by position) of the 
Crag Formations. 

Assuming that a different construction might be put upon a few of the specific 
determinations, in opposition to the conclusions I have arrived at, I much doubt 
whether the Coralline Crag could possibly be made to contain more than 50 per cent, 
of extinct species of Mollusca ; while the connection zoologically between this Deposit 
and those of the Eocene is so small as to have an identity of less than 1 per cent, that 
have transmitted their posterity unaltered from those Periods into the Crag; and 
although a considerable difference of conditions probably existed under which the 
Formations were deposited, Tropical forms are by no means wholly excluded from 
the Coralline Crag Sea, neither are sub- Arctic genera, such as Glycimeris, Astarte, and 
Cyprina, absent from the Older Tertiaries. 



When the present work was begun, I had purposed to call it simply e A Monograph 
of the Crag Mollusca ;' but this title had to be submitted to the Council of the 
Palseontographical Society for their approval, when the term " Crag " was thought by 
some of the members of that body to be of too local or technical a significance, and 
would not be fully understood by foreign geologists ; and the explanatory addition of 
' Descriptions of Shells from the Middle and Upper Tertiaries of England ' was then 
suggested, and acceded to by myself. 

A more complete examination of these Deposits, during the progress of the work, 
has induced me to believe the term " Middle" to have been incorrectly introduced, 
there being no remains of a Formation in Great Britain referable to that Period, more 
especially if we are to depend, for such determination, upon the amount of extinction 
by the per ccntage mode of valuation ; it is therefore requested to erase the words 
Middle and Miocene from the title-pages and other parts of the work formerly given, 
as 1 believe the Formations I have been here attempting to illustrate belong with more 
propriety to the Upper Tertiaries. 



APPENDIX. 



CEPHALOPODA. 

Since the publication of the first part of this work, the Red Crag "diggings" have turned up portions 
and segments of Nautilus and Ammonites, but these, like the Belemnites, are derivative fossils, and may be 
traced to antecedent Formations ; the Nautilus apparently to the London Clay, and the Ammonites to one 
of the middle Secondary Periods.* Tbe Cephalopods living in our own seas, and even in those of more 
southern latitudes, like the Mediterranean, in association with a Marine Fauna similar to that of the 
Coralline Crag, are of such a perishable nature, and possess so little of preservable material, that, except 
under very favorable protection, should we be likely to find any portion of their remains. What are called 
the Tetrabranchiata, with strong calcareous shells, such as those from the Middle Tertiaries of Bordeaux 
and Dax, do not appear to have extended their existence into the sea of the Coralline Crag, although the 
Pyrula and Pholadomya (tropical forms), when first obtained in the Deposit of that Period, gave a slight 
hope that the Nautilus might also there be met with.f 



* In my cabinet are casts also of several species of Univalves and Bivalves, which, so far as such 
fossils will permit of an identification, are of shells belonging to the Older Tertiaries ; and I will here men- 
tion that, although a few of the extraneous organic remains of the Red Crag may be traced to the Chalk 
and Older Secondaries, the great majority I believe to have been derived from the Eocene Deposits, and 
principally from the London Clay proper, along with the phosphatic nodules ; and I would assign to the 
same source (the Older Tertiaries) the marine Vertebrata, Carcharodon, Lamna, Myliobates, Pycnodus, 
P/tyllodus, Edaphodon Pristis, &c. &c, as well as the Cetacea, recently found in such abundance, and the 
Crustacea (Zanthopsis, &c), — the abrasion, by coast action, being, in my opinion, sufficient to produce all 
the effects now visible in the Red Crag, with the sea of that period opening to the northward. Christchurch 
Bay, between Handfast Point and the Needles, may perhaps furnish us with a parallel. 

f In the second part of the ' Eocene Mollusca,' by F. E. Edwards, Esq., is an address to the subscribers 
of the Palseontographical Society, respecting the Siphuncular Theory of the Cephalopoda. The author, 
when treating of the tube which perforates the chambers of the shells in that class of animals, attributed to 
myself the priority of pointing out a new explanation of the function of that organ, one which seems now 
to be generally admitted, and published in his own and better language the statement I had given him of 
my opinion, and the arguments used in support of it. This priority has, it seems, been laid claim to in 
the sentence quoted in that address. I have, until now, remained silent upon the subject, and would 
gladly have continued to do so, had not some of my friends expressed a desire that I should defend myself 
from what, to them, appears to be capable of being interpreted into an appropriation of the discovery of 
another as my own idea. The only defence that can now be offered is, that I was wholly unconscious of 
any other function than that of a hydrostatic balance having ever been attributed to this tube, and I con- 
fess to my having been unacquainted with the paragraph referred to. 

The necessity of maintaining an integrity of character, and the preservation or permanence of adhesion 
in the inorganic elements in these Cephalopods, occurred to me from the especial study of Bulimus decof- 



304 



APPENDIX. 



GASTEROPODA. 

The following laud and fresh-water shells are from the Formations belonging to the Uppermost or 
Newest Tertiaries of Great Britain. These shells are all, with the exception of four, undoubtedly identical 
with species still in existence in England, and it is thought an insertion of their names alone, with a 
reference to where they have been recently well figured and described, will be sufficient. The exceptions, 
though here extinct, are still existing in other parts of Europe ; and as they were formerly inhabitants of 
where their remains are now found, they claim a place in the Monograph of the Upper Tertiaries of the 
British Isles. 

I am indebted to Mr. John Brown, of Stanway, for the list of species from Copford and from Fisherton. 



latus and other decollated, or rather decapitated, shells, which appeared to have become so from the want 
of the necessary connection between the shell and the more vital parts. It is to Dr. Fleming, perhaps, 
that the real priority of the idea should be awarded. In his ' Philosophy of Zoology ' there is a very 
significant passage, where he speaks of the vitality of the shell when in intimate contact with the fluids of 
the animal, foreshadowing there the belief, now generally entertained, that the calcareous portions of the 
Mollusca are far from being inert matter, secreted merely as protective coverings to the softer parts (a 
considerable section being wholly destitute of such coverings), but that they are truly constituent and 
integral portions of the animals themselves, only with a larger amount of inorganic elements. 

It is well known that, in some of the extinct species of Cephalopods, the tube is protected throughout 
its entire length by a rigid, continuous, and inflexible covering, and one can scarcely refrain from an 
expression of astonishment that naturalists, who have purposely studied, and largely published their views 
upon the Nautilus and its congeners, should not have discerned the now presumed use of the siphuncle. 
If seen, it is perhaps still more extraordinary that this silver cord should have had with it so little 
explanation. 

My friend Mr. Edwards has (I think wisely) left the determination of the claim to priority to the 
judgment of the members ; but an ulterior question arises, which is, whether the paragraph quoted by 
Mr. Edwards in his address amounts to more than the suggestive passage by Dr. Fleming, similar in its 
purport, to which I have referred. 

The two passages are here subjoined : — 

"The shell cannot be considered as dead matter so long as it remains in connection with the living 
animal. In those animals in which the shell is external, there are muscles which connect the animal with 
its external surface, and the bond of union being a substance soluble in water, the muscles can be detached 
by maceration. The analogy between shell and bone is here obvious, although in the one case the con- 
nection between the muscle and the bone is permanent, in the other between the muscle and the shell 
temporary, or frequently changed during the life of the animal. But the vitality of the shell, if I may use 
the expression, is demonstrated from the changes which it undergoes when detached from the animal. The 
plates of animal matter harden, the epidermis dries, cracks, and falls off, and in many cases the colours 
fade or disappear. We confess ourselves unable to point out the means employed by the animal to prevent 
these changes from taking place by any process similar to circulation." — Phil. o/Zool., by Dr. Fleming, 
vol. ii, p. 405, 1822. 

" Whatever additional advantage the existing Nautilus might derive by the continuation of a vascular, 
organized membranous siphon through the air-chambers, in relation to the maintenance of vital harmony 
between the soft and testaceous parts, such likewise must have been enjoyed by the numerous extinct 
species of the Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods, which, like the Nautilus, were lodged in chambered and 
siphouiferous shells."— Lectures upon the Invertebrate/, by Professor Owen, p. 331, 1843. 



APPENDIX. 



305 



Mr. Pickering has furnished me with those from Grays and the Kennet Valley ; Mr. Woodward has 
supplied the Maidstone one ; and the Cropthorn list was published by the late Mr. Strickland. The 
species from Clacton and Stutton were obtained by myself, and for which I am responsible. 

Land or fresh-water shells have also been found at Bacton (a), Brentford, Cambridge (6), Casewick, 
Charing (5), Chislet, Clapton, Cuxton (£), near Stroud, Erith, Faversham, Folkestone, West Hackney, 
Harwich, Hemingford Abbots, Heme Bay, Ilford, Isle of Wight, Littleport (6), (Isle of Ely), Market 
Weighton, Mundesley, Peterborough, Rain near Braintree, Runton, Stamford, Valley of the Nar {b), 
Witham, and Yeovil ; perhaps elsewhere, but the localities are too numerous to have here a separate and 
distinctive catalogue. (c) These Lacustrine or Fluviatile Beds appear to be principally'confined to the middle 
and southern portions of England ; and although they may, perhaps, exist in Scotland or in Ireland, I 
have been unable to procure, for insertion here, the name of any locality that might be considered as 
analogous or synchronous with the older of these deposits. The fresh-water fossils that have come under 
my observation from either of those kingdoms, or from the Isle of Man, were found in peat bogs. 

By the following table it will be seen that the species of fresh-water shells fall short of those which 
live exclusively on land, although the individuals of the former generally outnumber those of the latter, 
as we see amongst the same group of Mollusca of the present day. In the Uppermost Tertiaries we have 
about fifty-five species of land shells, with about forty-four fresh-water ones. In the latter are included eleven 
species of Bivalves, and the amphibious Succinea. Our catalogues of the land and fresh-water Mollusca 
existing in England enumerate about seventy-two of the former, with fifty-one of the latter, giving a slight 
difference in the proportions between the recent and fossil species ; but the excess in number at the present 
day is greater than can be made up by the extinct species of these deposits, showing that, if we really have 
obtained all the species belonging to those past periods, the incomers exceed those which have here gone 
out of existence, giving a considerable increase to the existing Fauna, making the insular condition of 
England better tenanted than when it is supposed to have formed a part of the Continent. 



(a) Bacton is considered by Mr. Prestwich (from position) to be the oldest of all these fresh-water 
deposits ; it is most probably synchronous with the Marine and Estuary Beds of Chillesford and Bramerton. 
I much regret my list of Mollusca from this locality is so insignificant as to be unworthy of a separate 
insertion. Chislet, Ilford, and Mundesley contain one or more of the extinct species, and these may be 
assigned to the age of Stutton, Grays, &c. 

(6) These are probably the most modern. 

(c) The uppermost Tertiaries, or those above the Crag in these islands, have, with every degree of 
probability, been separated into four distinct Geological Periods, and our able coadjutor, Mr. Prestwich, 
has, I believe, come to the conclusion that an addition must even be made to this number. Their separa- 
tion has, however, been founded exclusively upon geological evidence ; and it is with the hope that palseon- 
tological aid may afford some slight assistance to their correct determination that I have made a separate 
enumeration of the contents of several of our most important fresh-water localities. Existing species cer- 
tainly extend through all, but they are not equally disseminated. 

The want of permanence presented by the more recent Formations in the duration of the specific 
existence of their Fauna, compared with those of more ancient Deposits, is probably owing to the greater 
variety and more rapid alterations of the conditions under which the organisms have their existence in recent 
epochs than in those more remote. 



40 



306 



APPENDIX. 



PULMONATA. 



10 



15 



:;o 



Arion ater, Mutter, vide F. & H. Hist. Brit. MoU.,t 
Umax agrestis, Id. „ 
— Sowerbyi, Ferrussac ,, 
Helix aspersa, Midler 

nemoralis, Linnceus „ 

— var. liortensis, Mil. ,, 
arbustorum(a), Linnceus „ 
fruticum, Miller, vide p. 308 
Cantiana {b), Montague, v. Ht. Brit. Moll., 
ericetorum (c), Muller ,, 
rufescens, Pennant ,, 
sericea, Draparnaud „ 
hispida (d), Linnceus „ 

— var. plebeia, Jeffreys „ 

— var. conchma, Id. ,, 

— var. depilata, Alder „ 
incarnate? Muller, vide p. 309 
virgata, Da Costa, v. Hist. Brit. Moll., 
lapicida, Linnceus ,. 
lamellate, Jeffreys 
pulcliella, Muller „ 

— var. costata, Id. ,, 
aculeata, Id. » 
fulva, Id. » 
ruderata, Studer, vide p. 309 
rotundata, Midler, v. Hist. Brit. Moll., 
fusca, Montague >> 
cellaria, Muller 

alliaria, Id. » 
nitidula, Draparnaud „ 
radiatula, Alder », 
nitida, Muller » 
pura, Alder » 
pygrasea, Draparnaud ,, 
crystallina, Mailer 
excavata, Bean >> 
Succinea putris, Linnceus „ 

— var. Pfiefferi, Bossm. „ 

oblonga, Draparnaud ,, 



vol. iv, p. 7, pi. d d d, fig. 4 
vol. iv, p. 13, pi. ddd, fig. 2 
vol. iv, p. 22, pi. e E E, fig. 3 
vol. iv, p. 44, pi. 116, fig. 1 
vol. iv, p. 53, pi. 115, figs. 1-4 

vol. iv, p. 48, pi. 115, figs. 5, 6 

vol.'iv, p. 50, pi. 116, figs. 8, 9 
vol. iv, p. 61, pi. 117, fig. 4 . 
vol. iv,p. 66, pi. 118,figs.4,7,10 
vol. iv, p. 71, pi- H8, figs. 5, 6 
vol. iv, p. 68, pi. 118, figs. 1-3 



vol. iv, p. 57, pi. 117, fig. 10 
vol. iv, p. 65, pi. 116, figs. 3, 4 
vol. iv, p. 73, pi. 117, figs. 8, 9 
vol. iv, p. 78, pi. 119, figs. 8-10 



20 — 



33 



vol. iv, p. 74, pi. 117, figs. 5, 6 
vol. iv, p. 75, pi. 118, figs. 8, 9 

vol! iv, p. 80, pi. 119, figs. 6, 7 
vol. iv, p. 77, pi. 119, figs. 4, 5 
vol. iv, p. 33, pi. 120, figs. 1-3 
vol. iv, p. 34, pi. 120, figs. 5, 6 
vol. iv, p. 36, pi. 120, figs. 8-10 
vol. iv, p. 38, pi. 121, fig. 1 
vol. iv, p. 39, pi. 120, figs. 4, 7 
vol. iv, p. 37, pi. 121, figs. 5, 6 
vol. iv, p. 83, pi. 121, figs. 9, 10 
vol. iv, p. 41, pi. 122, figs. 1, 2 
vol. iv, p. 40, pi. 121, figs. 2-4 
vol. iv, p. 132, pi. 131, figs. 1-5 



vol. iv, p. 137, pi. 131, figs. 6, 7|. .| * 



t The references in this list are made to the ' History of British Mollusca,' by Messrs. Forbes and Hanley, except where 
otherwise particularly «Pg"J- S entation of a monstrous form of this species. A small fracture, in infancy has caused 

.i ( i„ nf vnlutior, to be slitr.ht.lv altered, by which the shell became elongated. At the upper corner of the aperture on the 
S^ M li.^S^?orSJS^ deposit, forming a sort of excurrent canal, an accidental character produced probably 
body whorl .n a small too or ca a imen . This was found at Cherry Hinton .by the Rev. 

by its abnormal form, as 1 ^ e nev ^ * he site of £, ola m b oor P or f en . With it were several other shells, H. ericetorum 
Osmond F, he , . wWjej ^ J , ^ forced ^ ^ the abov6i th f ent 

Limnea, ^ ri %^^^' this to have been brought by a sea-gull, or to have accidentally been dropped on the spo 
(archum edale He sa S, ^1 su pose t 9 J £ ^ & dm en, and 1 am inclined to believe it 

7°™ ne fossiT of the locality Estuary or tidal conditions might have prevailed over the Bedford Level as high as 
^*t^^.^^^^S^M«^* few fiet, such as we may fairly assume to have been the case when 
Cam bridge, by the sinkuig of the ^ern Coa„ / / . ^ ^ j ^ um t and cherry Hinton 

al^Sably^ of thes/ shells as' fossils is uf,on the assumption that they belong to an ante- 

human period. ^ _ b a of pleistocene shclls in ray possessi on as from Favcrsbam, but upon whose authority I do not now know. 

ft hZ2E Sowerbyt'VuS in the - Mag. Nat. Hist./ vol. vii, p. 429. pi. 2, figs. 4, 5, to accompany Mr. Brown's 
Paoer 1 the cTacton Ss. I have not been able to see this specimen ; but, judging from the figure, it does not appear to be 
aSing more than a variety of //. hispida. This species, when frequenting marshy places, does assume an elevated form. 
3 The asterisks denote the presence of the species. 



APPENDIX. 



307 



PULMONATA. 



Buliinus Lockhamensis(«), Mont., v. Ht. Bt. Moll., vol 

— acutus(6), Miiller ,, vol 

— obscurus(c), Id. „ vol 

— lubricus, Id. ,, vol 

— tridens, Pulteney ,, vol 
Acbatina acicula(</), Miiller ,, vol 

40 Pupa umbilicata, Draparnaud ,, vol 

— anglica Ferussac ,, vol 

— muscorum, Linnceus ,, vol, 

— edentula, Draparnaud ,, vol 

— minutissima, tlartmann ,, ' vol 
45 — pygmsea, Draparnaud ,, vol 

— — Id. var. alpestris ,, 

— sexdentatus, Montague ,, vol 

— pusilla, Midler „ vol 

— antivertigo, Draparnaud ,, vol 

— angustior, Jeffreys ,, vol 
50 Balea fragilis(e), Linnceus vol 

Clausilia biplicata, Montague „ vol 

— bidens, Miiller vol 

— nigricans, Mat. and Rack. ,, vol 

— plicatula, Draparnaud ,, vol 
55 Carychium minimum, Miiller ,, vol 

Conovulus denticulatus(y), Montague ,, vol 

Limnaea stagnalis(</), Linnceus ,, vol, 

— auricularia, Id. „ vol. 

— peregra, Miiller ,, vol. 
GO — palustris, Linnceus ,, vol 

— truncatulus, Miiller „ vol, 

— glaber(/i), Id. ,, vol. 

— glutinosa(2), Id. ,, vol 
Ancylus fluviatilis, Id. ,, vol, 

65 — lacustris, Id. ,, vol, 

Pliysa fontinalis(&), Linnceus „ vol, 

- — bypnorum, Id. ,, vol. 

Planorbis corneus, Id. „ vol 

— spirorbis, Id. ,, vol. 
70 — vortex, Id. ,, vol. 

— contortus, Id. ,, vol. 

— albus, Miiller „ vol. 
73 — glaber(7), Jeffreys ,, vol, 



v > P 
v, p, 
v, p 
v. p 
v, p 
v, p, 
v, p. 
v, p. 
v, p. 
v,p. 
v, p, 
v, p. 



p- 
p- 
p- 
p- 
p- 
P' 
p- 
p- 
p- 
p- 
p- 
p- 

v, p. 
v, p. 
v, p. 
v, p. 
v, p. 
v, p. 
v, p. 

p- 
p- 

r, p. 
P< 
P- 
v, p. 
v, p. 
v, p. 
v, p. 



89, pi. 
86, pi. 
!)0, pi. 
125, pi 
128, pi 
130, pi 
95, pi. 
99, pi. 
97, pi. 

103, pi, 

104, pi 
106, pi 

108, pi. 

111, pi 

109, pi 

112, pi 
114, pi. 
118, pi, 
116, pi 
121, pi. 
120, pi. 
198, pi. 
194, pi. 
174, pi. 
169, pi. 
165, pi. 
180, pi. 

177, pi 

178, pi 
1S2, pi 
186, pi. 
188, pi 
140, pi 
143, pi. 
147, pi. 

159, pi. 
157, pi. 

160, pi. 

149, pi. 

150, pi. 



127, fig. 6 

128, fig. 5 

128, fig. 7 
. 125, fig. 8 

125, fig. 9 
. 128, fig. 4 

129, fig. 7 
129, fig. 6 
129, figs. 8, 9 

130, fig. 1 
. 130, fig. 2 
, 130, figs. 4-6 



130, fig. 3 
130, fig. 8 
130, fig. 7 
. 130, fig. 9 

128, figs. 8, 9 

129, fig. 4 

128, fig. 10 

129, figs. 1,2 
129, fig. 3 . 
125, fig. 6 . 
125, fig. 3 . 
124, figs. 4,5 
123, figs. 1, 2 

123, figs. 3-7 

124, fig. 2 . 
. 124, fig. 3 . 

124, fig. 1 . 
124, figs. 6, 7 
122, fig. 4 . 
122, fig. 5 . 



, 122, fig. 9 . 
122, figs. 6, 7 

126, figs. 4, 5 
127, figs. 9, 10 

127, figs. 6-8 
126, fig. 3 . 
126, figs. 1, 2 
126, figs. 8, 9 



* * 



(a) A fragment of what appears to be this species is in my cabinet, and the name is also in Mr. Trimmer's Paper on the 
Orton Gravel. — Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. x, p. 346. 
(i) A fragment, on the authority of Mr. Pickering, 
(e) In Mr. Brown's List. 

(rf) Professor Morris, in his ' Catalogue,' gives this from Clacton. May not the burrowing habits of the living animal have 
introduced it amongst the fossils ? I have frequently found dead specimens when examining the Cor. Crag sand. 

(<?) I have been unable to obtain any satisfactory evidence of the fossil state of this species. An imperfect Clausilia much 
resembles it, and mav possibly have been mistaken as such. 

(/) From the Valley of the Nar. (C. D. Rose.) 

(g) My cabinet contains only a fragment, from Clacton, of what may he this species. 

(A) This is given with a ?, in Mr. Prestwich's Paper, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xi, p. 110, loe. Shacklewell Lane. It is 
mentioned also in Mr. Trimmer's Paper on the Orton Gravel, loc. cit. ante. 

(i) From Sir Charles Lyell's Paper on the Mundesley Fresh-water Beds. — Phil. May., vol. xvi, p. 3G5. 

(/c) The fragment of a Physa, from Clacton, is in ray cabinet, but not perfect enough to determine the species. 

(I) PI. lavis is mentioned in Sir Charles Lyell's Paper from Mundesley. I presume it is this species. 



308 



APPENDIX. 



PULMONATA. 



80 



Planorbis nautileus, Linnceus, v. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iv, p. 152, pi. 126, figs. 6, 7 



85 



nitidtis, Miiller 

— marginatum, Draparnaud 

— carinatus, Miiller 

— lacustris, Lightfoot 
Cyclostoma elegans(a), Miiller 
Acicula lineata, Draparnaud 

— — Id. var. perversa 



vol.iv, p. 161, pi. 127, figs. 11, 12 
vol. iv, p. 155, pi. 127, figs. 1-3 
vol. iv, p. 152, pi. 127, figs. 4, 5 
vol. iv, p. 162, pi. 128, figs. 1-3 
vol. iv, p. 201, pi. 122, fig. 3 . 
vol. iv, p. 204, pi. 125, fig. 7 . 



PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 



Neritina fluviatilis, Linnceus, v. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p 

vol. iii, p 



Pahulina vivipara(i), Id, 

— marginata, Michaud, vide p. 320 
Bithinia tentaculata, Linnceus, v. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p 

— ventricosa, Gray ,, vol. iii, p 
Rissoa Thermalis? Linnceus, vide]). 319 . 
Valvata piscinalis, Miiller, v. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p 

— — Id. var. antiqua, Morris ,, . . 

— cristata, Miiller „ vol. iii, p. 21, pi. 71, figs. 11-13 



3, pi. 71, figs. 1, 2 . 
11, pi. 71, figs. 14, 15 



14, pi. 71, figs. 5, 6 . 
16, pi. 71, figs. 7,8 . 



19, pi. 71, figs. 9, 10 



(a) Specimens of this species, with //. ericetorum and other land shells, are found at Bostol, near Woolwich, in a deposit of 
several feet in thickness (8 — 10), probably a talus from the chalk. A similar bed, containing numerous species of land shells, is 
mentioned as resting upon the Greensand at Gore Cliff. {Boiverlank, ' Proc. Geol, Soc.', vol. ii, p. 449.) I have met with this 
species (C. elegans) in like situations over the Crag, though I have never seen it iu a living state in the eastern part of Suffolk. 
Mr. Woodward gives it from the Caves of Torquay. 

(b) This is given in Sir Charles Lyell's Paper on the Mundesley and Runton Beds, loc. cit. ante. 



Helix fruticum, Miiller. Tab. XXXI, fig. 19, a, b. 

Helix fruticum. Mull. Verm. Terr, et Fluv. Hist., p. 71, No. 267, 1773. 

— Sehroter. Erdconcb., p. 178, t. 2, fig. 19, Nos. 55—59, 1771. 

— — Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. ix, p. 150, t. 133, fig. 1203, 1786. 

— — Drap. Hist. Nat. des Moll. Ter. de la France, p. 83, No. 10, pi. 5, 

figs. 16, 17, 1805. 

— — Brard. Hist, des Moll., p. 58, No. 14, pi. 2, fig. 13, 1815. 

— — Pf ef- Deutsch Land und Sussw. Moll., p. 23, No. 3, pi. 2, figs. 3—5, 

1821. 

— — R'Ossmasl. Icon, der Lund, und Sussw. Moll., p. 61, pi. 1, fig. 8. 

— cinerea. Poiret. Prodr., p. 73, No. 8. Fide Deshayes. 

— terrestris? Gmel. ex Drap. 

Spec. Char. "Testa orbiculato-convexa, umbilicatd, tenui, pellucidd, obsolete-striatd, albidd ; spird 
subprominuld, labro margine reflexo." 

Shell roundedly convex, urabilicate, thin, pellucid, obsoletely striated, white ; spire slightly prominent ; 
outer lip reflexed. 

Diameter, f inch. 

Locality. Fossil, Stutton. 

Recent, Denmark, France dans la Bresse (Depart, de l'Aisne), Saleve near Geneva (Jeffreys). 



APPENDIX. 



309 



One specimen only of this species, obtained by myself, is all that I have seen. It appears to be full 
grown, though its sharp and reflexed outer lip is destroyed, but in all its otber characters it perfectly 
resembles the recent shell. 

Helix incarnata? Miiller. Tab. XXXI, fig. 17, a, b. 

Helix incarnata. Mull. Loc. cit., p. 62, No. 259, 1773. 

— — Drap. Loc. cit., p. 100, No. 29, pi. 6, fig. 30, 1805. 

— — Pfieffer. Deutsch Landund Sussw. Moll., p. 33, pi. 2, fig. 15, 1821. 

— — Rossm. Loc. cit., p. 35, t. 26, fig. 361. 

— — Desh. Exped. de Moree, p. 160, No. 231. 

— — Brown. Geol. Journ., vol. viii, p. 190, fig. 4, a — c, 1852. 

Spec. Char. "Testd subglolosd, depressiusculd, perforata, pellucidd, corned; spird prominuld ; labro 
margine rvfescente, subreflexo." 

" Shell subglobosa, slightly depressed, perforated (umbilicated), pellucid, and corneous ; spire slightly 
prominent ; margin of lip reflexed and reddish." 

Diameter, i inch. 

Locality. Fossil, Copford. Recent, France, and Belmont near Lausanne. 

Two or three specimens only of what most probably belonged to this species are all that I have seen. 
They were obtained at Copford by Mr. John Brown, who has obligingly permitted me to have them 
described ; they are unfortunately not in a very good state of preservation. The best specimen appears to 
correspond with the recent shell ; but not being full grown, it has only five volutions instead of six, and is 
evidently an immature individual, consequently wants the reflexed lip, the character of maturity. It differs 
from rufescens, which is more depressed ; and from hispida in having a smaller umbilicus ; and our fossil is 
more globose than either. The identification is not, however, perfectly satisfactory, and it would be desirable 
to see a few more and better specimens. 



Helix ruderata, Studer. Tab. XXXI, fig. 15, a, b. 

Helix ruderata. Stud. Systemat. Verz. der Schweiz. Conch, s. 86, 1820. 

— — Hartman. Erd. et Sussw. Moll., No. 57, t. 11, fig. 11, 1821. 

_ _ Pfieff. Deutsch Land und Sussw. Moll., p. 31, t. 4, fig. 26, 1824 ? 

— — Rossm. Icon. Land and Sussw. Moll., p. 13, t. 32, fig. 455. 

— — Brown. Geol. Journ., vol. viii, p. 190, fig. 4, d, e, 1852. 

— rotundata, var. (3. Nils. Hist. Moll. Suec. Terr, et Fluv., s. 31, 1822. 

Spec. Char. "Testd perspective-mnbilicatd, depressd, lutescente-cornea, conco/or, subtilissime costulato- 
striatd, spird convexd, anfractibus 4 — 5 subteretibus ; aperturd ovali ; peristomate recto, shnplici, acuto." 
— Rossmasler. 

" Shell perspectively umbilicated, depressed, of a clouded or dirty-horn colour, very finely striated by 
elevated lines of growth ; spire convex, volutions 4 — 5, tapering ; aperture ovate ; peristome plain, simple, 
sharp." 

Diameter, 5 inch. 

Locality. Fossil, Clacton, Grays, Copford. 

Recent, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Styria, Switzerland, and Cincinnati, U. S. 



310 



APPENDIX. 



This is not very rare at Clacton ; at Copford, Mr. Brown tells me, it is so. It closely resembles H. 
rotundata in its large umbilicus and elevated ridges, but is justly separated from that species by well-marked 
characters, having large volutions, which are fewer in number, and the aperture is consequently more open. 
H. striatella, Anthony, 'Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist.,' vol. hi, p. 278, pi. 3, fig. 2, an existing species in the United 
States, is now admitted to be the same as the above ; and H. perspectiva is, perhaps, only a variety. A 
species, with a geographical range extending from Russia and Switzerland to Massachusets and Ohio, 
might be expected to possess considerable variation.* In my List of Land and Fresh-water Shells from the 
Older Tertiaries, at Hordwell, published in the 'Lond. Geol. Journ.,' vol. i, p. 118, I had considered a species 
found there to have prolonged its existence unchanged to the present time, and that the one above referred 
to (striatella) was its specific descendant. Mr. F. Edwards, in his ' Monograph of the Eocene Moll. 
Pulmonata,' p. 66, gives his opinion adverse to that decision ; and I am now inclined to think he is correct. 
H. labyrinthica was given in my list as one of the species existing at the present time, while two others 
were also inserted there, but with a doubt. I was at one time impressed with the idea that an air-breathing 
mollusc, being less exposed to a variation of conditions, was enabled to preserve a specific existence longer 
than its marine brethren ; and I fear it gave a slight bias to my determinations. Mr. Edwards has bestowed 
upon the labyrinthica a very critical and a very able examination, and has pointed out some differences 
between the Hordwell fossil and the existing American shell ; but they were not, he considered, sufficient to 
invalidate their identity, more especially as the living shell is itself subject to considerable variation ; 
assuming, also, that if we possessed a large series of fossil specimens, these differences would probably 
disappear : is it really certain that the possession of a larger series must necessarily bring the recent and 
fossil nearer together? This species of mollusc appears to stand almost, if not entirely, by itself, as dating 
its existence from the Older Tertiaries ; and, as we are obliged to depend exclusively upon the restricted 
characters of the shell alone, we are compelled to admit its identity, from the impossibility of pointing out a 
dissimilarity such as is generally considered sufficient for specific separation. Might it not be possible 
that the combined characters of the entire animal, could they be possessed, would exhibit a difference so as 
to prevent its coming within the definition of a species in the present acceptation of that term? If this 
Hordwell fossil be really still an existing shell, it militates somewhat against the hypothesis that a species 
with a very prolonged existence in regard to time, would, if still in being, have a more extended geo- 
graphical range, and vice versa ; it does not appear so in regard to Helix, when labyrinthica is compared 
with ruderata. 



SIPHONOSTOMATA. 

Mitka ebenus, Lamarck. Tab. XXXI, fig. 7. 

Mitra ebenus. Lam. Ann. du Mus., vol. xvii, p. 216, No. 58, 1822. 
_ _ Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 229, t. 12, figs. 8—10. 

— — Bellardi. Monog. delle Mitre Foss. del Piedmonti, p. 23, t. 11, figs. 

20—23, 1850. 

— pyramidella. Bronn. var. /3. Ind. Palaeonth., p. 733, 1848. 

— plumbea. Lamk. Hist, des An. s. Vert., torn, vii, No. 73, 1822. 



* This is the only one of the six extinct species belonging to these Fluviatile deposits that has its range 
to the westward ; the others belong to the European Continent, with the exception of Cyrena consobrina, now 
an inhabitant of the Nile. The Mollusca of these beds do not appear to have any connection with the 
peculiar, and probably more recent, Faunas of the Canaries, Madeiras, or the Azores. 



APPENDIX. 



311 



Mitra l^vis ? Dubois. Wolhyn. Pod., t. 1, figs. 2, 3. Fide Phil. 

— Deprancii. Payr. Cat. Moll. Cors., p. 1GG, t. 8, fig. 22. 

— cornicula. Sismond. Syn. Meth. an. Invert. Ped. Foss., p. 41. 
Voluta plicatula. Brocchi. pp. 318 and 646, t. 4, fig. 7. 

— cornicula. Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 11, p. 1191. 

Spec. Char. Testd turritd, sublcevigatd, aut obsolete costatd ; anfractibus convexiusculis ; aperturd 
spiram cequante ; columella triplicatd sive quadruplicatd. 

Shell turreted, nearly smooth, with obsolete ribs ; whorls slightly convex ; aperture the length of 
the spire; columella with three or perhaps four folds. 

Length. £ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Gcdgrave. Recent, Mediterranean. Fossil, Apulia and Piedmont. 

A single specimen of this genus has been obligingly presented to me by Mr. Charlesworth, and this 
is the only one I have seen. It is not quite perfect, the outer lip being slightly broken, but it is otherwise 
in good condition ; and there is every reasonable probability of its belonging to one of the variable forms of 
ebenus. It most resembles the variety with the upper volutions somewhat obscurely costated, having the 
body one smooth. My specimen has seven volutions, and three distinct folds upon the columella ; the 
upper two folds large and distant, the third smaller and closer, with a very minute one lower down, perhaps 
invisible if the lip were perfect. There is a slightly depressed mark around the upper part of the volution, 
and, in the living state, probably corresponded with Philippi's description, "infra suturas linea albida 
obscure cinctis." 

A specimen of Mitra is mentioned, in the 'Mem. of the Geol. Survey,' vol. i, p. 429, as having been 
found in the Glacial Beds of Wexford, and referred to M. cornea, Lamk., with doubt. 

Mitra plicifera. S. Wood. Crag Moll., vol. i, p. 21, t. XXXI, fig. 8. 

Not having been able to obtain anything more perfect than what have been so long in my cabinet, I 
have had my best specimen figured, in order to call attention to its existence in the Coralline Crag. It 
appears too strongly costated to be a variety of ebenus, and the apex is more obtuse than in that species. It 
must, therefore, remain for the present with its provisional name. 

Pyrula acclinis, S. Wood. Tab. XXXI, fig. 6, a, b. 

Pyrula reticulata, Lam., vide. Crag Moll., vol. i, p. 42, t. 2, fig. 12. 

A better knowledge of the various recent shells of this genus give reason to believe the differences 
previously pointed out between the fossil and the recent species, to which it was assigned, are sufficient to 
entitle it to specific distinction ; I therefore propose for the Crag shell the above name. 

Edward Acton, Esq., of Grundisburgh, has, out of his rich collection, presented me with a cast in sand- 
stone of what most probably was this species, obtained from the Red ^Crag of Sutton, which appears to 
present a still greater difference from the recent reticulata than do either of my own specimens, from which 
the assignment had previously been made. This cast (fig. 6, a) shows a greater elevation of spire than 
either the recent shell or my own fossils, which might perhaps be expected ; but the excess in height is 
more than would arise simply from its being a cast, and it shows also more particularly that the shell from 
which it was taken had a shorter canal than the true reticulata : the latter character is, I think, 
sufficient to separate our fossil from the existing species, and I am the more readily induced on that account 
to change the name previously given. 

This is in a sandstone nodule, similar to what has been spoken of at p. 69, and the cavity left by 
the withdrawal of the shell is imperfectly filled by carbonate of lime in a crystallized state, the crystals 



312 



APPENDIX. 



being deposited upon the internal cast ; while upon the matrix is exhibited the sculpture of the exterior 
on which also are deposited similar crystals. Besides the present species, Mr. Acton has kindly given 
me a specimen of Nassa conglobata in the same state ; and although the last has not yet been found 
in the Coralline Crag, I think there is every reason to believe the cast of this species, as well as the other 
sandstone nodules previously noticed, are the littoral remains of a destroyed portion of what might have 
been a purely sandy deposit of the age of the Older Crag. 

Trophon Norvegicum, Chemnitz. Tab. XXXI, fig. 1, a, b. 

Strombus Norvegicus. Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. x, p. 218, 1. 157, figs. 1497, 1498, 1788. 
Fusus Norwegicus. Turt. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. vii, p. 351, 1834. 

— Norvegicus. Howse. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xix, p. 162, pi. 10, figs. 1 — 4, 

1847. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p. 428, pi. 107 and 108, 

%• 7. 

Tritonium Norvegicum. Midd. Malaco. Rossica., part 2, p. 147. 
— — Lovcn. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 11, 1846. 

Spec. Char. " T. oblongd, subulatd, alba, anfractibus sex teretibus ; aperturd patuld ovatd, caudd 
subadscendente, fauce eburned." — Chemnitz. 

" Shell smooth, volutions six, rather flat, the lower one ventricose ; aperture twice the length of the 
rest of the shell, and pure white ; outer lip much dilated, and smooth on the inner margin ; the edge sharp 
and slightly reflected ; pillar smooth." 

Length of recent shell, 4^ inches. 

Locality. Red Crag, Sutton and Felixstow. Recent, British and Arctic Seas. 

A few fragments, or the young state of this species, have been for some time in my cabinet, but their 
very imperfect condition rendered an assignment doubtful ; and until the discovery of the larger specimen, 
which was obtained at Felixstow by Mrs. Henry Bartlet, of Ipswich, who has obligingly entrusted it to my care 
for examination and representation, I was fearful to introduce the name into the List of British Fossils ; but 
there is now very good reason to believe the above-named species was an inhabitant of our seas during the 
period the Red Crag was deposited. Mrs. Bartlet' s specimen (fig. 1, a) consists of a considerable portion of 
the shell, with the outer lip and anterior canal destroyed : what remains corresponds so closely with the 
existing species, that there is every probability of its identity. Our shell is thin, has lost its outer coating, 
and the suture in consequence is deepened ; upon the shell are still visible numerous, but somewhat obsolete 
striae. The fracture of the specimen appears to have been produced or accelerated by the inroads of a Cliona 
— a means of destruction not uncommon with the shells of the Crag. Being unable to give a detailed 
description, I have taken the diagnosis from Chemnitz; he refers to ' Seba Thesaur,' vol. iii, t. 52, fig. 9? 
1758, who was probably the first to notice the species. It is said to have been found in the Newer Tertiaries 
of Sweden. 

Mr. Howse states having dredged the living shell, in sixty fathoms water, off the Durham coast. 

Trophon Turtoni, Bean. Tab. XXXI, fig. 2. 

Fusus Turtoni. Bean. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. vii, p. 493, fig. 61. 

— — Howse. Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. xix, p. 163, pi. 10, figs. 6 — 10. 

— — Reeve. Conch. Icon. Fusus, vol. iv, pi. 20, fig. 83. 

— — Forbes and Ranley. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. ii, p. 431, pi. 105, figs. 3, 4, and 

pi. 106, figs. 2—4. 



APPENDIX. 



3 1 3 



Spec. Char. " Testa ovato-turritd, crassiusculd ; spird enormiter acnminato-productd, apice papillari ; 
anfractibus spiraliter striatis, superne concavis, vix angidatis ; aperturd ampld, lubro incrassato subrefiexo ; 
albida." — Reeves. 

"Shell ovately turreted, somewhat thick; spire enormously produced, with a mammillated apex; 
whorls spirally striated, concave on the upper part, scarcely angulated ; aperture large, with a thickened, 
slightly reflexed outer lip." 

Length (of the recent shell), 5 inches. 

Locality. Red Crag, Ramsholt. Recent, British Seas. 

The fragment of a shell in my cabinet corresponds with the young or spiral portion of the above- 
named recent species, and this is all that I have seen ; it is thin and fragile, having lost its outer coating, 
and is quite smooth, and it is placed provisionally in this position. 

Trophon propinquum? Alder. Tab. XXXI, fig. 3, a, b. 

Fusus propinqutjs. Alder. Catal. Moll. Northum. and Durh., p. 63. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p. 419, pi. 103, fig. 2. 

— Sabini. Forbes. Mem. Geol. Surv. Grt. Brit., vol. i, p. 42fi. 

The British conchologists appear to consider they have well-defined characters for the separation of 
T. Islandicum and T. propinquum, the former having a mammillated apex, while in the latter the volution is 
commenced from a much smaller point ; the pullus of each being sufficient to determine the species. In 
addition to which the propinquum is said to be comparatively much shorter and more tumid, or less 
elongated than the other. My Coralline Crag specimens appear to preserve a sort of intermediate character, 
and I have thought it necessary to give an enlarged representation of the spire of our shell, which is 
certainly not mammillated, and corresponds in its elongated and elegant form with T. Islandicum, having 
eight volutions, with a length of one inch and a quarter, and its greatest diameter T 7 5 ths of an inch : thus 
appearing to unite the distinguishing characters of the two recent species. The specimens from the Red 
Crag are tolerably abundant, but the apex — the character by which it is s.iid to be distinguished — is generally 
more or less injured. It has been found at Bridlington, and in the Drift in Ireland. 

Trophon Fabricii, Beck. Tab. XXXI, fig. 4. 

Trophon Fabricii. {Beck) ex Moller. Ind. Moll. Groenl., p. 14, 1842. 
Tritonium craticulum. Fabricius. Faun. Groenl. Fide Moller. 
Fusus Fabricii. Forbes. Mem. Geol. Surv., vol. i, p. 425. 

Spec. Char. Testa oiato-turritd, vel ventricoso fusiformi ; costatd, costis aevtis, angulatis; transversim 
striata, striis prominulis remotis ; aperturd ovatd ; labro incrassato, intus Icevi ; caudd brevi ; columella 
plana. 

Shell ovately turreted, or ventricosely fusiform ; costated, ribs sharp and angulated ; transversely 
striated, striae slightly prominent and remote ; aperture ovate ; outer lip thickened, smooth within ; canal 
short ; columella plain. 

Length, \ inch. 

Locality. Drift Beds, Wexford (Forbes). Recent, Greenland. 

" This beautiful species, which was not observed in the Drift Beds until found in Ireland by Captain 
(Major) James, is intermediate in its character between Fusus scalariformis and Fusus Barvicensis. It has 
the general form and ventricose whorls of the former, with the fimbriated ribs of the latter." — Forbes. 

The figure is from the only specimen that I have seen. It is in the Museum in Jermyn Street. 

41 



314 



APPENDIX. 



Fusus Forbesi. Strickland. 

"According to Mr. G. B. Sowerby, identical with Fusus cinereus, Say, an American species, synonymous 
with Buccinum plicosuni of Menke." — Forbes, 'Mem. Geol. Surv.,' vol. i, p. 426. 
Locality. Isle of Man. 

" Fusus Barvicen sis. Johnston. 

"Locality. Fossil, Irish Drift. 

Living, Northern Coasts of Britain." 

"Fusus Bamffius. Donovan. 

"Locality. Fossil, one of the most generally diffused and abundant species in the British and Irish 
Glacial Beds. 

Living, Northern and Arctic Regions of the European Seas, common on the Scottish 
Coasts, Greenland, Seas of Boreal America." — Forbes, 'Mem. Geol. Surv.,' vol. i, p. 425. 

"Fusus curtus. Smith. MS. Tert. Dep. of the Basin of the Clyde, Trans. Geol. Soc, 2d ser., vol. vi, 

p. 156, No. 26. 

" F. Testd oblong d, crassiusculd, Icevigatd, spiraliter striatd ; anfractibus subrolundatis quinque, ultimo 
majori ; aperturd oblongd, magnd ; canali brevissimo obtuso. Long. 0"3, lat. 0*12, poll." 

"This species has the form of many Pleurotomata, particularly of PI. filosa, but it bas not the notch 
near the posterior part of the outer lip which characterises that genus. I have, therefore, found it necessary 
to place it with the Fusi ; the very short, scarcely evident canal, however, tends to separate it from the more 
typical species of Fusus." 

The above description of the Clyde Beds fossil bas been obligingly forwarded to me by Mr. Smith, of 
Jordan Hill ; it was drawn up by the late Mr. G. B. Sowerby. From what I can learn of this shell, which 
I have not been able to see, it probably belonged to PI. reticulata, Brown. PI. Trevellianum, Turt. 
Mangelia Trevelliana, Forbes and Hanley. 

" Fusus nov. sp. ? or variety of F. crispus, Brocchi (?). 

"A shell measuring above an inch in length, fusiform, the whorls narrow, and crossed by prominent 
ribs, which are traversed by raised spiral ridges. The characters are those of F. crispus, of which it is 
probable an extreme form ; but more perfect specimens are required for accurate determination. It is very 
distinct from any recorded Drift fossil. 

"Locality. Fossil, Wexford.* 

Living, F. crispus is at present a Mediterranean species. 

"It occurs fossil in the Sub-Apennine beds." — Forbes, 'Mem. Geol. Surv.,' vol. i, p. 426. 

There is a specimen from the Red Crag in my cabinet, which resembles this species ; but it is in a 
worn and mutilated condition, and undeterminable. F. crispus is figured by Michalotti, ' Desc. des Terr. 
Mioc. de Fltal. Septen.,' p. 272, No. 3, pi. 9, figs. 17, 18, who refers to Borson, ' Oritt. Piemont,' p. 317. 

It is not mentioned by Brocchi. 

* Every possible assistance has been most obligingly rendered to me by the officers of the Geological 
Survey, in their endeavours to discover this and some other Fossils, but all their exertions have been 
unsuccessful. Not anticipating the calamity that has deprived us of our lamented associate and friend, 
the late Professor E. Forbes, I did not think it necessary to apply to him respecting these species until I 
began to work upon the Appendix, knowing his ever-ready willingness to assist whenever occasion might 
require. My application has been thus unfortunately delayed, which I should the more regret were it not 
that his authority for the existence and correct determination of these species is quite sufficient without any 
endorsement I could give them. 



APPENDIX. 



315 



Nassa pygmjea, Lamarck. Tab. XXXI, fig. 5. 

Ranella PYGMiEA. Lam/c. Hist, des An. sans Vert., 2d ed., vol. ix, p. 550, No. 14. 

— — Kiener. Coq. viv. (Ranel), p. 33, pi. 10, fig. 2. 
Tritonia varicosa. Turt. Zool. Journ., No. 7, p. 365, t. 13, fig. 7. 
Nassa incrassata, var. Flemg. Brit. An., p. 340, 1828. 

— pygm^ea. Fori, and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p. 394, pi. 108, figs. 5, (i. 

Spec. Char. Testa turritd, costatd et spiraliter striatd, costis numerosis, striis creberrimis decus- 
santibus ; scepe varicibus in an/ractibns snperioribus ; aperturd ovatd, labro extus incrassato, varicose-. 

Shell turreted, costated, and spirally striated, ribs numerous, with close-set strise ; upper volutions 
often bearing thickened ribs or varices ; aperture ovate ; outer lip thickened externally. 

Length, \ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, Britain. 

A single specimen, but not in good condition, is in my cabinet, and appears to correspond with what 
the British conchologists have confidently proposed as a distinct species. I believe the Crag fossil to be 
identical with the living shell. 

I have withheld a notice of this, as well as a few other imperfect specimens from the Crag, up to the 
present time, in the hope of being able to procure something better to represent than what I am now only 
able to give. 

Nassa Monensis, Forbes, MS. 

Nassa Monensis. Strickland. Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. iv, p. 8. 

In the first volume of my Monograph, p. 31, t. 3, fig. 5, a Red Crag shell was considered to have 
belonged, to the above species, and it was inserted as such upon the authority of the late Professor E. 
Forbes. Mr. Smith has recently sent me a MS. note, accompanied with a sketch, by the origina' 
discoverer, of what is there called N. Monensis. " A r assa differing from N. macula in having the spire less 
produced, the body whorl much more ventricose, and the longitudinal ribs fewer. It appears intermediate 
between N. macula and N. ambigua." Forbes. The figure presents some considerable differences from the 
Crag shell, and I regret my inability to obtain a sight of the Manx specimen ; they must, therefore, remain 
united for the present. 

Nassa Pliocena. Strickland. Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. iv, p. 9. 
Locality. Isle of Man. 

This shell I have been unable to obtain a sight of. 

Nassa reticulata is enumerated in Mr. Smith's 'List of the Clyde Fossils,' 'Proc. Geol. Soc.,' vol. iv, p. 9. 

" Buccintjm ciliatum. Fabricius. 

" Syn. (a variety.) Buccinum Humphrey sianum, Bennett. Possibly, Buc. fusiforme, of Broderip, may 
be an extreme form of this species. 

"Locality. Fossil, North of England and Scotland. 

Living, very rare in the British Seas, common in Arctic Seas and on the Banks of 
Newfoundland." — Forbes, 'Mem. Geol. Surv.,' vol. i, p. 427. 
This is another recorded British Tertiary fossil that I have been unable to obtain a sight of. 



316 



APPENDIX. 



i 



Cancellaria scalaroides, S. Wood. Tab. XXXI, fig. 9. 

Cancellaria coronata. S. Wood. Crag. Moll., part 1, p. 64. 

I have here introduced the figure of a specimen from the Coralline Crag, at Sudbourne, given 
to me by Mr. Charlesworth, since the publication of my first part, and as it presents a variation 
in character from those previously in my possession from the Red Crag, it is desirable it should be 
represented. From this more especially, and from a further examination of the other specimens, I am 
induced now to believe the Crag shell to be distinct, and to be intermediate between C. varicosa, Broc, and 
C. coronata, Scacchi. In this Coralline Crag specimen the costse are very few, not more than seven in the 
last volution, like those of varicosa, but the upper part is more angular than in that species, and it differs 
from coronata in not only having fewer costse, but the outer lip of our shell is furnished with numerous 
ridges or teeth, about ten, apparently at all ages; and there are three distinct folds upon the columella, the 
upper one small, the middle one the largest; while in vai-icosa the upper one is the large one. The form of 
the aperture is also different from what is represented by Philippi in the figure he has given of C. coronata. 
The form of our shell approaches that of Fusus, the proportions of the aperture being little more than one 
third of its entire length : although these dimensions may vary in several specimens, and is a character of 
no very great importance, but, united with other differences, give reason to believe our shell to be entitled 
to an isolated position. The Red Crag shell is probably the prolonged existence of the Coralline Crag 
species. 



Lacuna vincta, Montague. Tab. XXXI, fig. 13, a, b. 

Turbo vinctus. Mont. Test. Brit., vol. ii, p. 307, pi. 20, fig. 3, 1803. 
Lacuna vincta. Turt. Zool. Journ., vol. iii, p. 192. 

— — Gould. Inv. Massach., p. 262, fig. 1/8 *. 

— canalis. Turt. Zool. Journ., vol. iii, p. 192. 

— quadrifasciata. Id. Zool. Journ., vol. iii, p. 191. 

— — Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 22. 

— divaricata. Id Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 23. 

— pertusa. Conrad. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelph., vol. vi, p. 266, pi. 11, 

fig. 19. 

Phasianella bifasciata. Brown. Illust. Brit. Conch., pi. 46, fig. 47, 1827. 

Spec. Char. Testa ovato-conoided, tenui ; anfractibus convexiusculis, rotundatis ; labro tenui, simplici ; 
columelld late angustd, excavatd, arcuatd. 

Shell ovately conical and thin, with about four slightly convex or rounded volutions ; outer hp thin 
and simple ; columella elongated, curved, and excavated. 

Length, £ inch. 

Locality. Mam. Crag, near Norwich. 

Clyde Beds. Recent, Britain, Norway, and North America. 

The shell, in the living state, to which my fossil is assigned as an identity, indulges in such con- 
siderable variation, that I have placed it there as its most probable position, and the longitudinal propor- 
tions between the varieties called gracilis and quadrifasciata would give a mean with which our fossil 
appears to correspond, approaching, however, rather nearer to the latter (like the fig. 169, Gould); 
but the three specimens in my possession are not in good preservation, and have lost the greater 
portion of the outer coating, by which the form is altered. One specimen presents a somewhat scpiare 
outline to the aperture, resembling, in that character, L. crassior. The recent shells of this genus have 



APPENDIX. 



317 



greatly perplexed the conchologist, and the condition of my fossils presents greater difficulties in their 
determination. 

In the 'Memoirs of the Geological Survey,' vol. i, p. 423, Lacuna Montacuti is quoted as having been 
found in the Drift Beds of Ireland. 

Littorina? suboperta, 'Crag Moll.,' vol. i, p. 118, t. 10, fig. 13. Since the figure here referred to 
was made, I have obtained a rather better specimen, which shows a flattened or slightly concave columella, 
the characteristic distinction of the genus Lacuna. It may, perhaps, with more propriety be called Lacuna 
suboperta. 

Littorina neritoides, rudis, and pa/liata, are enumerated in the ' List of Clyde Fossils.' 

Fossarus sulcatus, S. Wood. 

Phasianema sulcata. S. Wood. Catalogue, 1840. loc. cit. 
Fossarus clathratus. Id. Crag Moll. /vol. i, p. 121. 

The Crag shell was considered by myself as an id entity with the Mediterranean species, which subse- 
quent examination gives reason to believe is not correct ; I have, therefore, ventured to restore to it the 
provisional name given in my 'Catalogue.' It resembles a recent British shell which I believe belongs to 
this genus, Odostomia dolioliformis, 'Hist. Brit. Moll.,' vol. ii, p. 301, pi. 97, fig. 5. Our fossil is, however, 
specifically distinct, and seems to preserve an intermediate character between dolioliformis and clathratus, 
being larger than the one, and smaller than the other, and more elongated than either. The ridge upon 
the columella is at times invisible, and is a character not to be depended upon. 



Odostomia unidentata, Montague. Tab. XXXI, fig. 1 1 . 

Turbo unidentatus. Mont. Test. Brit., p. 324, 1803. 
Voluta unidentata. Mat. and Rack. Trans. Lin. Soc, vol. viii, p. 121. 
Jaminia unidentata. Brown. Illust. Brit. Conch., pi. 50, figs. 34, 35, 1827. 
Odostomia unidentata. Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p. 2G4, pi. 95, 

figs. 7, 8. 

— plicata. Flem. Brit. An., p. 310, 1828. 

Spec. Char. Testa minutd, ovato-conoided, Icevigatd, anfractibus 5 — 6 convexiusculis, fpird paulo 
(ongiore, aperture ovatd, labro simplici, columelld unidentata. 

Shell small, ovately conical, smooth, with about five or six volutions, slightly convex ; spire a little 
longer than the aperture, which is ovate, with a simple lip ; columella toothed. 

Length, inch. 

Locality. Red Crag, Walton Naze. Recent, Britain. 

A solitary specimen of a shell of this perplexing genus has been recently obtained by myself from 
the Red Crag, and it appears to accord best with the shorter variety of the above-named recent British 
species, although it differs slightly in having the volutions at the base rather more rounded. 

In the former part of my Monograph, Od. plicata and Od. conoidea are united as one and the same 
species, which I now believe to be distinct, as pointed out by the authors of the 'Hist, of Brit. Mollusca.' 
Both these species were in existence during the Crag Periods, the latter in the Coralline, and the former 
in the Red Crag. 

A shell in my cabinet, from the Coralline Crag, strongly resembles Od. eulimoides ; but the specimen 
is not in sufficiently good preservation for figure or description. 



318 



APPENDIX. 



Odostomia truncatula? Jeffreys. Tab. XXXI, fig, 16. 

Odostomia truncatula. Jeff. Ann. Nat. Hist., new ser., 1850, p. 150. 

— — Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p. 294, pi. 96, fig. 8, 

1850. 

Spec. Char. Testd elonyato-turritd, subulatd vel subcylindraced, Iceviyatd, pellucidd? tenui ; anfractibus 
5 — 6 convexhisctdis ; aperturd ovatd, labro acuto ; umbilico parvo ; columella obsolete* unidentatd. 

Shell elongately turreted, tapering, or nearly cylindrical, smooth, thin, and transparent ? volutions 
5 — 6, somewhat flattened ; aperture ovate ; outer lip sharp ; columella with an obsolete tooth, and small 
umbilicus. 

Length, i inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, Britain- 

Three or four specimens in my possession appear to correspond with the recent shell above referred to. 
In comparing my fossils with some specimens of the recent shell, obligingly presented to me by Mr. Barlee, 
the greatest difference appears to be in the apex, which, in the living shell, is somewhat flatter and more 
obtuse than in my fossil, whose apex is blunt or obtuse, but not flat, neither does it appear to have been 
reversed. My specimens unfortunately are not in the best state of preservation. 

Assiminea Grayiana is enumerated as a fossil by Mr. Dixou, in his ' List of Shells from the Upper 
Tertiaries of Bracklesham.' 



Rissoa soluta, Philippi. Tab. XXXI, fig. 10. 

Rissoa soluta. Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. ii, p. 130, pi. 23, fig. 18, 1844. 

— — 1 Jeffreys. Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. xx, p. 16. 

— — ? Forb. and Hani. Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p. 131, pi. 75, figs. 3, 4, 1850. 

Spec. Char. Testa minima, elonyato-turritd, Iceviyatd, anfractibus (quatuor vel quinque) rotundato- 
ventricosis, suturis profundis ; aperturd suborbiculari. 

Shell minute, elongately turreted, smooth ; whorls (four or five) roundedly ventricose, sutures deep ; 
aperture nearly orbicular. 

Lenyth, -Jg- inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. Recent, Mediterranean. 

I have found, in the Sutton sand, a single specimen of a shell which corresponds closely with the 
figure and description by Philippi, above referred to. 

Messrs. Forbes and Hanley, p. 131, supra, have expressed great doubt respecting the existence of 
Philippi's species, and they have appropriated his name to the British shell. I fully participate in their 
doubt respecting the identity of the Mediterranean form with that found in our own seas ; but, judging 
from the fossil now figured, I am much inclined to believe the Mediterranean shell to be a valid species ,• 
and in the event of its being hereafter so determined, I would suggest the name of intersecta for the recent 
British shell, as in that case soluta must be retained for the one to which it was first given. 

The Crag shell may be more particularly described as being somewhat thin, and now opaque, though 
perhaps transparent in the living state ; quite smooth, without appearing to have lost its outer coating ; 
although somewhat elongate in the spire (differing therein from the recent British shell), the apex is obtuse, 
with at least four volutions, and a deep suture, particularly the last (but not "disjoined"), and with a 
distinct and deep umbilicus. The outer lip is simple, not thickened by a ridge, neither is it toothed 
within ; the aperture somewhat rounded, but the diameter of the opening is rather greater in a longitudinal 
direction, and is about two fifths the entire length of the shell, with the lower part slightly effuse. 



APPENDIX. 



319 



Rissoa thermalis? Linnceus. Tab. XXXI, fig. 12, a, b. 

Turbo thermalis. Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 1237, No. G29. 
— Mxjriaticus? Beudant. Ann. du Mus., torn, xv, p. 201. 

Spec. Char. " T. umhilicatd oblongiusculd, obtusd, anfractibus teretibus Icevibus." — Linnaeus. 

Shell elongately conical or subulate, naked, smooth, and glossy ; volutions six, slightly convex ; 
suture distinct and deep ; apex obtuse, depressed; aperture ovate; inner lip adpressed, giving a pointed 
termination at the upper part ; umbilicus small. 

Length, 5 inch. Diameter, f of the length. 

Locality. Clacton. 

It is now most difficult, perhaps impossible, to say what Linnaeus intended for the type of his Turbo 
Thermalis, as there are two or three species that might, with a moderate allowance of latitude in variation, 
be made to accord with the diagnosis of his shell, and, it is to be feared, have already been done so. I am 
unwilling to make "confusion worse confounded," so have introduced our shell with the above name 
instead of imposing a new one, though not without great misgivings upon the propriety of doing so, 
particularly as Linnaeus, in his description, says, " T. semine Brassicae paulo major." 

Our fossil is by no means rare at Clacton, but the majority of my specimens were obtained from the 
clay or estuary portion of the deposit at that locality in association with marine or rather estuary species : 
Cardium edule, Tellina Balthica, Trigonella plana, Mytilus edulis, and Balanus. I have also found 
specimens in the sandy and purely fresh-water part of the cliff, with land and fresh-water shells, so that 
probably its animal inhabitant was capable of residing in water that was either fresh or brackish. Mr. 
John Pickering has presented me with some specimens of a recent shell identical with our fossil, and these, 
he tells me, were obtained in the ditches of brackish water near Gravesend, in Kent. Similar specimens 
were pronounced by Messrs. Forbes and Hanley, vol. iv, p. 267, to be only varieties of R. ventrosa, in which 
opinion I cannot coincide ; and I am permitted by Mr. Pickering to say he believes the two shells to be 
specifically distinct. 

This shell, or something very like it, was found by MM. Ehreuberg and Von Hemprich, " in fontibus 
Oasis Jovis Hammonis inter Alexandrian! et Rosettam." 



Jetfreysia? tatula, S. Wood. Tab. XXXI, fig. 14, a, b. 

Natica depressula. S. Wood. Catal. of Crag Shells, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1840, 

p. 530. 

Spec. Char. Testa minutd, subglobosd, Icevigatd, politd, tenui, vitred, pellucidd? umbilicatd ; apice 
obtuso ; anfractibus paucis 1 — 2 depressis ; suturis profundis, excavatis ; aperturd magna, ovatd, dilatutd ; 
labro simplici acuto. 

Shell small, subglobose, smooth, glossy, thin, vitreous, pellucid? umbilicated; apex obtuse; volutions 
few, 1 — 2, depressed ; suture deeply excavated ; aperture large, ovate, expanded ; outer lip thin and 
sharp. 

Diameter, T \j inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Three specimens of a small species were found by myself many years since, and reserved to the present 
time. They are now assigned provisionally to the above genus, more from the difficulty of finding a better 
position than from a satisfaction of their correct appropriation. They appear to differ from Natica, where 



3-20 



APPENDIX. 



they were first placed, in having an obtuse instead of an acute apex, like all the species in that genus that I 
have examined, and the texture of the shell is vitreous and clear, and when living was probably quite 
transparent. The form much resembles that of Natica, but the peristome is continuous, and not impressed 
by the body whorl, nor is the inner lip spread out as in the species of that genus. I know of nothing 
strictlv resembling it, and if the determination of the genus depend, as it is said, entirely upon the form of 
the operculum, it will probably be long ere it is correctly determined by that character. 

Paludina parilis, 8. Wood. 

Paludina lenta. S. Wood. Crag. Moll., vol. i, p. 110. 

Since the publication of my first volume, wherein I had assigned the Crag shell as an identity with the 
fossil from the Older Tertiaries, and considered them both as the progenitors of a shell now living in the 
Nile, I have given to them a more extended examination, with an increased number of specimens, and have 
reason to believe they are all three distinct. 

I therefore propose the above name for the British Upper Tertiary Fossil, in lieu of the one it has 
hitherto borne. 



Paludina marginata, Michaud. Tab. XXXI, fig. 18, a, b. 

Paludina marginata. Mich. Comple. de l'Hist. Nat. des Coq. Terr, et Fluv. de la France, 

p. 98, No. 11, t. 15, figs. 58, 59, 1831. 

— — Lyell. Man. Elem. Geol., p. 127, fig. 112, 1851. 

— minuta. Strickland. Silur. Syst., p. 555. 

— — Lyell. On the Boulder Formations and F. W. Deposits of Eastn. Norf, 

Phil. Mag., ser. 3, vol. xvi, No. 104, p. 354, fig. 4, 1840. 

Spec. Char. " Testa minima, pellucidd ovattf, nitidd, albidd, longitudinaliter substriatd ; anfractibus 
quinis, rotundatis ; aperturd ovato-rotundatd ; labro extus marginato ; apice obtuso, papilla to. Operculum 
ignotum." — Michaud. 

Shell small, pellucid, ovate, naked, white, slightly striated longitudinally ; volutions five, rounded ; 
aperture roundedly ovate ; outer lip outwardly marginated ; spire obtuse, papillated. Operculum unknown. 
"Dimensions, f and | line." 

Recent, Draguignan, South of France, Carouge, near Geneva {Jeffreys). 

This species is, I believe, abundant at each of the localities in which it is found, and particularly so at 
Clacton. The generality of specimens do not exceed the dimensions given by Michaud to the recent shell, 
though some few of my fossils have attained to the tenth of an inch in length, from the elongation of the 
spire, without increasing the number of volutions, in which case the suture is much deepened. The apex is 
very obtuse, the vertex being flattened, with the apical or embryonic portion broad and inflated. The 
outside of the aperture is strengthened by a thickened whitish rib, generally at a short distance from the 
margin, which is sharp and plain ; the aperture is ovate, with the major axis in a longitudinal direction, 
scarcely at all impressed by the body whorl. 

This is not now found living in Britain, and I have been unable to obtain any information respecting 
the soft parts of the animal. The thickened margin would rather indicate its having a calcareous operculum, 
like the genus Bithinia, but I have never found one, although the shell is very abundant. 



APPENDIX. 



321 



Natica Smithit, Brown. 

Bulbus Smithii. Brown. Mem. Wern. Soc, vol. viii, p. 104, pi. 1, fig. 18, 1838. 
Natica — Forbes. Mem. Geol. Surv., vol. i, p. 430. 

" The only specimen ever met with of this most interesting shell, a member of the division of 
ampullariform Naticse, was found by the Duchess of Argyle in the Pleistocene Beds at Ardincaple. That 
specimen was presented to Mr. Smith, and was figured and described by Captain Brown, in the eighth 
volume of the ' Wernerian Transactions.' It has since, unfortunately, been destroyed. From its delicacy 
it is not likely to occur in the more disturbed beds of the Drift, but should be looked for in the Clyde Beds. 
It is extremely probable that when an opportunity for comparison may occur, the Bulbus Smithii will be 
found to be identical with Natica flava, of Gould ; a rare living inhabitant of the Newfoundland Bank." 
— Forbes. 

Mr. Smith, of Jordan Hill, to whom I have applied in the hope of being able to add something to the 
above remark, expresses his deep regret at the loss of the specimen referred to, which, he says, is the only 
one he has either seen or heard of. 

Natica Bowerbankii, Forbes. MSS. Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. i, p. 430. 

"In Mr. Bowerbank's Bridlington Collection there is an imperfect specimen of a very distinct species 
of Natica, which does not agree with any living or fossil species known to me. It has a smooth, ventricose 
body whorl, angulated above, and a depressed spire. It equals Nat. monilifera in size." — Forbes. 

This is another, at present uncertain, species upon which, I regret to say, my endeavours to add a little 
information have not been crowned with success. Mr. Leckenby, who is well acquainted with the 
Bridlington fossils, kindly undertook to make inquiry for another specimen, but was equally unsuccessful. 
The shell in Mr. Bowerbank's Museum is in that condition from which a determination would not be at all 
satisfactory. 

Natica Alderi, Forbes. 

(Natica nitida, Donovan.) 

This is said to have been found in the Drift Beds of Ireland and Scotland. 

Trochus crenularis. Crag Moll., vol. i, p. 123, t. 13, fig. 7- 

The specimen figured under this name at the above reference, I am now inclined to believe is a 
foreigner, and that the species does not belong to the Coralline Crag. 

Trochus magus, Linn. 

Found in the Irish Drift Beds. 

Margarita undulata, G. B. Soiverby. 

Trochus inflatus. Smith. Mem. Wern. Soc, vol. viii, pi. 1, figs. 10, 11. 

Found in the Irish Drift and in the Clyde Beds. 

42 



322 



APPENDIX. 



Bulla conuloidea, S. Wood. 

The shell called B. conulus, S. Wood, 'Mon. Crag. Moll.,' part 1, p. 173, t. 21, fig. 2, is, I now believe, 
distinct from the Paris Basin shell, to which I had assigned it. A better examination with more specimens, 
some of which were obligingly forwarded to me by M. Deshayes, have shown that although the two shells 
are very closely allied, the differences are such as to warrant a specific separation. I therefore propose the 
above alteration for the Crag shell. The species from the Basin of the Adour, called by Grateloup, B. 
conulus and B. angistoma, which I had considered synonymous, I have been unable to examine whether 
they be more nearly related to the Older Tertiary or to the Crag species. 

Bulla hydatis, Linn. 

This is enumerated in Mr. Dixon's 'List of the Upper Tertiary Fossils at Bracklesham.' 

Bulla ampulla. 

Mentioned in Sir R. Murchison's ' Silur. Syst.,' p. 533, as a Tertiary fossil, found at Kempsey, near 
Worcester. I am unable to say whether these two be the same or different species. 

Bulla acuminata. S. Wood. Crag. Moll., vol. i, p. 1/4. 

In the Synoptical Table at the end of the first volume of the 'Crag Mollusca' is a x against this name in 
the line of Eocene fossils, as if intended to denote the presence of the recent species, acuminata, during the 
Period of the Older Tertiaries.* This is a misprint ; no mention is made of such existence in the text at the 
above reference. An unfigured species has, however, been found at Barton, closely resembling the recent 
shell in having a pointed or acuminated termination, with the spire enveloped, but the Older Tertiary fossil 
is evidently distinct. 

Systematists appear to labour under great difficulties in the generic divisions of the Bullae, the form of 
the shell appearing almost alone to determine the distinctions. Our little species rejoices in the title of 
several generic abases. Prefessor Loven has removed it from Bulla into a proposed genus called Cylichna. 
Messrs. Forbes and Hanley placed it (with a doubt) in Ovula. It was called Volvula by Adams ; and Mr. 
Woodward has united it with Tornatina. A knowledge of the animal, when possessed, will assist in its true 
assignment, and may possibly justify a different position ; but at present the shell alone is all we have to 
guide us as to its true relations, and from this it appears to differ only as a species from Bulla cylindracea, 
and other cylindrically convoluted shells, and whatever may be considered more essential distinctions for 
generic separation in such inflated species as Bulla ampulla, &c, the simple difference in this, at least from 
the cylindrically formed shells, is merely a greater elevation of the outer lip, so as to conceal the turns of the 
spire : or perhaps it would be more correct to speak of it as a prolongation of the outer lip into a pointed 
termination for the excurrent canal, instead of being at the junction or suture of the volution ; an 
approximation to this may be seen in those species, such as B. umbilicata, &c, in which the outer lip is 
extended retreally or retreatingly, so as to cause a concavity where the spire is depressed but not 
hidden. 



* This column contains also a few other crosses, intimating the supposed existence during the Eocene 
Periods of those species against which they are attached. Since that table was published I have given to 
them a more special examination, and although there are two or three (particularly the species of 
Plearotoma) that present many characters in common, there is not one therein included that can be 
undoubtedly said to have lived during the joint Periods of the Older Tertiaries and the Crag. 



APPENDIX. 



323 



Avlysia? asciola, S. Wood. Tab. XXXI, fig. 24 a, b. 
Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton, Sudbourne. 

This fossil has been in my possession for the last twenty years, with the above doubtful generic name, 
and my endeavours to obtain information as to its true character have hitherto been unsuccessful. There is 
a strong resemblance between it and one of the opercular valves of a Barnacle (tergum), but, with all my 
search, I have never been able to find what might be considered as its opposing portion — all my specimens 
have the point or apex inclining in the same direction ; still I thought it might possibly belong to the 
Cirripedia ; I therefore requested Mr. Darwin would be kind enough to give me his opinion upon them, 
but they were rejected by him as not belonging to any animal in the group he has so ably 
investigated. 

Its form is that of a " little hatchet," and I have assumed it to be the calcareous portion of an internal 
shell, belonging, probably, to the section called Aclesia by Rang, and have placed it provisionally in the 
above generic position. At least fifty specimens have been found by myself, and these present considerable 
variation inter se, but I think they may be all referred to the same specific animal. One specimen is from 
Sudbourne ; and this, though more than double the size of those from Sutton, was probably only from a 
larger individual, varying in that respect like the specimens of Scalpellum, as well as a few of the Mollusca 
from the same two localities. 

Two fossils from the Upper Tertiaries of Sicily have been doubtingly described as species under the 
above generic title. 

The inner portion or lining of Pectunculus glycimeris sometimes separates from the rest of the shell, 
and is occasionally found in the Red Crag ; and when in that condition it strongly resembles the figure of 
Aplysia grandis, Philippi, 'En. Moll. Sic.,' vol. ii, t. 18, fig. 10, a, b ; but I have not been able to see the 
Sicilian fossil. 



Pecten maximus. Tab. XXXI, fig. 25. 

Pecten maximus. S. Wood. Monog. of Crag Moll., ante, p. 22. 

A single specimen of the flat valve of a species in this genus has lately been given to me by Mr. 
Whincopp, who obtained it from Sutton. 

Although a considerable amount of variation is exhibited in my large series of specimens of what I have 
considered as P. maximus from the Coralline Crag, I have not seen anything quite so anomalous as is 
presented by this Red Crag specimen, and confess to be somewhat perplexed respecting it ; still there is 
something peculiar in the arrangement of the ribs of this shell to warrant the belief that there has been a 
failure in their number of about one half, perhaps caused by what might be called a duplicative or union of 
the organs by which they were produced, and that it is nothing more than a monstrous form of the common 
British species. 

There are six, or perhaps eight ribs, including those irregular ridges at the shoulders, rounded and 
smooth, probably made so by attrition ; between them are some smaller rays, varying from two to five. In 
the recent shell these intermediate rays are also variable, and, in some specimens, they are very distinct and 
prominent, both between and upon the ribs, while in others they are entirely absent. 

In order, therefore, to avoid the introduction of a species upon the slender evidence afforded by this 
specimen, I have called it P. maximus, var. larvatus. 



324 



APPENDIX. 



Pecten polymorphus, Bronn. Tab. XXXI, fig. 20. 

Pecten polymorphus. Bronn. Reise, p. 627, sec. Phil. 

— striatus. Marcel, de Serr. Geog. des Terr. Tert. du Midi de la France, p. 131. 

— striatulus. Lamarck. Sec. Philippi. 

— in^quicostalis. Id. Sec. Philippi. 

— Isabella. Lamarck. Sec. Philippi. 

— flagellatus. Id. Sec. Philippi. 

— flexuosus. Id. Sec. Philippi. 

— polymorphus. Phil. En. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 79, t. 5, figs. 18 — 21. 

— — Dixon. Geol. of Sussex, p. 16, fig. .3, 1850. 

— — Sismond. Syn. Meth. Inv. Ped., p. 13, 1847. 
Ostrea striata ? Brocchi. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 577, t. 16, fig. 17. 

— discors. Id. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 581, t. 14, fig. 13. 

— coarctata. Id. Conch. Foss. Subap., p. 574, t. 14, fig. 9. 

— plica. Poli. Utr. Sic, t. 28, figs. 1 — 5. A 

Spec. Char. " Testa subcequivalvi, suborbicidari, latiore quam longd, longitudinaliter undulato- 
plicatd, striatd aut Icevi, plicis 5 — 12, auriculis amplis subcequalibus, utraque basi angustatd ; i.e., sinu 
angulum rectum formante a lateribus divisd." — Philippi. 

Shell nearly equivalve, suborbicular, broader than long, longitudinally ribbed or plicated ; ribs 5 — 12 ; 
auricles large and slightly unequal, and augulated at the base on each side. 

Diameter, 1 inch. 

Locality. Bracklesham. 

This shell is, I believe, not very rare at the above locality, to which place, as far as I know, it appears 
to be restricted, as a British fossil. 

It much resembles P. Danicus, and is, like it, subject to great variation ; it differs, however, more 
especially in its auricles, which are larger and more equal. 

This is a living species in the Mediterranean, and is found fossil at Graviua, according to Philippi. 

The specimen figured is in the British Museum. 

LlMOPSIS PYGMiEA. Ante, p. 71. 

This is no longer an extinct species ; it has been recently obtained alive by Mr. M 'Andrew in the 
Arctic Regions. 

Lucina columbella. Ante, p. 143. 

I have been unable to obtain any further information respecting the integrity of this species. Its claim 
to the Red Crag is, I suspect, very doubtful. 

Cryptodon sinuosum. Ante, p. 134. 

At the above reference the Older Tertiary shell, Lucina Goodallii, was considered only as a variety, as 
also the Boom shell, Axinns Benedenii, De Koninck, and both were introduced as synonyms to the above 
Crag fossil. A better examination with fresh specimens induces me now to believe them distinct. 



APPENDIX. 



325 



Mactra triangulata, S. Wood. Tab. XXXI, fig. 21 a — d. 

Spec. Char. Testd parvd, ovato-triungulatd, utroque obtusissime carinatd, crassd, striata aut 
sulcata ; dent thus later alibus magnis, perpendicular ibus striatis. 

Shell small, ovately and broadly triangular ; both sides obtusely keeled, thick, striated, or rather 
sulcated ; lateral teeth large, perpendicularly striated. 

Length, £ inch. 

Locality. Cor. Crag, Sutton. 

Small specimens of this species are abundant, but they are always more or less decorticated, and, as the 
principal distinction is in the sculpture, they have until now remained in my cabinet as varieties of M. ovata. 
Two or three individuals have recently been obtained with a sufficiency of the outer surface to show that a 
difference existed between it and the recent shell, M. ovata {M. elliptica, F. and H.), such as, I now believe, 
will entitle this to a separate specific position : instead of being covered with numerous, fine, irregular, and 
sometimes inosculating striae, like those upon the recent British shell, our fossil is ornamented with regular 
and distinct ridges, and deep sulci bet ween them, corresponding in that character with Brocchi's description 
of M. triangula, Renieri, "transversim sulcata;" but Messrs. Forbes and Hauley have determined the 
triangula, Phil., (M. lactea, Poli, which I presume to be the same,) to belong to M. subtruncata, Mont. 
With these discrepancies, and not having been able to see the Subapennine fossil, the above name is given 
provisionally until it can be better determined. 



Lutraria rugosa, Chemnitz. Tab. XXXI, fig. 26 a, b. 

Mactra rugosa. Chemn. Conch. Cab., vol. vi, p. 236, t. 24, fig. 236, 1782. 
Lutraria rugosa. Lamk. Hist, des An. s. Vert., torn, v, p. 469. 

— — Desh. Trait. Elem. Conch., t. 10, fig. 7. 

— — Sismonda. Syn. Meth. Ped. Foss., p. 23, 1847. 

— — Dixon. Geol. of Sussex, p. 17, 1850. 

Ency. Method., pi. 254, fig. 2 a, b. 

Spec. Char. " Testd ovato-oblongd, longitudinaliter dense striata, et quasi ' cost at a ; area anticd et 
posticd glabratd, obsolete transversim striata; margine exteriore crenulato ; colore extus ex albido Jlaves- 
cente, intus calcareo." — Chemn. 

Shell ovately oblong, striated and costated ; anterior and posterior areas generally smooth ; lines of 
growth visible ; outer margin crenulated or wavy. 

Diameter, 2 incbes. 

Locality. Bracklesham. Recent, Coast of Portugal and Mediterranean. 

This species, as a British fossil, appears to be confined to the above locality, where, I believe, it is not 
very abundant. This, like Pecten polymorphus, is no longer an inhabitant of our own shores. It is said 
to be found fossil at Astigiani. The specimen figured is in the museum in Jerniyn Street. 

Lutraria solenoides (oblonga) is enumerated in Mr. Dixon's ' List of Upper Tertiary Fossils at 
Bracklesham.' 



326 



APPENDIX. 



Pholadidea ? Tab. XXXI, fig. 23. 

This is the representation of a specimen obtained by Mr. John Middleton from the Crag "Diggings," 
near Woodbridge, and obligingly put into my hands for publication by Mr. Woodward, who considers it a 
genuine fossil of the Red Crag. It appears strongly to resemble the calcareous case of a species of boring 
Mollusc, and the generic position he has chosen for it is probably the correct one, belonging to the 
section Martesia, Gray. The interior is filled with mud or clay, and particles of sand, but the valves are 
gone. The exterior presents concentric ridges or elevations (about a dozen) : these are in relief, and 
correspond with the depressions or furrows often seen in the cavities formed by the Pholades. 

In my cabinet are some crypts of a similar form, excavated in a nbdule of chalk found in the Red 
Crag, evidently the production of a boring Mollusc. In my specimens the valves are gone, and the walls 
in some of the cells are marked with concentric ridges. 

The following existing British species, not found in any of the Crag Formations, are enumerated as 
belonging to the Upper Tertiaries of these kingdoms, in accordance with the authorities attached :* 

Patella pellucida. 

Irish Drift Beds. (Forbes.) 

Lucinopsis (Lucina) undata. 

Clyde Beds. (Smith.) 

Cardium aculeatum. 

Clyde Beds. (Smith.) 

CYPRINA PROPINQUA.f 

Clyde Beds. (Smith.) 

CYTHEREA L^VIGATA.f 

Clyde Beds. (Smith.) 

Venus verrucosa. 
— striatula (gallina). 

Clyde Beds. (Smith.) 



* When the Palseontographical Society was first established the Crag Formations were the allotted 
portions for my Monograph, while the more recent deposits of the British Isles were intended to form the 
subject of a separate work by James Smith, Esq., of Jordan Hill ; and it was not until after the publication 
of my first volume that any alteration was made in this arrangement. Mr. Smith found the fossils of these 
Uppermost Tertiaries were, with so few exceptions, identical with existing species, that he thought they were 
not of sufficient importance for a distinct work : it has therefore devolved upon me to mention those few 
that have become extinct upon our own coasts, and this will in some degree explain the irregular and imperfect 
manner in which I have introduced the species ; and as this has taken me rather beyond my original 
intention, it has affected the correctness of my former title-page, and rendered it necessary to substitute a 
new one. 

t These two species, noticed by Mr. Smith in his paper upon the ' Post-Tertiary Deposits of the Basin 
of the Clyde,' ' Trans. Geol. Soc.,' 2d series, vol. vi, p. 155, he still thinks are decidedly distinct, and such 



APPENDIX. 



327 



Tapes pullastra (Venerupis perforans). 
decussata. 

Clyde Beds. (Smith.) Bracklesham.* (Dixon.) 

Ceratisolen (Solen) legumen. 

Clyde Beds. (Smith.) 

Anatina convexa. 

Irish Drift Beds. (Forbes.) Clyde Beds. (Smith.) 

The woodcut (p. 328) is the representation of a specimen belonging to Mr. Acton, who kindly put it 
into my hands for illustration as a new species, but I have no doubt of its true position, and it is placed 
unhesitatingly in specific association with the characteristic shell of the Red Crag. 

This extraordinary individual is the widest deviation from the normal condition of a species that has 
ever come under my observation, for although it is not very uncommon to see a fresh-water discoidal shell, 
owing to a little deflection in its spiral, assume a turriculated or conical character, it is exceedingly rare to 
see an elevated or turriculated shell become depressed into a discoidal form, with its volution upon a 
horizontal axis. My old friend Littorina littoreus has indulged in extraordinary vagaries, but our present 
specimen has carried its divergence to an extreme of deformity, emphatically showing that in the practical 
study of the Univalve Mollusca little real aid is to be derived from any mathematical accuracy in the angle 
of volution. 

There is, it is well known, an inherent tendency to variation in some species, and this, though not 
wholly dependent upon external conditions, may be aggravated by what is unfavorable to a healthy develop- 
ment. The abnormous forms of Littorina littoreus, Purpura lapillus, and Cardium edule, found in the 
Estuary Deposits near Norwich, arose, I imagine, from the latter circumstance, as a very large number of 
individuals in this locality have become more or less distorted ; and as these species in the recent state are 
rarely eccentric, their deformities were attributed by myself to some extraordinary alteration of the medium 
in which the animals lived, probably from changes produced by ice or by an excess of outflow whereby the 
saline properties of the water were prejudicially and suddenly diluted ; but the varieties of a species in the 



was, he says, the opinion of the late Professor E. Forbes, in whose hands they were placed : unfortunately 
they are not now to be found. 

In the report of the twenty-fourth meeting of the British Association, held at Liverpool, September, 
1854, p. 78, 'Geol. Sect.,' is a communication by Mr. P. P. Carpenter, respecting some land, fresh-water, 
and marine shells, obtained by Miss Bright from the depth of one hundred feet in the sinking of a well on 
the banks of the Avon, at Birlingham, Worcestershire. Among the fresh-water shells is mentioned Limncea 
glutinosa ; and with the marine ones are " two minute undetermined Bivalves, quite distinct from any known, 
either recent or in the Crag. One is an Astarte, very flat and triangular, with sharp ribs like Gouldia 
Pacifica, C. B. Ad.; the other is a ? Lucina, somewhat the shape of L. columbella, with a deeply cut lunule 
as in Opis, beginning with concentric ridges, then suddenly changing into radiating ribs." 

* Some of the fossils at this locality appear to exceed considerably in dimensions the same species 
still in existence in our own seas. A specimen of T. decussata, given to me by Mr. Bristow, has attained 
the length of 3 inches. I have lately seen a fine specimen of Pholas crispata, measuring 4 inches, and am 
informed they have been found in this Deposit nearly 5 inches in length. 



328 



APPENDIX. 



Red Crag may with less probability be assigned to such a cause, as there is no good reason to believe that 
the Mollusca in the remains of that Formation resided in very close proximity to the regions of fresh water. 
The unnatural condition of the present specimen appertains more to the individual than either to a species 
or to a colony, and may have arisen from some accidental circumstance, or from unsuitable food, or, what is 
perhaps more likely, the unlucky animal may when young have been caught and retained in some confined 
position, preventing its growth in a natural direction. It is an immature individual, although it has no 
doubt been "curtailed of its fair proportions" in consequence of its deformity. 




2 



Trophon antiquum, var. contrarium planorbulum. 
From the Red Crag, Sutton. 



INDEX TO VOL. II. 

BIVALVES. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Abra alba 


. 237 


Anomia ephippium . 


8 


fabalis . 


. 238 


lens 


8 


obovalis 


. 240 


margaritacea 


8 


prismatica 


. 239 


patelliforrciis 


9 


Acardo • 


. 160 


radiata . . 


8 


Acephala testacea 


1 


rugosa 


11 


Actinobtdus 


. 164 


squatnula 


8 


JEglia 


97 


striata 


11 


Agaria 


. 164 


striolata 


9 


Agina purpurea 


. 284 


sulcata 


8 


Alasmodonta 


. 97 


undulata 


10 


Aligena 


. 117 


undulatim- striata 


11 


Aldides 


. 273 


Anomya 


6 


Auiblema 


. 97 


Anonica 


. 51 


Amphidesma . 


. 237 


Antigone 


. 209 


Amusium 


. 20 


Aphrodita 


. 160 


Amygdalum 


. 75 


Appius 


. 101 


Anatina 


' . 258 


Area Britannica 


. 76 


Anchomasa 


. 294 


cardissa . 


. 76 


Andaria 


. 75 


flatnmulata 


. 67 


Anodon 


. 101 


fluviatilis 


. 93 


Anodonta anatina 


. 102 


fusca 


. 76 


cygnea 


. 102 


Gaimardii 


. . 76 


intermedia 


. 102 


lactea 


77 


piscinalis 


. 102 


lactanea . 


5 •; 78 


ventricosa 


. 102 


modiolus 


77 


Anomalocardia 


75 


navicularis 


.;. 76 


Anomia aculeata 


9 


nocB 


. 76 


ccepa . 


.8 


nodulosa 


. 78 


costata 


8 


papillosa 


. 76 


ellipticus 


8 


pectunculoides 


. 79 



330 INDEX. 









PAGE 


ill i ' - '''''' • 


77 


Astarte mutabilis 


. 179 


ffill O? / / ff 

JJUollVtl • • 


79 


ixxtido, . 


177 


ft 11 fllll 


78 


Tiitidula 


178 


VCL r id 611 tat a 


7Q 


nlilifi tint i 


1 8Q 


M 1 1 agUIld • 


76 


obloncjct 


. 180 


4vpi uplift p ft ti ft ft f ft 

J.X. 1 l^ltldltC LUf IflU lilt/ • 


. 289 


0'Malii 


. 180 


Ivonnnniff, 

.11''' tj '•'.•''<; • • 


. 224 


ova lis 


. 182 


Avoticft 


. 196 


parva . 


. 192 




214 


Uul V Ul(l • 


175 


■fvpfvrwst 

. It '.Iff 1 ' o • • 


. 164 


pallida 


. 182 


/ j '/? i / ftl'l /T 
»J/ Cfllll ill • • 


235 


?) is J fn t* m is 


188 


jxry tiiUj . • 


75 


ri 1 fi y-i st 

IJt U ftUj • 


176 


1 ri i ii ff 


20 


Miff}} ft f ft 


179 


iVL I L 1 U 1 >*» CUUlUla. • 


216 


ti vnt) } i} ft 7t ft 

LMI XltJliflll ft It * 


185 




. 215 


pulchella 


. 183 


f 6VVU(jVfl08(X 


. 135 


1 Jo 


187 


1 An ti rnrni i c 


215 


VUfffttft 


1 SO 

• .1 0\J 


i ill L ul ■ 


. 215 


SsPfitifft 


1 


03 nil n tft 

o i ft a if 1. 1 1 • 


216 


o cm to in lu in • 


1 7fi 


/I - • 


. 214 


striata 


183 


A ctiirf"/ 1 fiitftiil fit ft 

Aotal IC iniyiiiuiu/ * 


. 183 


at fit VI ff fill ft 

OlK/t / lUUfltl • 


1 73 


UWtlQtlCttCl * 


. 182 


sulcata 


. 182 


Arctica 


. 176 


triangularis 


. 173 


HftnfrJtii. 

/>"/( '! ■''< • 


183 


WlflflftVt 

1/(1 ( It 14/ (o • 


182 


J 'ilo tCl vlll • 


1 77 


// flfiYi ft 


40 


/)* Yinrti ffi 


1 80 

• i xou 


-j ii y t ef*ff / yij )/ i,t 

^Itlf lotlllJJlUffl • 




horpalis 


1 75 

• . 1 / o 


Avipiilfl ft pit 1 pft t ft 


51 


Till vti nn 


1 88 


jSvt ft Ii f*fl 

xiiiy iiLUj • 


51 


i, (J 111 1 J 1 C o o rt 


1 83 


>/ / 1 fill ti Oft 

XXV I U fl t tc W • 


51 


COTTUQCttCl . 


176 


htv}/ }}f/o 

fill HlllAsU • 


51 


LI cUl ILUolo la 


lou 


1 al cIILIIIci * 


h 1 


CI cUI Illldld . 


1 8 A 


JlitiftCtfu . • 






1/0 


// V ) 'itiPf/l II 

Jlil f ilfcU I II . > 


Q7 


1 iff mt} fin i f*w e? c 

J^/llfflftUll 1 1 Halo ■ 


1 89 

• • i * — 


JlJsltlllO * » 


133 


flicri tnria 


1 Q0 


A?f}T Vf/vi fthina 


. 223 


elliptic** 


1 8 1 

lul 


Tiffit td ft 

Jjllliiilll • ■ 


2Q8 


CA.CUI It. IIO 


1 1 
I 'J I 


As /t ft 

D III lltlfj ■ • 




G(ltV€7lSlS 


181 


Bavbatia • . 


75 


\Tllt VUl I t> • 


1 8t 


tip nn in n 

-UCIJ 11 If ltd t • 


164 


o*rn pill « 

ii,l (IvlllO ■ 


185 


BefptaYiia • • 


. 133 


itnhvicata 


. 212 


jB? <z ph olius 


. 284 


incerta 


. 186 


Bon to? a 


. 263 


incrassata 


. 1/6 


Bornia 


. 117 


lactea 


. 176 


Br achy do a tes 


. 55 


Iceviyata 


. 174 


Bucardia 


. 193 


lirata 


. 185 


Byssoarca 


. 75 


multicostata 


. 183 


Byssomya 


. 284 



INDEX. 



331 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Calceola 


. 97 


Cardium Parkinsoni 


. 158 


Calcinella 


. 235 


pectination 


155 


Callista 


. 201 


rusticum 


. 155 


Callitriche 


. 52 


scabrum 


. 153 


Calopodium 


. 262 


spinosum 


. 152 


Canthyria 


. 97 


strigilliferum 


. 154 


Capsa 


. 218 


tenue 


. 155 


Capisteria 


. 218 


venustum 


. 160 


Cardissa 


. 151 


vulgare 


. 155 


Cardita analis 


. 168 


zonatum 


. 155 


chamseformis 


. 167 


Cepa 


6 


corbis 


. 168 


Cerastes 


. 151 


D unker i 


. 168 


Chama bicornis 


. 163 


exigua 


. 169 


cornuta 


. 163 


minnta 


. 1C9 


gryhina 


. 163 


nuculina 


. 169 


gryphoides 


. 162 


orbicularis 


. 167 


facer at a 


. 163 


scalaiis 


. 166 


sinistrorsa 


. 163 


senilis 


. 165 


unicornis 


. 163 


squamulosa 


. 165 


Chamcepholas 


. 284 


tuberculata 


. 166 


Chceno. 


. 292 


Carditamera . 


. 164 


Chion 


. 218 


Cardium angustanum 


. 156 


Chione 


. 206 


angustatum 


. 157 


Chimcera 


. 49 


anodonta 


. 160 


Chironia 


. 117 


arcuatum 


155 


C/ilamys 


. 20 


Balticum 


. 156 


Cibota 


. 75 


boreale . - . 


. 160 


Circe minima . 


. 198 


clodiense 


. 156 


triangularis 


. 198 


crenulatum 


. 155 


Circomphalus . 


. 214 


decorticatum 


. 159 


Clausina 


. 150 


discrepans 


. 152 


Clotho 


. 284 


ecbinatum 


. 152 


Cochlodesma complanatum 


. 263 


edentulum 


. 160 


prsetenerum 


. 264 


edule 


. 155 


Complanaria . 


. 97 


edulinum 


155 


Concha rupium 


. 162 


Eichwaldii 


. 156 


ConchcB 


1 


fragile 


. 159 


Conchifera 


1 


glaucum 


. 156 


Coralliopliaga cyprinoi'des 


. 200 


Groenlandicum 


. 160 


Corbicula 


. 103 


interr upturn 


159 


Corbula bicostata 


274 


Lamarckii 


. 156 


complanata 


. 275 


mucronatum 


. 152 


cuspidata 


. 273 


nodosum 


. 153 


donaciformis 


. 275 


nodosulum 


. 154 


elegans 


. 274 


oblongum 


. 159 


gibba 


. 274 


obliquum 


. 156 


granulata 


. 268 



332 



INDEX. 





PAGE 




PAGE 




. 274 


Curvula 


49 


nucleus . 


. 274 


Cuspidaria 


. 271 


Olympica 


. 274 


Cyamium eximium 


, 152 


planulata 


. 274 


Cyanocyclas . 


. 103 


rotundata 


. 274 


Cyclas appendiculata 


. 110 


striata 


. 274 


cornea 


. 107 


sulcata . 


. 272 


Jlavescens 


. 107 


Corbulomya complanata . 


. 275 


fontinalis 


. 112 


Cormopoda 


1 


gibba . 


. 112 


Cornea 


. 106 


palustris 


. 109 


Corneocyclas . 


. 106 


pttsilla 


. 112 


Crassina bipartita 


. 180 


rivalis 


. 107 


borealis , 


. 176 


rivicola 


. 107 


compressa 


. 176 


Cycladina 


. 117 


convexiuscula 


. 183 


Cynetodonta . 


. 258 


corrugata 


. 176 


Cvprina Arctica 


. 195 


Damnoniensis 


. 182 


angulata 


. 196 


depressa 


. 181 


Defrancii 


. 197 


elliptica 


. 181 


equalis 


. 196 


incrassata 


. 176 


Islandica 


. 196 


Gairensis 


. 181 


Islandico'ides 


. 196 


minima 


. 174 


Lajonkairii 


. 197 


minutissima 


. 174 


maxima 


. 196 


Montagui . 


. 183 


rustica 


. 197 


multistriata 


. 183 


tumida 


. 197 


nitida . 


. 177 


vulgaris 


. 196 


obliqua 


. 183 


Cyphoxis 


75 


Omalii 


. 180 


Cyrachcea 


. 138 


ovata 


. 181 


Cyrena consobrina 


. 104 


Scotica 


. 182 


Duchastellii 


. 104 


semisulcata 


. 176 


Gemmellaria 


. 104 


striata 


. 183 


trigonula 


. 104 


sulcata 


. 182 


Cyrtodaria 


. 290 


triangularis 


. 174 


Cyrtosolen 


. 252 


Crenella 


55 


Cytherea apicalis 


. 198 


Cristaria 




Chione . 


. 207 


Cryptodon bisinuatum 


. 134 


Cyrilli 


. 198 


ferruginosum 


. 135 


cycladiformis . 


. 208 


Jlexuosum 


. 134 


Jilosa . 


. 208 


rotundatum . 


. 135 


Icevis 


. 207 


sinuosum 


. 134 


lamella ta 


. 210 


verficordia 


. 150 


lenticula 


. 198 


Cucullaa 


75 


minima 


. 198 


Cultellus tenuis 


. 258 


minuta 


. 198 


cultellatus 


. 258 


nitens 


. 207 


Cuneus 


. 218 


pusilla 


. 198 


Cunicula 


. 97 


rudis 


. 208 



INDEX. 



333 





PAGE 






PAGE 


Cytberea sulcata 


. 210 


Ensatella 




. 254 


triangularis 


. 198 


Ensis complanatus 


. 255 


trigona 


. 198 


Erycina trigona 


. 275 


Venetiana 


. 208 


Erycinella 


ovalis 


. 171 






Euglesia 




. 108 


Dacromya 


. 87 


Exoleta 




. 214 


Dactylina 


. 294 








Dactylus 


. 294 


Fenestella 




6 


Daphne 


75 








Decadopecten . 


. 20 


Galaxura 




. 263 


Dendostrea 


. 12 


Galeomma 




. 123 


Dentipecten . 


. 20 


Galileja 




. 108 


Diceratia 


. 193 


Gari 




. 221 


Didacna 


. 151 


Gastrana laminosa 


. 217 


Didonta 


. 284 


Gastrochsena cunei/ormis 


. 292 


Diodonta 


. 217 




dubia 


. 292 


Dione 


. 206 




/aba 


. 293 


Diplasma 


. 97 




fulva 


. 292 


Diplodonta Astartea 


. 146 




hians 


. 292 


dilatata 


. 145 




modiolina . 


. 292 


parvula 


. 146 




pholadia 


. 292 


rotundata 


. 144 




Poliana 


. 292 


Bipsas 


. 101 


Geloina 




. 103 


Dithyra 


1 


Glans 




. 164 


Ditoma 


1 


Glaucion 




. 42 


Donax anatinus 


. 219 


Glaucus 




. 42 


complanata 


. 220 


Globus 




. 162 


glabra 


. 220 


Glosstis 




. 193 


irus 


. 205 


Glycimeris 


angusta 


. 291 


longa . 


. 220 




arctica 


. 281 


politus 


. 220 




Norveyica 


. 281 


ruber . 


. 219 




vagina 


. 291 


striatella 


. 233 


Gobrceus 




. 221 


truncata 


. 219 


Goodallia 




. 172 


trunculus 


. 219 


Gryj)hus 




. 151 


vittatus 


. 219 








Dosina 


. 209 


Hecuba 




. 218 


Dosinia 


. 214 


Hemicardium 


. 151 






Hemimactra . 


. 240 


Echion 


6 


Hemiodon 




. 97 


Egeria 


. 218 


Heteroconcha 




Egesta 


. 209 


Hiatella 




. 284 


Elatobranchia 


1 


Hiunites Corteseyi 


19 


Ellipsaria 


. 97 


Dubuissoni 


. 19 


Elliptio 


. 97 


irregularis 


. 33 


Embla Korenii 


. 268 


pusio 


. 33 


Endocephala . 


1 


Ilinnus 




. 18 



334 



INDEX. 



Hippagus acutieostatus 
verticordius 

Hypogcea 
Hyridella 

Iphigenia 

Iridea 

Irus 

Isoarca 

Isocardia cor 

erassa 
fraterna 
globulosa 
Hibernica 
lunulata 
Markoei 
rustic a 
ventricosa 

Ixartia 

Janira 
Jatronus 

Kellia ambigua 
coarctata 
cycladia 
deltoidea 
dubia . 
elliptica 
jlexuosa 
lactea . 
nitida . 
orbicularis 
pumila . 
rubra . 
suborbicularis 

Lacinia 

Lamellibranchiata 
Lampsilis 
Lamproscapha 
Lanistes 
Lanistina 
Lasea 
Lasmonos 
Lasmigona 



PAGE 

150 
150 

254 
97 

218 
97 
204 
75 
194 
194 
194 
194 
194 
194 
194 
194 
194 
258 

20 
161 

120 
123 
122 
115 
120 
121 
121 
118 
116 
120 
124 
125 
118 

161 
1 

97 
101 

55 
55 
117 
97 
97 



Lastena 
Latona 
Laturnula 
Lavignon 
Lazarus 
Leda arctica 

caudata 

lanceolata 

minuta 

myalis 

oblonga 

pernula 

pygmaea 

rostrata 

semistriata 

Thraciaeformis 

truncata 
Lembulus 
Lentidium 
Leptodea 

Lepton deltoideum 
depressum 
nitidum 
squamosum 

Ligula alba 

Boysii 

donaciformis 
prismatica 
Ligumia 
Lima aperta . 

bullata . 

elongata 

exilis 
fragilis . 

hians 

infiata . 

Loscombii 

oblonga 

ovata 

plicatula 

subauriculata 

sulcata . 

sidcidus 

tenera . 

vitrina . 
Lima tula 
Limicola carnaria 



INDEX. 335 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Limopsis aurita 


. 70 


Mactra arcuata 


. 244 


pygmsea 


5 . 71 


artopta 


. 244 


Limnopsis 


. 69 


cinerea 


. 241 


Limula 


» . 42 


congesta 


. 247 


Listera 


. 235 


crassa . 


. 245 


Loripes divaricata 


. 137 


crassatella 


. 245 


ellipticus 


. 121 


constricta 


. 249 


undularia 


. 137 


cuneata 


. 248 


Lucina alba . 


. 139 


deaurata 


. 249 


anliquuta 


. 139 


denticulata 


. 249 


arcuata 


.. % . 137 


dubia . 


. 247 


balaustina 


. 227 


elliptica 


. 247 


borealis 


. 139 


Euxinica 


. 248 


columbella 


. 143 


glauca 


. 241 


commutata 


. 137 


helvacea 


. 241 


contracta 


. 139 


incequilatera 


. 249 


crenulata 


. 140 


lactea 


. 241 


curviradiata 


. 190 


limbata 


. 248 


decorata 


. 141 


magna 


. 241 


dentata 


. 140 


modicella 


. 249 


digitalis 


.190 


Neapolitana 


. 241 


digitaria 


. 190 


obtruncata 


. 248 


divaricata 


. 137 


ovalis . 


. 247 


ferruginosa 


. 135 


procrassa 


. 245 


Flandrica 


. 139 


solida 


. 246 


Jlexuosa 


. 134 


straminea 


. 241 


mitts . 


. 139 


striata 


. 247 


oblonga 


. 121 


stultorum 


. 241 


radula 


. 139 


subtruncata 


. 248 


Sarsii . 


. 134 


truncata 


. 245 


sinuata 


. 134 


vulgaris 


. 246 


sinuosa 


. 134 


Macoma 


. 224 


squamosa 


. 141 


Mactrina 


. 172 


striatula 


. 140 


Mactro'idea . . 


. 172 


trifaria 


.137 


Macrophyllum 


. 151 


vulnerata 


. 143 


Malleolus 


. 298 


Lucinopsis Lajonkairii . 


. 148 


Mantellum 


. 42 


Lunaria 


. 75 


Margaritifera 


. 51 


Luticola 


. 97 


Megadomus 


. 97 


Lutricola 


. 235 


Meretrix 


. 206 




l l 


Mesodesma Jauresii . 


. 250 


Lutraria elliptica 


. 251 


Metaptera 


. 97 


vulgaris 


.251 


Modiola asperida 


. 64 


Lux 


. 221 


barbata 


. 58 


Lymnadia 


. 97 


costulata 


. 60 






cylindroides 


. 60 


Macha strigillata 


. 253 


discors 


. 63 



336 INDEX. 











PAGE 


ivl nrimlo fi i 9/*Y0Y\fi*fi 9 




63 


Mysca 


07 


Eur op 6(1 ■ 




. 62 


Mysia Americana 


. 146 






58 


Montagui 


. 144 


grandis • 




57 


ornata . . 


. 148 


A a/ ft 18 99 ft 




61 


Mvtilus nhhrpuiaft/n 




TYiJirYYinrjitft 

Hi Cll J C*LC* ■ 




62 


ajffi'nxs . • 


53 


LLL\J M 1 w 1 11 o • 




57 


UtCC/V f/llO • • 




JJU'JJ llU/lUi * 




57 


fivtrtiilfifim 

it ft t f /'lift no • ■ 




Patagncs 




60 


dzw tiauoruTn » , 


53 


Y\Y\ n Qpnl inn 

| < 1 1 il ■M. U i 1 1 1 (I • 




59 


nftt*fMftfi/ 9 


^7 


Vvwl p nil Yin inn 




64 


hfiTPftt )X 

\J\JI I '< ■ to • ( 


53 


rhombea . 




64 


curtus 


57 


S6F1C63. • 




61 


curvirostris . ( 


57 


t t ' 1 / 1 t 1 L U * 




62 


dpYinntiiR 


55 


111/1 fffti*} 9 




57 


flil ntntiiR 

tttl'tt tit EtO ■ 


53 


1\T nil i nl ft vi ft 




55 


pniilm 


52 


Modiolarca . • 




55 


elcgans . 


52 






55 


Jiavus . 


53 


1\T fiyi fkpfiiifii/i Pft 

irS U/lU^Uf 11*/ y ICW • 




97 


ft ft! 1 fiYiV f\V>i Yi PI fit 1 9 


53 


Ivl fiTi fifl ft PYi ft 




. 151 


hpsnprmnti** 


55 


Montacuta bidentata 




. 126 


iticurvatus 


52 


/*)// i*J /"/ 1*1 f* ft 




131 


91 fit* ft fit 9 


53 


LH'JIilLilJcl • 




131 


viPiliiPifltia 


52 


■Poy*vil fll up ft 

i Ct / Uy l/ltZW • 




130 


fit finfittl 9 


53 


ferruginosa 




. 129 


vetusus . • 


53 


glabra 




. 129 


sericeus 


61 


f\J it r\Yi ft ft 
uuiu/iyii> • 




. 129 


9ft flit f ft ttt 9 

oily IV (-t*t- c*o • 


53 


fti'ft fa 




130 


tf/l / 3 4" ft 1*111 9 




VMIIYlll ft 




. 124 


owntrtr// fill 9 


53 


en r\o 1 1*1 n til 




128 


utnbilicatus . 


^7 


i ,i , , it I 1 ft 




1 "30 


vulgaris • 


> ' _ 


t fi mpota 
I 1 1 1 1 LtLul > 




1 27 


Mytilicardia • . 




Ivf^iTi ni ft 




. 240 






A/)/ 9Pi/f)I£ 

i'l HOC WO • • 




52 






My a scuta • 




27Q 


i\aia • • 


. 97 


armaria . • 




27Q 


"Sfftiflpfi • 

iVUtUt.lt 1 • • 


. 97 


I ft lrt 

lata . 




97Q 


r\I ft in pit I ft 


. 75 


mercenarxa 




97Q 


il t,cJL-l i* Ui ZZUll I/O I / to « 


. 273 


ovalis • 




• 4/ o 




. 273 


pullus 


■ •*-v*t\ 


978 




. 272 


subovata 




. 279 


Neithea 


. 20 


subtruncata 




. 279 


Nicania ♦ 


. 172 


Swainsoni 




. 278 


Nuciuella miliaris 


. 7,3 


truncate . 




. 277 


Nucula argentea 


. 85 


Uddevallensis 




. 278 


Cobboldise 


. 82 


Myalina 




. 117 


corbulo'ides 


. 95 


Myrtea 




. 138 


decipiens 





INDEX. 



337 



PAGE 

Nucula depressa . . .91 

yibbosa . . .95 

hyperborea . . .90 

Jacksoni . . .93 

laevigata . . .81 

lenticula . . .95 

lucida . . .84 

margaritacea . . .85 

minata . . ,92 

nitida . . .91 

nucleus . . .85 

oblonga . . .93 

oblongo'ides . . .90 

Philippiana . . .95 

pyymcea . . .95 

rostrata . . .92 

Ryckholtiana . . .84 

Thraciceformis . . .96 

tenera . . .84 

tenuis . . .84 

tenuisulcata . . .93 

trigonula . . .86 

trimcata . . .94 

Nuculina . . . .72 

Nux . . . .106 

Obliquaria . . . .97 

Obovaria . . . .97 

Odatelia . . . .101 

Odoncinetus . . . .258 
Omala .... 224 

Orbiculus . . . .214 

Oreada . . . .172 

Ortygia . . . .209 

Osteodesma . . . .258 

Ostrea borealis . . .13 

deformis . . .13 

denticulata . . .13 

edulis . . .13 

foliosa . . .13 

hippopus . . .13 

lamellosa . . .13 

parasitica . - .13 

princeps . . .17 

spectrum • . .13 

unduJata . . .17 

ungulata . • .13 



PAGE 

Oxysma . . . .49 

Palliolum . . . .21 

Pandora glacialis . . .271 

insequivalvis . . . 270 

margaritacea . . .2/1 

obtusa . . .271 

Pinna . . .271 

rostrata . . .271 

Panopsea Aldrovandi . . . 283 

Americana . . . 283 

arctica . . .282 

Bivonce . . .282 

Faujasii . . . 283 

gentilis . . . 283 

glycimeris . . .281 

Ipsviciensis . . .283 

Norvegica . . .281 

Spengleri . . . 282 

refiexa . . . 283 

Paphia deaurata . . . 250 

Papyridea . . . .151 

Parallelopipedum . . .75 

Partularia . . . .101 

Paxyodon . . . .97 

Pecten aspersus . . .30 

Audouinii . . .35 

Bruei . . . .29 

complanatus . . .23 

Clintonius . . .31 

Danicus . . .30 

distortus . . .33 

domesticus . . .27 

dubius . . 38 

Dumasii . . .30 

elongatus . . .33 

Jlaous . . . .35 

fragilis . . .45 

Gerard ii . . .24 

glabris . . .30 

gloria-maris . . .33 

gracilis . . .37 

grandis . . .23 

Islandicus . . .40 

Jamesoni . . .30 

Lamalii . . .29 

Icevis . . . .27 



44 



338 



INDEX. 





PAGE 




:cten limatus 


. 33 


Pectunculus numrniformis 


lineatus 


. 35 


pilosus 


Malvince 


. 35 


polyodonta 


maximus 


. 22 


pulvinatus . 


medius 


. 23 


pusillus 


monotis 


. 41 


pygmceus 


muricatus 


. 38 


subobliquus 


obsoletus 


. 27 


sulcatus 


opercularis 


. 35 


transversa . 


Pandorce 


. 29 


undatus 


parvus 


. 27 


variabilis . 


Pealii . 


. 40 


Pelecypoda 


pictus . 


. 29 


Pennaria 


plebeius 


. 35 


Pera 


Princeps 


. 31 


Peroncea 


Pseudamusium 


. 30 


Perlamater 


pulchellinus 


. 35 


Petasunculus . 


pusio . 


. 33 


Petricolarius . 


pygmceus 


. 25 


Petrifora 


radians 


. 35 


Phacoides 


reconditus 


. 35 


Pholadidea Loscombiana 


rectangulus 


. 35 


papyracea 


scabrellus 


. 38 


striata 


septemradiatus 


. 30 


Pholalomya candido'ides 


serratus 


33 


Esmarkii 


similis 


. 23 


hesterna 


sinuosus 


. 33 


Pholas bifrons 


Sowerbyi 


. 35 


crispata 


spinosus 


. 33 


cylindrica 


squamulosus 


. 33 


lamellata 


stria tus 


. 33 


papyracea 


sublcevigatus 


. 31 


parva . 


subdiaphanus 


. 24 


Pholidea 


subrufus 


. 35 


I Pholeobia 


sulcatus 


. 35 


Pinna ingens . 


tigrinus 


. 27 


pectinata 


triradiatus 


. 30 


Pisidium amnicum 


tumescens 


. 38 


fontinalis 


tumidus 


. 25 


Henslowianum 


varius 


. 41 


obliquum 


ventilabrum 


. 38 


pulcliellum 


20-sulcatus 


V 35 


pusillmn 


Pectunculina . 


. 69 


Pisum 


Pectunculus decussatus . 


. 67 


Plagiola 


glycimeris . 


. 66 


Plagiostornas . 


latiarca 


. 67 


Pleurobema . 


nummarius . 


. 67 


Pleuronectes . 



INDEX. 



339 





PAGE 




PAGK 


Pleurodon 


. 72 


Scacchia elliptica 


. 121 


Polyodonta 


. 80 


ovata 


. 123 


Pororaya anatinoides 


. 268 


Sculinaria 


. 97 


granulata 


. 268 


Scapharca 


. 75 


Poronia rubra 


. 125 


Scaphida 


. 75 


Potamida 


. 97 


Scaphura 


. 75 


Potomomya 


. 273 


Scrobicularia . 


. 235 


Prisodon 


. 97 


Semele 


. 235 


Propter a 


. 97 


Senilia 


. 75 


Psammobia affinis 


. 222 


Serripes 


. 151 


Dumontii 


. 222 


Serrula 


. 218 


Ferroensis . 


. 222 


Siphonium 


. 298 


florida 


. 223 


Solecurtus 


. 252 


Icevis 


. 222 


Solena 


. 254 


muricata 


. 222 


Solenarius 


. 254 


tellinella 


. 223 


Solen candidus 


. 253 


vespertina . 


. 223 


curvus . 


. 256 


Psammocola . 


. 221 


ensis 


. 256 


Psammophila . 


. 250 


ensiformis 


. 256 


Psammosolen . 


. 252 


gladiolus 


. 255 


Psammoteea . 


. 221 


Hausmanni 


. 256 


Pseudarnusium 


. 20 


ligula . 


. 256 


Psilopus 


. 160 


novacida 


. 256 


Pteria 


. 51 


siliqua . 


. 256 


Ptychina 


. 133 


strigellatus 


. 253 


Pullastra 


. 201 


tenuis . 


. 258 


Puschia 


. 172 


Sphsenia angulata 


. 289 


Pyxis 


. 20 


Binghami 


. 276 






costulata 


. 128 


Quadrula 


. 97 


cylindrica 


. 288 






Sphcerella 


. 143 


Rhornbo'ides 


. 284 


Spharium 


. 106 


Rhombus 


. 284 


Swainsoni 


. 278 


Rotundaria 


. 97 


Spisida truncata 


. 245 






Stola 


. 161 


Sanguinolariafusca 


. 231 


Strophulus 


. 101 


Saxicava arctica 


. 287 


Symphynota . 


. 112 


carinata 


. 239 


Syndosmya 


. 237 


distorta 


. 286 


Syntoxia 


97 


fragilis 


. 288 






gallicana 


. 285 


Tapes aurea . 


. 202 


pholadis 


. 286 


perovalis 


. 203 


rhornbo'ides 


. 287 


texturata 


. 204 


rubra 


. 287 


virginea 


. 201 


rugosa 


. 285 


Taras 


. 136 


striata 


285 


Tel limy a 


. 119 


sulcata 


. 286 


Tellina Balthica 


. 231 



340 



INDEX. 



Tellina balaustina 
Benedenii 
calcarea 

carnaria 
crassa . 
discors 
donacilla 
donacina 
edentula 
fabula . 
Groenlandiea 
inconspicua 
lata . 
Llantivyi 
lusoria 
metadata 
obliqua 
obtusa . 
ovala . 
ovalis . 
ovaloides 
praetenuis 
proximo, 
rigida . 
rubra . 
sabulosa 
scabra . 
semistriata 
solid ula 
sordida 
subcarinata 
subrotunda 
tenera . 
tenuilamellosa 
triangularis 
trifasciata 
variegata 
zonaria 
zonata 
Teredarius 
Teredo Bruguieri 
navalis 
Norvegica 
Tetraplodon 
Thovana 

Thracia Conradi 
convexa 



PAGE 

227 
230 
228 
231 
226 
232 
234 
233 
228 
232 
231 
231 
, 228 
. 233 
. 233 
. 226 
. 228 
. 226 
. 228 
. 228 
. 227 
. 230 
. 228 
. 226 
. 231 
. 228 
. 226 
. 232 
. 231 
. 228 
. 233 
. 226 
. 228 
. 227 
. 228 
. 233 
. 233 
. 230 
. 231 
. 298 
. 301 
. 300 
. 300 
. 97 
. 294 
. 261 
. 261 



Thracia inflata 

phaseolina 
pubescens 
veutricosa 
Timoclea ovata 
Thyatira 
Thyatisa 
Theliderma 
Trigonella plana 
Trigonoccelia sublcevigala 
Tridonta 
Triquetra 
Trisidos 
Trisis 
Truncilla 
Trutina 
Tuceta 
Turtonia 

Ungidina 
Unio antiquior 
granosus 
incurvus 
littoralis 
nana 
ovalis 
Pianensis 
pictoreum 
subtetragonus 
rostrata 
tumidus 
Uniopsis 
TJperotus 
Urynia 



Vagina 

Fenericardia antiquata . 
anceps 
chamceformis 
corbis 
intermedia 
orbicularis 
scalaris 



Venerirupis 
Venerupis irus 



INDEX. 



341 





PAGE 




PAOB 


V enerupis Lajonkairei 


. 148 


Venus ochropicta 


. 208 


Venus JEnea . 


. 202 


ovata . 


. 213 


aurea . 


. 202 


Paphia 


. 211 


Brogniarti 


. 211 


pectinula 


. 213 


bucardium 


. 196 


pectunculus 


. 208 


casina 


. 210 


pumila 


. 198 


cannula 


. 210 


radiata 


. 213 


chione 


. 207 


rejtexa 


. 210 


circinata 


. 139 


rhomboides 


. 201 


cincta 


. 210 


Rusteruccii 


. 210 


compressa 


. 175 


rustica 


. 197 


Cyrilli 


. 198 


rudis . 


. 208 


cycfadifortnis 


. 208 


rupestris 


. 205 


Damnonia 


. 182 


sarniensis 


. 201 


discina 


. 210 


senilis . 


. 210 


equalis 


. 196 


similis . 


. 210 


exoleta 


. 215 


sinuata 


. 213 


fasciata 


. 211 


Scolica 


. 182 


fragilis 


. 145 


spadicea 


. 213 


gallina 


. 210 


sulcata 


. 210 


gibbosa 


. 210 


texturata 


. 204 


imbricata 


. 212 


triangularis 


. 198 


incrassata 


. 178 


turgida 


. 210 


Islandica 


. 196 


V enetiana 


. 208 


lactea . 


. 213 


virago . 


. 202 


Iceta . 


. 201 


virginea 


. 201 


lentiformis 


. 215 


Venulites 


. 209 


lincta . 


. 213 


Velorita 


. 103 


literata 


. 203 


V erticordia 


. 149 


Lupinoides 


. 148 


V olselta 


. 55 


lupina 


. 213 






mercenaria 


. 196 


Xylophagus . 


. 298 


minima 


. 198 


Xylotrya 


. 298 


Montagui 


. 183 






multilumen osa 


. 210 


Yoldia 


. 87 


nebulosa 


. 202 






nitens . 


. 202 


Zirfcca crispata 


. 296 



INDEX TO APPENDIX. 



Anatina convexa 
Aplysia? asciola 
Assiminea Grayiana 

Buccinum ciliatum 
Bulla acuminata 

ampulla 

conuloidea 

hydatis . 

Cancellaria scalaroides 
Cardium aculeatum 
Ceratisolen legumen 
Crassina propinqua 
Cryptodon sinuosum 
Cytherea laevigata 

Fossarus sulcatus 
Fusus Bamffius 

Barvicensis 

crispus ? 

curtus . 

Forbesii 

Helix fruticum 
incarnata 
ruderata 

Jeffreysia? patula 

Lacuna vincta 
Limopsis pygmsea 
Littorina neritoides 
rudis 
palliata 
suboperta 
Lucina columbella 
Lucinopsis undata 
Lutraria rugosa 

soleno'ides 



PAGE 

327 
322 
318 

315 
322 
322 
321 
322 

316 

326 
327 
326 
324 
, 326 

. 317 

. 314 

. 314 

. 314 

. 314 

. 314 

. 308 
. 309 
. 309 

. 319 



Mactra triangulata 
Margarita undulata 
Mitra cornea . 

ebenus 

plicifera 

Nassa Monensis 
Pliocena 
pygmsea 
reticulata 
Natica Alderi . 

Bowerbankii 
Smithii 

Odostomia cono'idea 
eulimo'ides 
truncatula 
unidentata 

Paludina marginata 

parilis 
Patella pellucida 
Pecten maximus 

polymorphus 
Pholadidea 
Pyrula acclinis 

Rissoa soluta 

Thermalis 



316 

324 

317 

317 

317 

317 

324 

326 

325 

325 



Tapes decussata 
pullastra 
Trocbus crenularis 

magus 
Tropbon Fabricii 

Norvegicum 
propinquum 
Turtoni 

Venus gallina 

verrucosa 



PAGE 

324 
321 
311 
310 
311 

315 
315 
315 
315 
321 
321 
321 

, 317 

. 317 

. 318 

. 317 

. 320 

. 320 

. 326 

. 323 

. 323 

. 325 

. 311 

. 318 
. 319 

. 327 

. 327 

. 321 

. 321 

. 313 

. 312 

. 313 

. 312 

. 326 
. 326 



J. B. ADLARD, PRINTER, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



TAB. XXI. 



Fig. 

1. Tellina crassa, p. 226. From Red Crag, Sutton. 

e, portion of surface enlarged. 

2. Tellina Benedenii, p. 230. From Red Crag, Sutton. 

a, b, show similarity of form in siphonal scar. 
d, shows the equal tumidity of the two valves. 

The siphonal side of fig. 2 a, was filled up by mistake ; the specimen from which 
the figure was taken is imperfect, extending only to the fracture. 

3. Tellina fabula, right valve, p. 232. 

4. Tellina balaustina, p. 227. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

d, enlarged portion of surface. 

5. Tellina praetenuis, p. 230. From Red Crag, Sutton. 

6. Tellina lata, p. 228. 

7. Tellina obliqua, p. 228. 

b, c, show the dissimilar forms of the siphonal scar. 

Note. This plate was engraved March, 1854. 



TAB. XXII. 



Fig. 

1. Tellina Balthica, p. 231. 

a, b, specimen from Clacton, found in clay, with Unio littoral 
c, specimen from Mam. Crag of Norfolk. 

2. Psammobia vespertina, p. 222. 

a, b, representation of a monster valve from Sudbourne. 
c, d, specimen from Ramsholt. 

3. Psammobia Ferroensis, p. 221. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

4. Psammobia Tellinella, p. 223. „ „ 

5. Tellina donacina, p. 233. „ 

6. Tellina donacilla, p. 234. ,, „ 

7. Donax vittatus, p. 219. From Mam. Crag, Bramerton. 

8. Donax trunculus, p. 219. From Red Crag, Sutton. 

9. Donax politus, p. 220. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

10. Abra alba, p. 237. „ „ 

c, enlarged hinge of right valve. 

11. Abra obovalis, p. 240. 

c, enlarged hinge of right valve. 

12. Abra fabalis, p. 238. From Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

13. Abra prismatica, p. 239. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

14. Trigonella plana, p. 235. 

a, c, show difference of form in palleal impression. 



TAB. XXIII. 



Fig. 

1. Mactra ovalis, p. 246. 

a, b, specimen from Mam. Crag, Chillesford. 
c, d, specimen from Red Crag, Sutton. 

2. Mactra glauca, p. 241. From Red Crag, Newbourne. 

3. Mactra stultorum. p. 242. „ Sutton. 

4. Mactra artopta, p. 244. „ Sudbourne. 

5. Mactra arcuata, p. 243. 

a, specimen from Ramsholt, Cor. Crag. 

b, c, specimen from Walton Naze, Red Crag. 



TAB. XXIV. 



Fig. 

1. Lutraria elliptica, p. 251. From Coralline Crag, Ramsholt. 

2. Mactra truncata, p. 245. 

3. Mactra subtruncata, p. 247. 

a, specimen from Sutton. 

b, specimen from Bramerton. 

4. Mactra solida, p. 245. From Red Crag, Sutton. 

c, a triangular variety probably of this species. It much resembles M. striata, 
Smith, ' Wern. Trans.,' vol. viii, pi. 1, fig. 22, but it has the two sides more 
equal. 

5. Mactra obtruncata, p. 248. From Red Crag, Sutton. 

6. Mactra constricta, p. 249. „ „ 

7. Mactra deaurata, p. 249. 

8. Mactra procrassa, p. 244. 



TAB 




TAB. XXV. 



Fig. 

1. Gastrana laminosa, p. 217. From Coralline Crag, Sudbourne. 

d, e, specimen distorted. From Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

2. Cultellus tenuis, p. 258. From Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

c, d, hinge of both valves slightly enlarged. 

3. Macha strigillata, p. 252. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

4. Pandora Pinna, p. 270. 

5. Pandora inrequivalvis, p. 270. 

6. Solen ensis, p. 256. From Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

a — d, various specimens showing different proportionate dimensions. 

e, f, exhibit muscular impressions. 

7. Solen siliqua, p. 255. From Red Crag, Sutton. 

b, d, interior view, to show difference in muscular impressions. 

c, a small elongated specimen, with valves united. 

8. Solen gladiolus, p. 254. From Red Crag, Walton Naze.* 

* In support of the presumption assumed in the note at page 255, that the Red Crag is not wholly 
derivative, it may be further remarked, that at the part of the cliff whence this specimen was obtained, 
there are no extraneous fossils whatever, at least none that I have been able to discover, which could be 
decidedly said were foreign to the deposit. The shells here rest immediately upon the London Clay, and 
are in the highest state of perfection ; not only are there many Bivalves in their natural position, but the 
numerous specimens of the reversed variety of Trophon antiquum have the fragile apex or pullus seldom or 
never removed. Many species are also found that are not met with in the Coralline Crag; though this 
latter evidence is not of itself conclusive, it helps to sustain the argument deduced from the perfection of 
the specimens. The whole aspect of the Fauna at this locality differs from that of the White, or Coralline 
Crag ; the same also may be said of its lithological character, and, in my opinion, the probabilities are greatly 
in favour of the Red Crag, certainly at Walton-on-the-Naze, being pure and genuine, and of an Age 
geologically subsequent to the Coralline Crag. 



TAIt .XX 




TAB. XXVI. 



Fig. 

1. Thracia pubescens, p. 259. From Coralline Crag, Sudbourne. 

e, a distorted specimen, probably the young of this species. (Thracia detrun- 
cata, S. Wood. ' Catalogue of Crag Shells.') 

2. Thracia phaseolina, p. 260. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

c, a short var., or perhaps the young of pubescens. 

3. Cochlodesma complanatum, p. 263. From Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

4. Cochlodesma praetenerum, p. 264. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

5. Thracia ventricosa, p. 262. ,, Ramsholt. 

6. Thracia infiata, p. 261. „ Sudbourne. 



TAB . XXVJ. 




6 a. 



TAB. XXVII. 



Panopea Faujasii, p. 283. 

a, b, c, from the Coralline Crag, Sudbourne. 
d, e, var. gentilis. From the Red Crag. 



TJLS . XXVII 




TAB. XX VIII. 



1. Mya truncata, p. 277. 

a, b, from Coralline Crag, at Ramsholt. 

c, var. Uddevallensis. From the Clyde Beds. 

(/, c, var. pullus. From the Red Crag 1 , at Butley. 

2. Mya arenaria, p. 279. 

a, b, from the Red Crag, Sutton. 

d, e, var. lata. From the Red Crag, Sutton. 

c, distorted specimen, from the Mammal iferous Crag, Bramerton. 
/, cartilage plate of var. lata. 



TAB. XXV777. 




TAB. XXIX. 



Fig. 

1. Panopea Norvegica, p. 281. 

a, b, d, specimens from Chillesford, showing the siphonal side considerably 

the shorter of the two. 
c, specimen from the Red Crag, Sutton, siphonal side the larger. 

2. Glycimeris angusta, p. 291. 

a, c, d, from the Coralline Crag, Sudbourne. 

b, specimen rather more elongated, and less twisted, from the Red Crag, Sutton. 

3. Saxicava rugosa, p. 285. 

a, b, var. sulcata. Bridlington. 

e, var. rustica. Valves united; from the Red Crag, Sutton. 
/, var. distorta. Coralline Crag, Sutton. 
g, var. cylindrica. Red Crag, Butley. 

4. Saxicava arctica, p. 287. 

a, (Mytilus prascisus, Mont.) Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

b, (Solen minutus, Mont.) „ „ 

c, (Agina purpurea, Turt.) ,, ,, 

5. Saxicava ? carinata ? p. 289. „ „ 

a — d, figures enlarged ; e, natural size. 

6. Saxicava? fragilis, p. 288. Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

a — d, figures enlarged ; e, natural size., 

7. Sphenia? Binghami? p. 276. Figure enlarged. Coralline Crag, Sutton. 



TAB. XXX. 



Fig. 

1 . Pholadomya hesterna, p. 266. From Coralline Crag, Ramsholt. 

c, hinge ; d, portion of shell magnified to show the granulated or shagreen 
surface. 

2. Corbula complanata, p. 275. From Red Crag, Sutton. , 

3. Corbula striata, p. 274. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

4. Corbula rosea r p. 275. ,, „ 

5. Poromya granulata, p. 268. ,, „ 

e,f, hinge of both valves magnified, to show the fosse for internal ligament. 

6. Nesera cuspidata, p. 273. A fragment only. The outline is imaginary. From 

Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

7. Nesera jugosa, p. 272. The line denotes the natural size. From Coralline Crag, 

Sutton. 

8. Pholas cylindrica, p. 295. From Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

d, accessory valve, probably of this species. 

9. Pholas crispata, p. 296. From Red Crag, Walton Naze. 

10. Pholadidea papyracea, p. 298. Figured from two fragments connected by an 

outline. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

1 1 . Gastrochsena dubia, p. 292. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

c, incrassated portion of the neck of its flask-like envelope. 

d, represents the siphonal apertures. 

12. Teredo Norvagica, p. 300. From Coralline Crag, Sutton. 

c, posterior portion of tube, showing camerated partitions. 

d, fragment of a thick tube ; natural size. 



TAB. TLX 




APPENDIX. TAB. XXXI. 



Fig. Page 

1. Trophon Norvegicum . 312 

2. Trophon Turtoni . .312 

3. Trophon prop inquum ? . 313 

b, apex enlarged. 

4. Trophon Fabricii . .313 

5. Nassa pygmsea . .315 

6. Pvrula acclinis . .311 

b, a portion of the matrix, 
with impression of the ex- 
terior surface. 

7. Mitra ebenus, nat. size . 310 

8. Mitra plicifera . .311 

9. Cancellaria scalaroi'des . 316 

10. Rissoa soluta . .318 

11. Odostomia unidentata . 317 

12. Rissoa Thermalis? . . 319 

b, apex enlarged. 

13, a, b. Lacuna vincta . .316 

14, a, b. Jeffrey sia ? patula . 319 

15, a, b. Helix ruderata . . 309 



Fig. 


Page 


16. Odostomia truncatula r 


. 318 


17, a, b. Helix incarnata 


. 309 


18, a, b. Paludina marginata 


. 320 


19, a, b. Helix fruticum . 


. 308 


20. Pecten polymorphus 


. 323 


21. Mactra triangulata . 


. 324 



d, hinge of right valve enlarged. 
a, exterior slightly enlarged to 
show regularity of ridges. 

22. Helix arbustorum . . 306 

23. Pholadidea . . 325 

24. Aplysia ? asciola . . 322 

a, b, outside and inside views. 

25. Pecten maximus . . 323 

var. larvatus. 

outside view of flat valve. 

26. Lutraria rugosa . . 325 

a, inside view of left valve. 

b, outside view of right valve. 



Note. The lines denote the size of specimens. 



T. XXXI, 




THE 



PALiEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 



LONDON: 



M DCCCLVI. 



MONOGRAPH 



ON 



E FOSSIL REPTILI A 



OF THE 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



PART III. 

MEGALOSAURUS BUCKLANDI. 



BY 

PROFESSOR OWEN, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. 



PRINTED FOR THE 



LONDON : 

PALiEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 
1856. 



ADLAKD, PRINTEK, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



MONOGRAPH 

ON 

THE FOSSIL REP T ILIA 

OF THE 

WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



Order— DINOSA UBIA. 

Genus — Megalosaurus,* BucMand. 

Dentes laniarii, subcompressi, marginibm minute serratis. 

The order or group of Dinosaurian Reptiles, briefly characterised in a preceding- 
Monograph, f includes at least three well-established genera, resembling each other in 
having a large and complex sacrum, composed of five or more anchylosed vertebras ; 
in the height, breadth, and outward sculpturing of the neural arch of the dorsal 
vertebrae ; in the twofold articulation of the ribs, or some of the anterior moveable 
ribs, to the vertebrae ; and in having broad, and sometimes complex coracoids, and long 
and slender clavicles; whereby a Lacertian type of the pectoral arch is combined 
with a crocodilian type of the true vertebrae, and both with an ornithic type of 
sacrum. 

These remarkable extinct Dinosaurs were of large, if not gigantic, size ; with the 
trunk lifted, higher than in other reptiles, upon four unusually developed limbs ; the 
principal bones of which are remarkable for the prominence and number of the 
apophyses relating to muscular attachments, for the size of the medullary cavity, and 
for the density of its compact bony wall : the limbs are terminated by metacarpal or 
metatarsal, and by phalangeal bones, which, with the exception of the ungual phalanges, 



* Mr/as, great, oavpos, lizard. 



f ' Paloeontograpbical Society,' vol. 185.3. 

1 



2 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



more or less resemble those of the horny pachydermal mammals, and attest, with the 
hollow long bones, the terrestrial habits of the species. 

Of these gigantic Dinosauria the most formidable was that which its discoverer, that 
keen observer and original thinker, the Rev. Dr. Buckland, has called " Megalosaurus,*" 
in reference to the idea of its hugeness, which was suggested to both him and Baron Cuvier 
by certain of its limb-bones. " Si Ton pouvait donner," writes Cuvier, " le nom de Lacerta 
gigantea a un autre animal qu'a celui de Maastricht, c'estl'espece actuelle qui le meriterait; 
son seul femur, long de trente-deux pouces anglais ou 805 ; annoncerait, en lui suppo- 
sant les proportions d'un Monitor, une longueur totale de plus de quarante-cinq pieds de 
roi, et meme, s'il y a de ces femurs de quatre pieds et plus, comme on Pa dit, sa 
longueur serait encore plus etonnante."f 

The locality where the first rightly recognised remains of the Megalosaurus were 
found was Stonesfield, near Woodstock, about twelve miles from Oxford. The 
formation is that calcareous schist, which, being quarried for roofing houses principally 
at Stonesfield, is called, in most English geological works, " Stonesfield slate." Its 
position is at the base of the great Middle Oolitic series, where it may be, perhaps, 
more accurately classed as an upper member of the Inferior Oolite. 

To get at this slate, pits are sunk through forty-feet or more of superincumbent 
strata, chiefly consisting of that hard oolitic rock called " cornbrash" by the quarry- 
men. The schistose or slaty deposit is not more than six feet thick; and the scepticism 
with which the first announcement of bones of large animals in stony strata at that 
depth was received, is exemplified by the stress with which Cuvier thought it needful 
to insist on the fact that the Stonesfield slate was as regular a formation as it was an 
ancient one, and that there was no ground for supposing that the fossil bones which 
it contained had penetrated it by any fissure or other accidental opening. 

The portions of skeleton originally discovered, and attributed by Dr. Buckland to 
his newly defined genus, Megalosaurus, consisted of a fragment of the lower jaw, a 
femur, a series of five vertebrae of the trunk, a few ribs, a coracoid bone, a clavicle, 
and some less certainly recognisable fragments.! 

Unfortunately, as Cuvier has remarked, those portions were not found together in 
one spot, nor, with the exception of the five vertebras, were the bones associated two 
to two, or three to three, so as to make it probable that they belonged to the same 
individual ; and, with regard to their zoological or anatomical relations, Cuvier further 
observes that these are of a somewhat equivocal and mixed nature, " encore ces 
rapports zoologiques sont-ils dune nature assez equivoque et assez melangee."§ 

* See ' Transactions of the Geological Society of London,' 4to, vol. i, 2d ser., pt. 2, 1824. 

t 'Ossemens Fossiles,' 4to, vol. v, pt. 2, p. 343. 

X ' Geological Transactions,' vol. i, 2d ser., p. 427. 

§ Tom. cit., p. 345. 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 3 

This side-blow to Dr. Buckland's determination has been repeated by later foreign 
palaeontologists. M. Deslongchamps, for example, has remarked, " Qu'il n'y a de bien 
decidement constate, comme Megalosaurus, que les dents ; car les autres pieces 
osseuses, que Ton rattache a ce genre, y concordent a la verite par la taille et parce 
qu'elles ont ete trouvee dans les memes bancs, mais non dans le meme bloc."* The 
Megalosaurus, in fact, was not the only gigantic reptile which the Stonesfield slate was 
then known to have contained ; but, up to the present time, it has been the sole 
representative of the Dinosaurian order in that formation ; and the combination of the 
characteristic modifications of the sacrum, scapular arch, and great limb-bones, 
in skeletons of the same individual of the Iguanodon, and equally proved to coexist in 
the Hylaeosaurus, has added greatly to the probability of the disjoined complex sacrum, 
dorsal, and lumbar vertebrae, coracoid, and the large hollow femur, from the Stonesfield 
slate, which, though Dinosaurian, were neither Iguanodontal nor Hylaeosaurian, having 
belonged to a distinct species of great Dinosaur : to no other reptile, indeed, could the 
portion of jaw, with teeth manifesting in their structure and mode of implantation the 
same transitional or annectant characters between the Crocodilia and Lacertilia as the 
above-cited parts of the skeleton present, be, with greater probability, referred, than to 
the peculiar Dinosaurian Carnivore to which the parts of the skeleton above defined 
certainly belonged. 

To my own mind the above reasoning, strengthened by repeated instances of the 
occurrence of Megalosaurian teeth, with vertebrae, sacrum or portions of sacrum, 
coracoids, and femora, of the same species as those from Stonesfield ascribed to 
Megalosaurus, in Weal den and Oolitic formations of other localities, has produced a 
conviction that the parts to be described in the present Monograph do belong to one 
and the same species. 

There is, moreover, a peculiar smoothness of surface and compactness of exterior 
osseous layers, common to the portions of toothed jaws with the other parts of 
the skeleton, that immediately suggest to the practised anatomical eye the idea of their 
being specifically identical. The microscopic character of the osseous tissue from the 
above-named bones is also the same ; but on this evidence I should not lay much 
stress, since the difference is not, at least to me, appreciable between the Megalosaurus, 
Poikilopleuron, and Streptospondylus, in regard to the microscopic characters of the bone. 

The bodies of the sacral vertebrae, as the five vertebrae of the Megalosaurus first 
discovered have proved to be,f are remarkable for their median constriction, and the 
almost cylindrical form of the transverse section of that part; and the repetition of 
these and some minor characters in vertebrae of the same size from other parts of the 
trunk, as, e.g., in a detached dorsal and caudal vertebra obtained from Stonesfield 

* 1 Sur le Poikilopleuron Bucklandi,' 4to, p. 52. 

+• Report on British Fossil Reptiles, Part II, ' Trans, of the British Association,' 1841, p. 105. 



4 FOSSIL REPTIL1A OF THE 

with the original series of Megalosaurian remains, have sufficed for the determination 
of subsequently discovered and better-preserved specimens of detached vertebrae of 
the Megalosaurus from other localities. 



Dorsal vertebrae. 



The Megalosaurus departs, perhaps even more than does the Iguanodon, from the 
existing Crocodiles, Monitors and Lizards, in its vertebral characters. The articulating 
surfaces of the vertebral bodies are very slightly concave, indeed almost flat, presenting 
in that respect the type of the Amphiccelian Crocodiles : the non-articular surface is 
remarkably smooth and polished. The centrum is much contracted in the middle, 
presenting a deep concave outline of the under surface : the margins of the expanded 
articular extremities are thick and rounded off. The almost cylindrical section of the 
middle part of the vertebra arises from its being nipped in, as it were, by a more or 
less deep longitudinal fossa on each side, just below the base of the neural arch; the 
centrum, however, slightly expanding above the fossa to support the arch. 

The length of the base of the neurapophysis is nearly equal to that of the centrum ; 
the suture is persistent, as in Crocodiles ; its course is undulating, and it rises in the 
middle of the centrum. The neurapophysis ascends and inclines outwards, to form, at a 
height above the centrum equal to three fourths its vertical diameter, the margin of a 
broad platform of bone, from the sides of which the upper transverse processes (diapo- 
physes) are developed, and from the middle of the upper surface the spinous process. 
A recent discovery has shown the extraordinary development of the latter 
apophysis in some of the anterior dorsal vertebra?. 

In the Wealden deposits at Battle, Sussex, a large nodule of the ferruginous clay 
had been formed and consolidated around a portion of the skeleton of a Megalosaurus 
consisting of some anterior thoracic vertebrae. In the state in which this 
nodule was submitted to my examination, three almost entire and consecutive 
vertebrae, wanting the ribs, were preserved in natural juxtaposition. A figure 
of this unique specimen, discovered by S. H. Beccles, Esq., f.g.s., was, with 
his kind permission, given in a preceding Monograph.* In a second portion 
of the same nodule two almost entire and consecutive ribs of the right side were 
preserved : a smaller fragment contained the bodies and neural arches of two con- 
secutive vertebrae in natural junction from a more anterior part of the chest than the 
series of the three vertebrae {loc. cit., pi. xix). Two detached vertebrae, wanting the 
spinous process, from a hinder portion of the trunk, had been obtained either from, or 
near to, the above-described large nodule. 



* ' Palseontograpliical Society,' 1855, t. 19. 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



The three vertebrae (loc. cit., tab. xix) retain, what is rarely preserved in such 
complex parts of fossil Saurians, the entire neural spines, ns, and exhibit a disposition 
and proportions of those parts which have not before been noticed in any Dinosaurian, 
or in the dorsal vertebrae of any other reptile, recent or fossil. 

That these vertebrae are from the fore part of the chest is indicated, according to 
the analogy of the Crocodilia and of the Iguanodon, by the articular surfaces for both 
the head and tubercle of the rib, and by the progressive ascent of the surface, p, 
for the head of the rib, as the vertebrae recede in position. By reference to the 
T. XIX, in the previous Monograph, loc. cit., it will be seen that this surface 
slightly projects, and is situated upon the neurapophysial suture in the first, p, ns, but 
above that suture, supported wholly by the neurapophysis, in the third of those 
vertebrae, p, ns 1 '. The megalosaurian character of all of the vertebrae is shown by the 
great, though regular and gradual constriction of the centrum between its articular 
ends, by the corresponding depth of the concave contour lengthwise, and by the almost 
circular form of the transverse section of the lower two thirds of the centrum. The 
non-articular surface of the centrum is smooth and polished, with some longitudinal 
grooves and ridges near the expanded ends, the bodies of which are thick and rounded. 
The side of the centrum is moderately hollowed below the neural suture, and swells 
out, becoming convex vertically, before bending round to the under surface. There 
is a rough tuberosity, t, at the upper and back part of the centrum, which may be 
contributed by the base of the neurapophysis. 

The neural arch offers the same complex structure as in other Dinosauria : a com- 
pressed plate, b, extends obliquely backward from the parapophysis, p, to the diapo- 
physis, d; the latter being supported by a stronger buttress extending outward from 
near the back part of the base of the neurapophysis, and being slightly inclined for- 
ward. Three deep depressions, probably receiving parts of the lungs in the living 
animal, divide these lamelliform buttresses from each other, and from the bases of the 
anterior, z, and posterior, z', zygapophyses. The articular surface of the anterior one 
looks upward and slightly inward, that of the other, downward and slightly 
outward, both being nearly horizontal. The neural platform extends from the outer 
margin of the prezygapophyses, z , to the fore part of the postzygapophyses, The 
back part of the base of the neural spine is formed by two strong ridges, continued 
each from the whole upper part of the postzygapophysis, leaving an intermediate fossa 
for the implantation of a ligament : the base extends forward to the interspace between 
the prezygapophyses, being coextensive lengthwise with the vertebral centrum. 

In the anterior of the three vertebrae the spine, ns, as it rises, slightly decreases in 
fore-and-aft extent, and then as gradually regains its dimension in that direction : after 
contracting transversely to a thickness of eight lines, when two inches above its 
base, it gradually expands to a thickness of one inch and a half at its summit, which 
forms a rough tuberosity, bevelled off obliquely from before upward and backward 



6 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



to within a third of its hinder border, which is flat : the whole height of this spine is 
nine inches, the vertical extent of the entire vertebra being thirteen inches six lines. 
The spine of the second vertebra, ns, l, has a similar size and shape in the basal third 
of its extent, but it expands more gradually, especially transversely, and rises to a 
greater height, continuing to expand in every direction, but especially in the antero- 
posterior one ; the fore part of its thick extremity being produced so as to overlap the 
horizontal part of the end of the shorter spine in front. The sides of the thick 
expanded end of this clavate spine are impressed by irregular decussating ridges, 
indicative of the attachment of strong tendons or ligaments ; and, from the back part 
of the side, six inches below the summit, there projects a tuberosity : a less prominent 
tuberosity forms the border of the overlapping anterior part of the clavate end of the 
spine. The whole length of the spine is 13 inches 6 lines; the vertical extent of the 
entire vertebra being 18 inches 6 lines. 

The neural spine of the third vertebra, ns", is somewhat smaller than the foregoing 
at its most contracted part, three inches above its origin ; but it expands, as it rises, 
attains a height of 14 inches, and is divided, like the foregoing, into a smooth part, 
and a summit impressed by the attachments of the nuchal ligaments or tendons. The 
base of the latter part developes a tuberosity from the fore part and back part of its 
outer side, and there are indications of ossifications in the interspace between it and 
the antecedent spine, which seem to have bound them immoveably together. 

The proportions and external configuration of the spines of these anterior dorsal 
vertebras, the sudden increase of the second spine, the further increase of the third, 
with the indications of the strength of the muscles or nuchal ligaments to which their 
expanded tuberculate summits have given attachment, — all recall characters of the 
spines of the anterior thoracic vertebrae of certain great Mammalia, and much more 
closely resemble those parts in the tiger or rhinoceros than in the crocodile, the gavial, 
or in any of the known existing Lizards. But the production of the summit of the 
second spine, so as to overlap part of that of the first spine, and the partial anchylosis 
of the second with the third spine, together with the great increase in the thickness of 
all the spines toward their summit, are characteristics in a great measure peculiar to 
the present extinct Dinosaurian ; unless, indeed, it participated in them with some other 
members of the same extinct order of reptiles. 

We cannot view this remarkable configuration of the anterior thoracic vertebrae of 
the Megalosaur without being impressed by an idea of the great strength of the muscles 
or ligaments — more probably of the energetically contracting muscles — which were 
implanted in those thick and lofty spines, from which, as from a fixed point, they acted 
upon the nuchal region of the head. The remarkable fossil, therefore, above described, 
yields some insight into the vigour with which such a head, consisting chiefly of the 
well-armed maxillary and mandibular apparatus, must have been made to operate on 
the bodies which the instincts of the Megalosaurus impelled it to grapple with and 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



7 



destroy in the reiterated predatory or combative acts necessitated for its own support 
and preservation. 

Several specimens of dorsal vertebrae of the Megalosaurus, with the spinous pro- 
cess broken away, have come under my observation. The largest of these, preserved 
in the Geological Museum at Oxford, gives the following dimensions : 

In. Lines. 

Length of centrum . . . . . . .4 6 

Height of ditto ....... 4 3 

Breadth of ditto across articular surface . . . . .3 9 

Breadth of ditto across the middle part . . . . .2 6 

The proportions and configuration of the neural arch agree with those of the more 
perfect vertebrae from the Wealden at Battle. The height of the spinous process of 
this vertebra, according to that marked ns! 1 in T. XIX, he. cit., would not be less than 
18 inches. 

The upper part of the centrum is impressed by the spinal canal, which expands at 
each end, but chiefly behind. One or two vascular canals are sometimes present at 
the under part of the centrum, but are neither so large nor so regular as in the 
Plesiosauri. 

Compared with the Iguanodon (see T. XXXV, of ' Monograph on the Fossil Reptilia 
of the Cretaceous Formations/ Paloeontographical Society, 1854), the sculptured sides 
of the neural arch are lower in proportion to their length in the Megalosaur : the 
anterior zygapophyses are more produced and more angular ; the posterior ones are 
less produced. The depression anterior to the buttress, d, is bounded by the con- 
verging buttress or ridge, b, but this seems not to have been developed in the Iguano- 
don, in which the nearest approach to it is the elevated parapophysis in certain 
vertebrae, as in that figured in T. XXXV, p. There does not appear to have been, in 
the Iguanodon, the depression answering to that in front of the buttress, b, in T. XIX- 

It would seem, from the mutilated lumbar vertebrae of the Megalosaurus in the 
Oxford Museum, figured in Dr. Buckland's original Memoir, pi. xlii, fig. 2, that the 
anterior oblique buttress, b, subsided in the vertebrae in that region. 



Sacral vertebra. Tab*. I, II, and III. 

The sacrum of the Megalosaurus (T. I) consists of five anchylosed vertebrae, and it 
is remarkable, considering how small a proportion of the recognisable bones of this 
rare reptile has been found, that the present characteristic part of the vertebral 
column of three different individuals should have been obtained : one sacrum, from 
Stonesfield, is in the Geological Museum at Oxford; a second sacrum, from Dry 



8 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



Sandford, is in the Museum of the Geological Society ; and a portion of a third sacrum 
(T. II and III), from the Wealden formation, is in the British Museum. 

I have studied each of these specimens with much attention, which a recognition of 
their remarkable structure has well repaid. 

It would seem that Cuvier did not regard the five anchylosed vertebras, figured in 
Dr. Buckland's original Memoir,* as the sacrum of the Megalosaurus. They are 
briefly alluded to in the second and fourth editions of the ' Ossemens Fossiles/ and in 
the description of the Plate (249, ed. iv, 1836), in which Dr. Buckland's figure is 
reproduced as a " Suite de cinq vertebres de Megalosaurus " (p. 23). In truth, the 
sacrum was not known to be represented, at that time, in any Saurian by more than 
two vertebras, and therefore Dr. Buckland mentions this part in his original Memoir as 
" five anchylosed joints of the vertebral column, including the two sacral and two 
others, which are probably referable to the lumbar and caudal vertebras. "f 

In contemplating this series of five anchylosed vertebras, so new in Saurian 
anatomy, at the period of preparing, in 1840, the ' Report on British Fossil Reptiles,' 
for the British Association, my attention was first arrested by the singular position of 
the foramina (T. I, /,/,/) for the transmission of the nerves from the inclosed spinal 
marrow. These holes, which, in the plate illustrating Dr. Buckland's important 
Memoir, are represented above the bodies of the three middle vertebras, are natural 
and are accurately given ; the smooth external surface of the side of the vertebra may be 
traced continuing uninterruptedly through these foramina, over the middle, or nearly 
the middle, of the centrum, into the surface of the spinal canal. 

But the normal position of these foramina throughout the vertebral column in all 
existing Saurians is at the interspace of two vertebras, whence by French anatomists 
these holes are termed "trous du conjugaison." In the sacrum of the Oxford Megalo- 
saur, however, it is evident that above the anchylosed intervertebral space, ?', a thick 
and strong imperforate mass of bone, p, d, ascends to the neural platform, d, leaving it 
to be conjectured either that the nerve had perforated the middle of the neurapophysis, 
or that these vertebral elements had undergone in this region of the spine a change in 
their usual relative position to the centrum. 

Previous researches into the composition and modifications of the vertebras in the 
different classes of Vertebrata soon enabled me to recognise the peculiar condition and 
analogies of the five anchylosed vertebras of the Megalosaurus ; with a view to illus- 
trate which, I shall premise a few observations, on the different relative positions which 
the peripheral vertebral elements may take, in regard to the central part or body. The 
lateral vertebral elements, pleurapophyses, or " vertebral ribs," the inferior laminas or 
hasmapophyses, the superior laminas or neurapophyses, are all subject to such changes ; 
but the neurapophyses are much more constant in their place of attachment than the 



* * Transactions of the Geological Society,' 2d ser., vol. i, pi. 42. 



t lb., p. 395. 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 9 

other elements. In Mammals the ribs for the most part are joined to the interspace 
of two centrums ; in reptiles each pair is attached to a single centrum. In fishes, and 
the Mosasaur among reptiles, the haemapophyses depend, each pair from its proper 
centrum : in most other reptiles and mammals they are articulated to the interspace of 
two vertebrae, leaving a half-impression on each of the contiguous centrums. The 
neurapophyses present a degree of constancy in their relation to the body of the 
vertebra corresponding with the importance of their function. In Mammals I know of 
no exception to the rule, that each neural arch is supported by a single centrum : 
among reptiles the Chelonia* offer in those vertebras in which the expanded spinous 
processes contribute to form the carapace, the interesting modification analogous to 
those noticed in the lateral and inferior vertebral elements, viz., a shifting of the neura- 
pophyses from the middle of the body to the interspace of two adjoining centrums, 
whereby that part of the spine subject to greatest pressure is more securely locked 
together, and a slight yielding or elastic property is superadded to the support of the 
neural arch. 

The same modification is introduced into the long sacrum of birds ;f each neural 
arch is there supported by two contiguous vertebrae, the interspace of which is opposite 
the middle of the base of the arch above, and the nervous foramen is opposite the 
middle of each centrum. It is this structure, beautifully exemplified in the sacrum 
of the young ostrich, which Creative Wisdom adopted to give due strength to the 
corresponding region of the spine of a gigantic Saurian species, whose mission in this 
planet had ended probably before that of the ostrich had begun. 

The anchylosed bodies of the sacral vertebrae of the Megalosaur retain the distin- 
guishing characters which have been recognised in the dorsal and caudal vertebrae, in 
regard to the smooth and polished surface of their middle constricted part ; the cylin- 
drical, or nearly cylindrical transverse contour of this part below the lateral depres- 
sion, c; their expanded, thickened, and rounded articular margins, i ; and also, though 
in a somewhat less degree, their relative length as compared with their breadth and 
height. The three anterior sacrals, T. I, 1,2,3, are, however, somewhat shorter 



than the two posterior ones, 4 and 5. 

The following are the dimensions of the fifth sacral vertebra: 

In. Lines. 

Antero-posterior diameter of centrum . . . . 4 10 

Verticil diameter of articular and of centrum . . . .4 1 

Transverse diameter of the same part . . . . .4 6 

Vertical diameter of the middle of the centrum . . . .2 6 

Total height of the fourth sacral vertebra . . . . .11 



* Cuvier describes the exceptional structure above alluded to in these reptiles, and likewise cites the 
Choudropterygians, ' Lecons d'Anat. Comparee,' ed. 1836, torn, i, p. 213. 
f 'On the Nature of Limbs/ 8vo, 1849, p. 61, fig. 10. 

2 



10 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



The neural arches of the first three sacral vertebrae, ns 1,2, 3, have been advanced 
so as to rest directly over the interspaces of the subjacent bodies ; that of the 
fourth, ns 4, derives a greater proportion of its support from its proper centrum, c 4 ; 
and that of the fifth, which rests by its anterior extremity on a small proportion of the 
fourth centrum, is extended over nearly the whole length of its own centrum, so that 
in the caudal vertebrae the ordinary relations of the neural arch and centrum are again 
resumed. In the first four sacral vertebrae the base of the neural arch extends half 
way down the interspace between the bodies, and immediately developes from its outer 
part a strong and short transverse process, or parapophysis, p, which is broken and 
rounded off in the fossil. From the base of this process the neurapophysis expands 
upward, forward, and backward, is joined by vertical suture to similar expansions of the 
contiguous neurapophyses, and terminates above in a ridge of bone, d, d, at right angles 
to the suture ; this ridge, with those of the other neurapophyses, extends longitudinally 
above the parapophyses the whole length of the sacrum, and forms the margin of the 
platform from which the spinous and accessory processes are developed : in the last 
sacrum the corresponding part forms a thick, obtuse process, or diapophysis d, 5. The 
platform is further supported by a compressed ridge of bone extended from the upper 
part of the parapophyses, like a buttress, to the middle of the horizontal ridge. On 
each side of the buttress there is a depression, which is deepest in front. The 
spinous process is not developed, as in the dorsal vertebrae, immediately from the 
platform, but a shorter, vertical plate of bone, a metapophyses, m, of nearly the same 
longitudinal extent as the true spine, is developed on each side of, and parallel with its 
base ; the height of these metapophyses in the third sacral vertebra is three inches and 
a half ; they incline obliquely outwards, like the metapophyses in the dorso-lumbar 
vertebrae of the armadillos, and evidently tend to strengthen the connection between 
the sacral part of the trunk, and the pelvic base of articulation of the hind limbs. The 
spinous process begins to expand longitudinally, and when nearly opposite the 
summit of the metapophyses, is joined by vertical suture with the similarly expanded 
neighbouring spines, so that the sacrum is crowned by a strong continuous vertical 
longitudinal ridge of bone, at least along the first four vertebra? ; the broad spine of 
the fifth being rounded off anteriorly, and separated by a narrow interspace from that 
of the fourth. Besides this modification of the spine, and the more normal position of 
the neural arch, the diapophysis, d, of the fifth anchylosed vertebra, resumes its more 
ordinary shape, and it is supported by two converging ridges of bone from the side of 
the neural arch below. The origin of the metapophysis, j>, of the first sacral is 
placed higher than in the three middle ones, in which the several peculiarities of 
structure above described are most strongly marked. 

The specimens of sacrum of the Megalosaurus in the British Museum, and that of 
the Geological Society, present the same structure as that above described in the 
original specimen at Oxford. Part of the fifth sacral vertebra is wanting in the 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



1 I 



specimen from Dry Sandford. The remaining vertebrae in this specimen are 
characterised by the same smooth and polished surface, rich brown colour, contraction 
of the middle of the body, its cylindrical form transversely, and the longitudinal fossa 
below the annular part, as in the Oxford specimen. The length of this series is one 
foot six inches and a half ; the second and third sacral vertebrae are rather shorter 
than the rest. The first sacral vertebra, which was not anchylosed to the last lumbar, 
gives the following dimensions : — 

In. Lines. 

Antero-posterior diameter of centrum . . . . .5 

Vertical diameter of anterior articular end . . . . .4 

Transverse diameter of anterior articular end , . . .4 6 

The neural arch seems not to have been coextensive in length with the centrum, but 
rests on its anterior three fourths. A strong and short parapophysis extends obliquely 
upwards and backwards from each side of the arch ; the antero-posterior diameter of 
the base of this process is two inches, its vertical diameter one inch and a half. In 
the second sacral vertebra the neural arch has moved forward upon the interspace 
between the first and second sacral bodies, and developes from the lower part of its 
base a stronger, thicker, and longer parapophysis, directed outwards and forwards. 
The third neural arch has its base transferred directly over the interspace of the second 
and third centrums ; the diameters of the base of its parapophyses are three inches and 
two and a half inches : they incline slightly backwards. The fourth neural arch 
descends lower down upon the interspace between the third and fourth centrums. The 
fifth neural arch, as in the Oxford specimen, extends a little way across the interspace 
between the fourth and fifth centrums, but nearly resumes its ordinary place. The 
second and third sacral vertebrae are not so regularly convex below in the transverse 
direction, but their sides converge so as to give a slight indication of a broad obtuse 
ridge. The diameter of the spinal canal in the first and last sacral vertebrae is one 
inch. 

T. II gives a side view of one of the sacral vertebrae, and a great proportion of the 
next vertebra, of the natural size, from the specimen of a portion of the sacrum of the 
Megalosaurus in the British Museum. The characteristic shape of the bodies of 
these vertebrae is better shown in the view of their inferior surface, T. III. But, 
in one of the vertebrae, s 3, the transversely rounded or convex surface begins to 
be modified into an almost carinate form of that surface. A similar difference of 
the inferior surface may be noticed in the third and fourth sacral vertebrae of the 
Iguanodon.* 

The terminal articular surface of the last sacral vertebra, which articulates with 
the first of the caudal series, is shown in fig. 2, T. III. 

* Palaeontographical Society, 1854, ' Wealden Dinosauria,' Tab. III. 



12 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



The five sacral vertebrae are not anchylosed in a straight line, but describe a gentle 
curve, with the concavity downwards ; the series of parapophyses, or sacral ribs, forms 
a curved line in the opposite direction, in consequence of their different positions in the 
several vertebrae. The summits of the anchylosed spines being truncated, describe 
a curve almost parallel with that of the under part of the vertebrae. 

The contour of the hinder part of the body of the present gigantic carnivorous 
Lizard, doubtless raised high above the ground upon the long and strong hind- 
legs, must have been different from that of any existing Saurians. In these the 
relatively shorter hind-legs, being directed more or less obliquely outwards, do not 
raise the under surface of the abdomen from the ground ; it is the greater share 
in the support of the trunk assigned to the hind-legs in the Megalosaur which 
made it requisite that, as in the Iguanodon and in land mammals, a greater pro- 
portion of the spine should be anchylosed to transfer the superincumbent weight 
through the medium of the iliac bones upon the femora. 

In the caudal vertebras the parapophyses are suppressed, and the single transverse 
process is formed by the diapophysis being lengthened out by the anchylosed rudiment 
of a rib. The haemal arch was articulated to the lower part of the vertebral inter- 
spaces, but chiefly to the anterior vertebra. 

Bibs. Tab. IV. 

The ribs which, from their size, texture, and colour, as well as from their proximity 
in the matrix to other more characteristic parts of the Megalosaurus, belong most 
probably to the same species of reptile as the vertebrae above described, present a 
double articulation with the vertebral column. 

The specimen, fig. 1, from the Stonesfield Oolite, and now preserved in the 
Museum at Oxford, has a small, almost flattened, obtuse head, c, for articulation with 
a parapophysis ; the neck is long, and soon begins rapidly to increase in vertical 
thickness, being strengthened, also, by a longitudinal ridge on one side. It developes 
a thick, obtuse tubercle, t, larger than the head, for the diapophysis. The body of the 
rib gradually contracts, with a slight curve, to a point. The length of the body of 
this floating rib, is little more than twice that of the neck and tubercle, showing that 
it must have belonged to a hinder cervical or anterior dorsal vertebra. 

A second specimen, fig. 2, from the Stonesfield slate, shows a longer body, a neck 
set on more transversely, and less expanded beneath the tubercle. The upper margin 
of the neck is sharp ; the body of the rib is strengthened by a lateral ridge, and 
becomes compressed in such a direction that those ridges form its margins towards the 
lower end ; this terminates so as to indicate its having been joined to an abdominal rib. 

The upper portion of a rib from a larger specimen of Megalosaurus, and from a 
more expanded part of the thoracic abdominal cavity, T. IV, fig. 3, formed, with 
fig. \, part of the original series of fossil bones, from the Stonesfield slate, de- 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



13 



scribed and referred to the Megalosaurus by Dr. Buckland.* It is remarkable, like the 
corresponding ribs of the Iguanodon,f for the length and strength of the part between 
the head, c, and tubercle, t, called the "neck;" but this presents a different form in 
transverse section, and a different direction from the neck of the rib in the Iguanodon. 
The outer border of the body of the rib does not expand below the tubercle, t, to form 
the shield-like plate which characterises the larger ribs of the Iguanodon ; \ the entire 
body of the rib is more slender, or narrower, but is, perhaps, stronger, from being less 
flattened and more quadrate, in transverse section ; it is strengthened by two low 
lateral ridges. The relative thickness of the dense, compact outer wall of the rib, to 
the more open cancellous structure of the central part, which forms what might almost 
be termed a medullary cavity, near the middle of the body of the rib ; and the form of 
the transverse section of the cervix and body of the rib, are shown in T. IV, fig. 3. 

Cuvier, in his explanation of the figures introduced into the ' Ossemens Fossiles,' 
from the original Memoir of Buckland, describes three of the ribs, in the fourth 
edition (8vo, p. 93) as belonging to " un saurien voisin des crocodiles." It is, in fact, 
only in the Crocodilian order amongst existing reptiles, that the ribs present a head, 
neck, and tubercle, coincident with that two-fold articulation with the rest of the 
vertebra which is associated in the Crocodiles and Gavials with a higher grade of 
structure of both heart and lungs. The ribs, however, found associated with other 
parts of the skeleton, including a tooth of the Iguanodon, in the Maidstone quarry of 
Kentish rag-stone,§ demonstrated that the Crocodilian type of rib was associated with 
the Dinosaurian modifications of sacrum and limbs in that gigantic reptile : and there 
can be no reasonable doubt that the like association characterises the skeleton of the 
Megalosaurus. The minor modifications, above specified, of the huge ribs and frag- 
ments of ribs found with portions of jaw, limb-bones, and complex sacrum of answer- 
able magnitude, in the same Oolitic stratum in Oxfordshire relate only to the generic- 
distinctions of the Megalosaurus, as compared with the Iguanodon. 



The scapula. Tab. V. 

In the Wealden deposits at Stammerham, Sussex, a scapula of the Dinosaurian 
type, but differing from the known scapulae of the Iguanodon and Hylseosaurus, has 
been discovered by G. B. Holmes, Esq., of the neighbouring town of Horsham, by 
whom I have been favoured with the drawing lithographed in T. V. 

As remains of the Megalosaurus have been obtained from the same locality, some of 

* Tom. cit., pi. 43, fig. 1. 

f Palseontograpbical Society, 'Monograph of Wealden Reptiles,' No. 2, 1854, Tab. II. 

% Tab. cit., figs. 1 and 2. 

§ ' Palseontographical Memoirs,' 1851, Tab. 



14 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



which form part of Mr. Holmes's instructive collection, it is possible that the blade- 
bone in question may belong to that genus ; but I insert the description of it here with 
a full sense of the inadequacy of our present evidence for the precise determination of 
the scapula of the Megalosaurus. 

The body of the bone is an oblong flattened plate, proportionally broader and 
shorter than in the Iguanodon ; with the base rounded, not truncate as in the Hylaeo- 
saurus ; and with the anterior border at first, as it descends, straight and then concave, 
not convex, as in theHylseosaurus. The body of the scapula slightly decreases in breadth 
as it approaches the articular end, near which there is continued from the anterior 
border a long and slender process, at least three fourths the length of the entire bone, 
but the precise proportions of which cannot be determined in this specimen, because the 
extremity of the process is broken off. Near the base of the process a tuberous pro- 
jection is developed, which touches the anterior angle of the articular end of the 
scapula, circumscribing an elliptical vacuity probably for the transmission of vessels. 
The thickened articular extremity shows indications of a division into two surfaces, 
one for the coracoid, the other for the humerus. 



The coracoid. Tab. VI. 

The coracoid is a long and large semioval plate of bone, 2 feet 6 inches in length, 
1 foot 4 inches in greatest breadth ; with the inner (mesial) border thin and regularly 
but very slightly convex, the upper border thin and strongly convex, the outer (lateral) 
border thick and made irregular by the development of processes, grooves, and 
articular surfaces. The latter are two in number : the largest and deepest, fig. 1, , 1, 
for the head of the humerus, the smallest and shallowest, , o, for junction with the 
scapula. 

This surface, which is hollowed out, groove-wise, chiefly in one direction, is 
supported by a very strong, thick, three-sided process, n, o, a little expanded towards 
its free end, and contributing by its hinder surface, ' to the formation of the glenoid 
cavity, in front of which it projects to meet the blade-bone. The length of this process 
is about 6 inches : its circumference is 13 inches; the length of the scapular articular 
surface, fig. 2, , is 6 inches. A deep oblique notch, fig. 1, n, divides the scapular 
process, o, from the thin anterior part of the coracoid, c, «, the convex border of which 
is entire. 

In some existing Lacertians, e, g, the Monitor and Iguana, a second process is sent 
off from this part, for articulation through the medium of an epicoracoid cartilage with 
the episternum ; and the mutilated state of the first-discovered specimen of coracoid of 
the Megalosaurus, figured by Dr. Buckland in pi. xliii, fig. 3, vol. i, 2d series of the 



WEALD EN FORMATIONS. 



15 



' Geological Transactions,' produced a similar appearance, and led to the belief that 
the Megalosaurus resembled those Lacertians, in having both the scapular and 
episternal processes of the coracoid. 

Not fewer than three entire or almost entire coracoids of the Megalosaurus have 
since been obtained, and are now in the British Museum, two of which show the true 
contour of the anterior part of the bone, as represented inT. VI, fig. 1, c , s. The Mega- 
losaurus, therefore, resembled the Scincoid Lizards and the Crocodiles, in having only the 
scapular process in its coracoid ; approaching, however, to those Lizards and the Lacer- 
tians generally in the great breadth of the bone, but more resembling the Crocodiles 
in the greater development of the scapular process as compared with that in the 
Scincoids. The glenoid cavity of the coracoid of the Megalosaurus, T. VI, fig. 2, m, 
is deeper and larger than in recent Saurians, or than in the Iguanodon. The 
longitudinal diameter of its outlet is 8 inches in the largest of the three coracoids (pur- 
chased by the British Museum of Mr. Stone, from Stonesfield) ; the greatest transverse 
diameter of the cavity is 4 inches 4 lines : the internal (central) border of the cavity 
is moderately sharp and entire ; the external (peripheral) border becomes thicker as it 
recedes from the scapular process, and ends abruptly in an oblong tuberosity ; the rest 
of the outer border beyond this part is thick and rounded, and is continued upon the 
obtuse process, I, forming the hinder boundary of the cavity. This process projects 
beyond the sharp, almost straight, outer border of the hinder part of the coracoid, 
which terminates in the hinder angle of the bone. 

A strong ridge, like the spine of a scapula, begins to rise from the outer surface of 
the coracoid, about four inches behind the tubercular termination of the fore and 
outer part of the glenoid border : it is, at first, thick and rounded, but gradually 
becomes thinner and more prominent, and is bent outwards and backwards, rapidly 
subsiding near the hinder angle of the coracoid, and forming the external wall of a 
wide and deep groove ; the internal wall of which is formed by the proper outer and 
hinder border of the coracoid, fig. 2, The large proportion of the exterior surface of 
the coracoid between this process and the anterior border of the bone is slightly con- 
cave ; the opposite or inner surface being in a less degree convex, or nearly flat. 
Except a low thick ridge extending from within about four inches of the glenoid 
cavity to near the lower angle, enlarging as it approaches thereto, the inner surface, 
fig. 1, is even and almost smooth. Coarse stria? radiate from the articular part of the 
coracoid to its free expanded border. There is no foramen in any part of the 
coracoid ; none certainly at the base of the scapular process or between this and the 
glenoid cavity, where such perforation, Cuvier states, may be found in all existing 
Lizards. If the scapula, T. V, above described should actually belong to the Mega- 
losaurus, the notch or foramen at <?, fig. 1, may fulfil the function of that which, in 
the Iguanodon, exists in the coracoid itself. 



16 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



The clavicle. Tab. IV, fig. 4. 

A slender sigmoid bone, nearly two feet in length, from the Stonesfield slate, now 
in the Geological Museum at Oxford, T. IV, fig. 4, was referred, by the discoverer of 
the Megalosaurus, to that species,* from its resemblance to the clavicle in certain 
Lizards, especially, as Cuvier remarks, who concurs in this determination with 
Buckland, to the clavicle of the great scincoid Lizard.f It is, however, less bent upon 
itself than in that existing Saurian, and bears a closer resemblance to the clavicle of 
the Iguanodon.% The more expanded median or pectoral extremity of the bone in 
question has one margin fractured, that which corresponds with the margin from which 
the two processes are developed in the clavicle of the Iguanodon : how far, therefore, 
the Megalosaurus resembled the Iguanodon in the form or even existence of those 
processes cannot at present be determined. The shaft of the clavicle presents a 
similar gentle sigmoid curve, but is relatively thicker and more bent than in the 
Iguanodon ; its transverse section is subtrihedral : the outer or scapular end is more 
expanded ; the sternal end is more rounded or convex. With respect to the present 
bone, Cuvier has remarked that according to the proportions of the clavicle in existing 
Lizards, it bespeaks an animal nearly sixty feet in length, § but the proportions of the 
trunk to the limb-bones alter with the increasing bulk in different species of the same 
family or order, and we shall presently show that there are surer grounds for arriving 
at the true bulk of the Megalosaurus, than the comparison of its limb-bones with those 
the small existing Lizards affords. 

The ischium. Tab. IV, fig. 5. 

The subcompressed, three -sided bone, flattened and expanded at one end, thickened 
and less expanded at the opposite end, which formed part of a large cotyloid cavity, 
has most claims to be regarded as the ischium of the Megalosaurus. This bone, now 
in the Geological Museum at Oxford, formed part of the original series obtained from 
the Oolitic slate at Stonesfield, and described by Dr. Buckland. || 

The longest diameter of the bone is 18 inches; the breadth of the almost straight, 
thin, mesial border, is about 14 inches, but the angles are somewhat mutilated ; the 
narrow even flattened surface of this border appears to have joined, probably with 
some interposed fibro-cartilaginous matter, to the corresponding margin of the opposite 
ischium. 

* Buckland, loc. cit., pi. 44, figs. 3 and 4. f ' Ossemens Fossiles,' 4to, torn. v. pt. ii, p. 347. 

% I'alaeontographical Society, vol. for 1851, < Reptilia of the Chalk,' Tab. XXXIII; and vol. for 1854, p. 33. 
§ 'Ossemens Fossiles,' p. 348. || Loc. cit., p. 427, pi. 43, fig. 4. 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



17 



The femur. Tabs. VII and VIII. 

The fine specimen of this bone, 32 inches in length, of which two views are given 
in T. VII, was discovered in the Oolitic slate at Stonesfield, originally formed part of 
the rich collection of Fossil Remains belonging to the Earl of Enniskillen, f.r.s., and 
has recently been transferred, with other parts of the Megalosaurus, from the same 
collection to the British Museum. 

The head is subhemispheric, with the lower margin more freely projecting over 
or beyond the under part of the neck than appears to have been the case in the 
Iguanodon.* Viewed from behind, as in fig. I, or in front, the head of the femur 
appears to be the convex termination or production of the somewhat expanded and 
posteriorly flattened upper end of the shaft ; but, viewed from the inner side, where 
the great trochanter, e, is seen relieved from the shaft of the bone, the head of the 
femur has the appearance of being supported by a long and oblique neck, more slender 
than the shaft. The great trochanter is broad but not much produced, being, as it 
were, somewhat crushed down upon the shaft. The well-marked groove defining its 
upper part from the neck, reminds one of that which defines the same part of the upper 
trochanter in the Iguanodon ; but the fissure is narrower and deeper in that Dinosaur 
than in the present genus. The inner trochanter, T. VII, d, is situated higher up, 
and is less produced than in the Iguanodon : it has also a broader base, which is 
extended further upon the hinder surface of the shaft of the femur. I have not seen 
any femora of the Megalosaurus in which the two trochanters were so nearly opposite 
one another, as is represented in the figures of that bone given in Dr. Buckland's 
original Memoir : the upper end of the specimen from which that figure was taken, 
had been more mutilated than in the original of the figures in T. VII. Below the 
inner trochanter the shaft of the femur assumes a subquadrate transverse section, 
with the angles rounded ; and, near the lower end, begins to expand into the con- 
dyles. The anterior or rotular interspace, T. VIII, g, is much less deep, and is broader 
than in the Iguanodon ; the posterior or popliteal interspace, ib. h, more resembles in 
size and depth that in the Iguanodon, but it is more flattened at the bottom. The outer 
condyle, fig. 1,/, has a moderately deep and wide longitudinal impression externally, 
which marks off the hinder projecting part of the condyle, which is relatively narrower 
than in the Iguanodon ; the inner condyle, e, which is the largest and most prominent 
of the two, is almost flat upon its inner side. The figure, of the natural size, of the 
distal condyles, in T. VIII, taken from the best preserved specimen of the femur of the 
Megalosaurus in the British Museum will serve better than verbal description to convey 
a just idea of the modifications of this articular end of the bone in question. 

* See T. XV, ' Monogr. Wealden Reptilia,' 1854, fig. 1. 

3 



18 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



The Tibia. Tab. IX. 

The specimen, from which the reduced figures have been taken in the above 
plate, is the most perfect one of the tibia of the Megalosaurus which has hitherto 
come under my notice : it originally formed part of the collection of Megalosaurian 
remains from the Stonesfield slate, acquired by the Earl of Enniskillen, whilst an 
undergraduate at Oxford, and is now in the British Museum. 

Fig. 1 gives a side view of the bone, with a top view of the upper articular surface. 
The divisions corresponding with the condyles of the femur project from the back 
part of the proximal end, which gradually contracts towards the fore-part where it 
assumes the character of a process, answering to the procnemial ridge in the tibia of 
birds, but it is a little inclined inward. The articular surface is a little concave at its 
middle part and becomes convex, in a moderate degree, upon the condyles. A thick 
cartilage appears to have covered the whole of this surface, and the softer bone in 
contact with the cartilage has been, as in most fossil reptilian long bones, more or less 
abraded, especially at the margins of the articulation. The backward position and 
production of the corresponding articular prominences or condyles in both femur 
and tibia, indicate that these bones were joined together at an angle, probably 
approaching a right one, when in their intermediate state between flexion and 
extension : and that motion of the tibia in the latter direction could not have taken 
place to the extent required to bring the two bones in the same line. A moderately 
developed longitudinal ridge, fig. 2, c, extends from the inner side of the upper fourth 
of the shaft of the tibia, the homologue of which is present in the tibia of the great 
Monitor. Below this the shaft of the tibia assumes a sub-trihedral figure, with the 
angles unequally rounded off, fig. 3 ; it very gradually decreases in breadth, from before 
backwards, to within a short distance of the lower end : the transverse diameter 
remains the same. The expansion of the lower articular end is chiefly in the latter 
direction, i. e., at right angles with the long diameter of the proximal end : the inner 
angle of the distal end is the most produced. The form of the articular surface for 
the tarsus is a rhomboid, with two shallow depressions, but in the main is moderately 
convex. 

The length of the bone above described is 26 inches : its shaft, like that of the 
femur, has a medullary cavity, but the compact walls are relatively thicker in the 
tibia. 

The above- described bone, from the Oolitic slate of Stonesfield, presents all the 
main Dinosaurian characters, which have been described, in a preceding Monograph, 
in the tibia of the Iguanodon.* From that tibia the present bone differs in its 



* Monog. cit, p. 39. 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



19 



greater relative slenderness and its better developed processes, especially the inner, 
or entocnemial, ridge. The differences are of that degree which might be expected 
to be found in a limb-bone of another species or genus of large Dinosaurian reptile ; 
and no reptile answering to that character has yet been determined, by fossil remains 
from the Stonesfield Oolitic slate, except the Megalosaurus. The modifications in 
question are such, moreover, as accord with the superior energy and activity which a 
carnivorous reptile like the Megalosaurus might be expected to possess in contrast 
with the heavier and more bulky herbivorous Iguanodon. There can be no reasonable 
doubt, therefore, that we have, in the subject of T. IX, the veritable leg-bone or 
tibia of the Megalosaurus. 

Portions of metatarsal bones, most probably from their size and texture, those of 
the Megalosaurus, have been obtained from the Stonesfield Oolite and Sussex 
Wealden : one of these is figured by Dr. Buckland in PI. xlix, fig. 6, of the volume of 
the ' Geological Transactions' containing his original Memoir on the Megalosaurus. 

These fossils, however, which I have examined in the Geological Museum at 
Oxford, do not present sufficiently marked characteristic modifications to render a 
special description of them serviceable for the identification of future specimens of 
Megahsauri. 



Ungual Phalanges. Tab. X. 

Both teeth and vertebrae of the Megalosaurus have been discovered in the Wealden 
strata which contain remains of the Iguanodon and other large reptiles. Besides the 
claw-bones which, from their broad, obtuse, massive and slightly curved shape, I have 
referred to the herbivorous Iguanodon, there have been obtained, also from the 
Wealden, claw-bones which, by their sub-compressed, curved, and sharp-pointed 
shape indicate a carnivorous reptile ; and some of these, by their size, might well belong 
to the Megalosaurus. 

Without, however, the association of such claw-bones with other parts of the limb, 
recognisably Megalosaurian, a certain conclusion of their nature cannot be arrived at. 
The probability, however, of this latter type of ungual phalanx being that which the 
Megalosaurus would exhibit, decides me to give the requisite illustrations of it in the 
present Monograph. 

T. X, figs. 1 and 2, give side views of an ungual phalanx, wanting the tip, and 
with a portion of matrix attached to the base. The length of this phalanx, if the point 
be restored according to the pattern of the smaller and better preserved specimen of 
the same kind, fig. 5, would be between 5 and 6 inches : the depth of the base of the 
phalanx is 2 inches 9 lines ; the extreme breadth of the base being but 1 inch 5 lines. 



20 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



The articular surface is deeply concave in the vertical direction, indicative of a strong 
joint and a certain extent of vertical motion, or of retraction and protrusion. Beneath 
the articular surface is a large rough process or protuberance for the insertion of a 
powerful flexor tendon. The margin of the articular pulley is slightly raised and 
roughened, for the attachment of the capsular ligament. The base of the claw-bone is 
longitudinally striated ; the rest of the surface is smooth, and offers the same compact 
character and colour which are commonly found in the bones of the Megalosauri. On 
each side of the bone, nearer the lower border, and rather lower down on one side 
than on the other, is a deep smooth groove, running parallel with the lower concavity 
of the bone. These grooves indicate the position of the borders of the horny matter 
of the claw, and also, of the vessels supplying the reproductive matrix of that 
matter. 

A smaller phalanx of the same type with one side imbedded in a block of 
Wealden sandstone, fig. 5, shows the whole length, and the sharp-pointed termination 
of the bone supporting the formidable claw. 

Both the above-described specimens are in the British Museum. 



Mandible and Teeth. Tabs. XI and XII. 

The most important evidence of these highly characteristic parts of the Megalo- 
saurus is the portion of the dentary element of the mandible or lower jaw, from the 
Stonesfield slate, preserved in the Geological Museum at Oxford, and forming part of 
the original series of bones described by Dr. Buckland.* This specimen is represented, 
of the natural size, in T. XI, fig. 1, from the inner side : a portion of the outer side of 
the same specimen is given in fig. 2. The entire depth of the ramus of the jaw is not, 
however, represented by this specimen : a broad and shallow groove along the under 
and inner surface of the bone indicates where the angular element of the mandible 
had articulated with this hinder portion of the dentary piece. The portion of the 
dentary element from a more advanced part of that bone, represented in T. XII, affords 
a truer idea of the vertical diameter of the mandibular ramus of the Megalosaur. 

The first character which attracts the attention of the anatomist, in the Oxford 
specimen (T. X), is the inequality in the height of the outer and inner alveolar walls. 
This assures him of the saurian affinities of the gigantic reptile ; a similar inequality 
characterising the jaws of almost all the existing Lizards. But in these the oblique 
groove, so bounded, to which the bases of the developed teeth are anchylosed, is much 
more shallow, and is relatively wider; and the teeth, in all their stages of growth, 



* Loc. cit., pi. 40. 



WEALD EN FORMATIONS. 



21 



are completely exposed, when the gum has been removed. In the Megalosaur the 
greater relative development of the inner alveolar wall narrows the groove, and covers 
a greater proportion of the bases of the teeth, besides concealing more or less 
completely the germs of their successors. Moreover, instead of the mere shallow 
impressions upon the inner side of the outer alveolar plate, to which the teeth are 
attached in modern Lizards, there are distinct sockets formed by bony partitions con- 
necting the outer with the inner alveolar walls in the jaw of the Megalosaurus. 

These partitions rise from the outer side of the inner alveolar wall in the form of 
triangular vertical plates of bone, having their plane parallel with that of the inner 
wall ; and from the middle of the outer side of each plate a bony partition crosses to 
the outer parapet, completing the alveoli of the fully-formed or more advanced teeth, 
the series of triangular plates, t, t, fig. I, forming a kind of zigzag buttress along the 
inner side of those alveoli. The outer parapet rises an inch higher than the inner one. 

Of the fully-developed teeth only one had been preserved in situ, in the specimen 
under description ; the others appear rather to have slipped out, than to have been 
broken off, the anchylosis of the basal capsule of the tooth to the alveolar periosteum 
being but slight, and apparently taking place tardily in the Megalosaurus. 

This tooth, T. XI, fig. 1, a, exhibits the average size of the fully developed teeth 
of the Megalosaurus that have yet been discovered. The shape of the crown is 
well exemplified in this figure, and in figs. 2, 4, and 5 of T. XII. It is sub-com- 
pressed, slightly recurved, sharp-edged and sharp-pointed ; the edges being minutely 
serrated : the edge upon the convex or front border becomes blunted as it descends 
about two thirds of the way towards the base of the tooth ; that upon the concave 
hinder border it is continued to the base. The lower half of the crown is thicker 
towards the fore- margin than towards the hind one, so that a transverse section gives 
a narrow oval form pointed behind, as in the lower section of fig. 5, T. XII : at the 
upper half of the crown the sides slope more equably from the middle thickest part to 
both margins, and the section is a narrow pointed ellipse, as in the upper section of 
the same figure. The crown is covered by a smooth and polished enamel which 
wholly forms the marginal serrations. The base of the tooth is coated with a smooth 
lighter-coloured cement, forming a thin layer, and becoming a little thicker towards 
the implanted end of the tooth. The remains of the pulp are converted into osteo- 
dentin e in the basal part of the completely formed tooth. Moderately magnified, the 
surface of the enamel presents a finely wrinkled appearance. The marginal serrations 
present, under a somewhat higher power, the form shown in fig. 12, T. XI; their 
points being directed towards the apex of the tooth, a structure well adapted for 
dividing the tough tissues of the saurian integument. The main body of the tooth 
consists of dentine, of that hard, unvascular kind of which the same part of the teeth 
of existing Crocodiles and most mammals is composed. The dentinal tubules, in the 
Megalosaurus, are extremely fine and close-set, presenting a diameter of 55,555th of an 



22 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



inch, with interspaces varying between two and three times that diameter. They 
radiate from the pulp-cavity at right angles with the external surface of the tooth. 
The primary curvatures correspond with those of the dentinal tubules in the Varanus, 
figured in my ' Odontography,' pi. 67, fig. 2 ; but they are less marked, so that the 
tubules appear straighter in the Megalosaurus. After their origin they dichotomize 
sparingly, but the number of minute secondary branches sent off into the intermediate 
substance is very great. These secondary branches proceed at acute angles from the 
primary tubules ; the divisions of the latter become very frequent near the periphery 
of the dentine, and the terminal branches dilate into, or inosculate with, a stratum 
of minute calcigerous cells, which separates the dentine from the enamel.* No part 
of the dentine is pervaded by medullary canals, as in the Iguanodon. 

A series of teeth from individual Megalosauri of different ages has been selected 
from specimens in the British Museum, and in the Geological Museum at Oxford, 
progressively diminishing in size, but preserving the same characteristic form, from 
fig. 4 to fig. 9, inclusive, T. XI. Fig. 3 shows a specimen, imbedded in Stonesfield 
slate, which shows a somewhat more slender termination than usual. Fig. 1 1 is a 
much-worn and shed tooth, apparently of a small-sized Megalosaurus, in which both 
the point and the trenchant margins had been rubbed down to a smooth obtuse surface : 
it may have come from the hinder part of the dental series, where the teeth may have 
been smaller and less sharp, or more liable to be blunted by a greater share in the 
imperfect act of mastication than the teeth in advance. 

Successional teeth, in different stages of growth, are shown in the original portion 
of jaw of the Megalosaurus in the Oxford Museum. Some more advanced, as at b, 
fig. 1, T. XI, show their crowns projecting from alveoli already formed by the plate 
extending across from the triangular processes before described. Vacant sockets 
from which fully formed teeth have escaped occur, generally in the intervals between 
these more advanced teeth. The summits of less developed teeth are seen protruding, 
as at c, c, at the inner side of the basal interspaces of the triangular plate, between 
them and the true internal alveolar parapet. There can be no doubt that, in the 
course of the development of these teeth, corresponding changes take place in the jaw 
itself, by which new triangular plates and alveolor partitions are formed, as the old 
ones become absorbed, analogous to these concomitant changes in the growth and 
form of the teeth, alveoli, and jaws, which take place in so striking a degree in the 
Elephant.f 

The peculiarity of the Megalosaurus, as compared with the Crocodiles and Lizards 

* The microscopic characters of the tooth of the Megalosaurus are represented in ray 'Odontography,' 
(>1. 70 a, in part of a transverse section of the middle of the crown, including the pulp-cavity and its osteo- 

dc j ntine. 

f See ' Odontography,' p. 625. 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



23 



which have a like endless succession of teeth, is the deeper position of the successional 
tooth in relation to the one it is destined to replace, and the great proportion of the 
tooth which is formed before it is protruded. This interesting character is well 
exhibited in a portion of the jaw, kindly submitted to rny examination by His Grace 
the Duke of Marlborough, and which is figured in T. XI, fig. 1. The anterior tooth, 
a, in this specimen, shows, at the inner side of its base, the commencing absorption 
stimulated by the encroaching capsule of the successional tooth below, the crown of 
which is completed externally, though not consolidated. On one of the fractured 
margins of this piece of jaw a part of the basal shell of an absorbed and shed tooth 
remains at a, fig. 3, with part of the root of the successional tooth which has risen into 
place, b ; but which shows its base full of matrix, the pulp not having been calcified 
at that period of the tooth's growth. The crown of a third tooth, c , incompletely 
calcified, is exposed beneath, in the substance of the jaw. In fig. 1, the germs of 
several successional teeth are shown at c. In the proportion of the successional teeth 
which is calcified in the formative cavity in the substance of the jaw, the Megalosaurus 
offers a closer resemblance to the Mammalian class than do any of the recent or extinct 
Crocodilian or Lacertian reptiles. But the evidence of uninterrupted and frequent suc- 
cession of the teeth in the Megalosaurus is unequivocal, and this part of the dental 
economy of the great carnivorous Reptile is strictly analogous to that which governs 
the same system in the existing members of the class. The different forms of the teeth at 
different stages of protrusion did not fail to attract the attention of the gifted discoverer 
of the Megalosaurus, in whose words I will conclude this part of my Monograph on the 
most formidable of extinct British Reptiles. 

" In the structure of these teeth we find a combination of mechanical contrivances 
analogous to those which are adopted in the construction of the knife, the sabre, and 
the saw. When first protruded above the gum, the apex of each tooth presented a 
double cutting edge of serrated enamel. In this stage, its position and line of action 
were nearly vertical, and its form, like that of the two-edged point of a sabre, cutting 
equally on each side. As the tooth advanced in growth it became curved backwards 
in the form of a pruning-knife, and the edge of serrated enamel was continued down- 
wards to the base of the inner and cutting side of the tooth, whilst on the outer side a 
similar edge descended but a short distance from the point, and the convex portion of 
the tooth became blunt and thick, as the back of a knife is made thick for the purpose 
of producing strength. The strength of the tooth was further increased by the 
expansion of its side. Had the serrature continued along the whole of the blunt and 
convex portion of the tooth, it would in this position have possessed no useful cutting- 
power ; it ceased precisely at the point beyond which it could no longer be effective. 
In a tooth thus formed for cutting along its concave edge, each movement of the jaw 
combined the power of the knife and saw ; whilst the apex, in making the first incision, 
acted like the two-edged point of a sabre. The backward curvature of the full-grown 



24 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE 



teeth enabled them to retain, like barbs, the prey which they had penetrated. In 
these adaptations we see contrivances which human ingenuity has also adopted in the 
preparation of various instruments of art."* 



Size of the Megalosaurus. 

A few words may be added touching the size of the Megalosaurus ; for it appears 
to me that the calculations which assign to it a length of 60 and 70 feet are affected 
by the fallacy of concluding that the locomotive extremities bore the same proportion 
to, and share in the support of, the body, as they do in the small modern land 
Lizards. 

The most probable approximation to a true notion of the actual length of the 
Megalosaurus is that which may be obtained by taking the length of the vertebrae as 
the basis. The antero-posterior dimension is the most constant which the vertebrae 
present throughout the spine ; in most Crocodilian and Lacertian reptiles the cervical 
vertebrae are a little shorter than the dorsal ; but these are of equal length, and the 
caudal vertebrae maintain the same length, though decreasing in other dimensions, to 
very near the extremity of the tail. 

As the dorsal vertebrae of the Megalosaurus agree, in the important character of 
the mode of articulation of the ribs, with the Crocodiles, it may be regarded as most 
probable that they also corresponded in their number. This does not exceed 14 in 
recent Crocodiles, nor 16 in any of the known extinct species ; taking, then, the latter 
number, and adding to it 7, the usual number of the cervical vertebrae in Crocodiles, 
we may allow the Megalosaurus 23 vertebrae of the trunk. 

The length of the body of a large dorsal vertebra of the Megalosaurus, in the 
British Museum, is 4| inches : from the analogy of the Iguanodon I was led, in my 
original calculations,! to allow a probable thickness of the intervertebral substance one 
third of an inch : but if we multiply 23 by 5, not allowing for the probable shortness 
of the cervical vertebrae, we only then attain a length of 9 feet 7 inches. The sub- 
sequent discovery of the coadapted dorsal vertebrae, figured in T. xix, loc. cit., shows 
that their bodies were not separated by soft substance of more than 1 line in 
thickness. If, moreover, setting aside the analogy of the Megalosaurus to the 
Crocodiles in the structure of the vertebrae, we take that species of Lacertian which it 
most resembles in the structure of the teeth, and found our calculation on the number 
of vertebrae of the trunk in such Lizard, then, the great carnivorous Varanian Monitor 

* Buckland, * Bridgewater Treatise,' vol. i, p. 237. 

t Report on British Fossil Reptiles, 'Trans. Brit. Association,' 1841. 



WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



25 



of Java having 27 vertebrae of the trunk, we do not, even calculating the same number 
of vertebrae to have occupied each a space of five inches in the Megalosaurus, obtain a 
length of trunk exceeding 11 feet 3 inches. 

I should consider the first calculation, or about 10 feet, to have been more nearly 
the natural length. 

To this we must add 2 feet for the known length of the sacrum. Thus 12 feet 
will be a fair or even a liberal allowance of length from the occiput to the beginning 
of the tail. In Crocodiles the skull equals about 12 dorsal vertebrae in length. In the 
Java Monitor the proportion of the head is less. In the Iguana the cranium does not 
exceed 6 dorsal vertebrae in length. 

We may consider therefore 5 feet, taking the Crocodile as the term of comparison, 
as probably not below the length of the head of the Megalosaur. With regard to the 
tail, this includes between 36 and 38 vertebrae in Crocodilians, but varies from 30 to 
115 in the small existing Lacertians, in many of which it is a prehensile organ, aiding 
them in climbing and other actions suitable to their size. It is very improbable that 
the tail should have presented such unusual proportions in the great Saurian under 
consideration, and indeed very few caudal vertebrae of the Megalosaur have been as 
yet discovered, and none exceeding 4 inches in length. Allowing the Megalosaur to 
have had the same number of vertebrae as the Crocodile, and multiplying this number 
36 by 4^, a length of 12 feet 6 inches is thus obtained for the tail. A calculation on 
this basis thus gives, in round numbers, — 

Feet. 

Length of head . . . . . . . . .5 

Length of trunk, with sacrum . . . . . . .12 

Length of tail . . . . . . . . .13 

Total length of the Megalosaurus . . . . . .30 

Upon this mode of obtaining an idea of the bulk of the present extinct reptile I am 
disposed to place the greatest reliance, and conceive that any error in it is more likely 
to be on the side of exaggeration than of curtailment. From the size and form of the 
ribs it is evident that the trunk was broader and deeper in proportion than in modern 
Saurians, and it was doubtless raised from the ground upon extremities proportionally 
larger and especially longer, so that the general aspect of the living Megalosaur 
must have proportionally resembled that of the large terrestrial quadrupeds of the 
Mammalian class which now tread the earth, and the place of which seems to have 
been supplied in the oolitic ages by the great reptiles of the extinct Dinosaurian 
order. 

Strata and Localities of Megalosaurian Remains. 

Besides the Stonesfield slate, the remains of the Megalosaurus have been found in 

4 



26 



FOSSIL REPTILIA OF THE WEALDEN FORMATIONS. 



the Cornbrash and Bath Oolite immediately above that slate, and in Oolites beneath it. 
A tooth of a Megalosaurus has been kindly communicated to me by Mr. Woodward, 
of the British Museum, which was found in the Inferior Oolite of Selsly Hill, Glouces- 
tershire, which is separated from the Stonesfield Oolite by superimposed deposits 
of Fullers' earth one hundred feet in vertical extent. Vertebrae and parts of long bones 
of the Megalosaurus have been found in the Inferior Oolite at Kingham, near Chipping- 
Norton, and at Broadwell, near Merke-in-the- Marsh, Gloucestershire. But the forma- 
tion in which the remains of the Megalosaur occur, in quantity only inferior to those 
in the Stonesfield slate, is the Wealden strata. Dr. Mantell discovered in the ferrugi- 
nous clay of the Forest of Tilgatc a fine vertebra, and a portion of the femur of the 
Megalosaurus, 22 inches in circumference. Some fragments of the metacarpus and 
metatarsus from this locality, were thicker than those of a large hippopotamus. Many 
teeth, of the same form as those found by Dr. Buckland, at Stonesfield, have been 
obtained from Wealden strata. Mr. Holmes, surgeon, at Horsham, possesses a good 
caudal vertebra, and some other parts of the Megalosaurus from the furruginous sand 
near Cuckfield, in Sussex. The magnificent specimen of dorsal vertebrae, T. xix, 
loc. cit., was discovered by Mr. Beckles, f.g.s., in the Wealden formation near Battle. 
Remains of the Megalosaurus occur in the Purbeck Limestone at Swanage Bay. In 
some of the private collections in the town in Malton, Yorkshire, are teeth, unques- 
tionably belonging to the same species as the Stonesfield Megalosaurus, from the 
Oolite in the neighbourhood of that town. 



TAB. 1. 

Sacrum of the Megalosaurus ; half nat. size. 



From the Oolitic Slate of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire. In the 
Geological Museum, Oxford. 



TAB. II. 

Portion of the sacrum of the Megalosaurus ; nat. size 

From the Wealden, of Tilgate, Sussex. In the British Museum. 



Til 




Joe -Uinkel, (leLeblith . 



TAB III 

Fig. I . Under surface of the portion of the sacrum of the Megalosaurus ; 
nat. size. 

„ 2. End-view of the body of a sacral vertebra of the Megalosaurus ; 
nat. size. 

From the Wealden, of Tilgate, Sussex. In the British Museum. 



/■/// 




JosIirikeUd eL Uth 



WVfesUmp 



TAB. IV. 

Mer/alosaurus Bttcklandi ; one fourth nat. size. 
Fig. 1 . Cervical, or anterior dorsal, rib. 
,, 2. A succeeding- dorsal rib : c, upper view of the head and neck. 
,, 3. A posterior dorsal rib of a larger individual. 

4. The right clavicle. 
„ 5. The right ischium. 




from Nature im *nf pyJ Krjdebai 



■ 



TAB V. 

The scapula of the Megalosaurus (?) ; one fourth nat. size. 

From the Wealden, of Sussex. In the Museum of J. B. Holmes, Esq., 
of Horsham. 




Miss .Holmes, dd _ On Stone by J Erxleben.. 



DaykS(mJ.iXh rs to tAe Qiiwi 



TAB. VI. 

The coracoid of the Megalosaurus ; one fourth nat. size. 



Fig. 1. Inner surface. 
„ 2. Articular border. 



From the Oolitic Slate, of Stonesfield ; Oxfordshire. 
British Museum. 



In the 




T. \ T . 



Trim Katu ve> on Stent ~ey,j_Erxletie.nj 



TAB. VII. 



The femur of the Megalosaurus ; one fourth nat size. 

Fig. 1. Hinder surface. 
„ 2. Inner surface. 

From the Oolitic Slate, of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire. In 
British Museum, 



7 \ 17/ . 




TAB. VIII. 



Femoral condyles of the Megalosaurus ; nat. size. 

From the Oolitic Slate, of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire. In the 
British Museum. 



T. VIII. 




TAB. IX. 



The tibia of the Megalosaurus ; one fourth nat. size. 

Fig. 1. Outer surface, with the upper articular end. 
2. Hinder surface, with the lower articular end. 

From the Oolitic Slate, of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire. In 
British Museum. 



T. IX 




■ ■ ■ 



TAB. X. 



Ungual phalanges of Megalosaurus (?) ; nat. size. 

Fig. 1. Inside view. 
,, 2. Outside view. 
„ 3. Upper surface. 
„ 4. The fractured end of figs. 1 and 2. 
„ 5. Side view of a smaller entire phalanx. 



From the Wealden Sand, Tilgate, Sussex. In the British Museum. 



Fig,. 3 



T. JC. 




Iranv Mature on Stone "by J. ErxUbm 



BaylSoTiXa)i rs to the Queen 



TAB. XI. 



Megalosaurus Bucklandi, nat. size. 

Fig-. 1. Inside view of a portion of the dentarv element of the 
mandible, with teeth. 
„ '2. Outside view of part of ditto. 

3 — 11. Various teeth, the last much worn. 
12. Magnified view of the finely serrated border of the teeth. 
Figs. 4, 7, and 9 from the Wealden, of Sussex ; fig. 5 from the Corn- 
brash, of Oxfordshire ; fig. 7 from the Bath Oolite, Somersetshire ; 
the rest from the Oolitic Slate, of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire. 

All the specimens, save fig. 1, in the Oxford Museum, are in the 
British Museum. 




Doi/l SerttJ-ttW'v The Queen 



TAB. XII. 



Figs. 1 — 3. A portion of the mandible with teeth of the Megalo- 

saurus BucMandi ; nat. size. 
Fig. 4. Side-view of a full-sized tooth of the Megalosaurus. 
„ 5. A portion of a tooth of Megalosaurus, from the Inferior 

Oolite, of Selsly Hill, Gloucestershire. In the British 

Museum. 

The foregoing figures are taken, with the permission of his Grace the 
Duke of Marlborough, from a specimen in his Grace's collection, 
from the Oolitic Slate, of Stonesfield, Oxfordshire. 




: ■ ■ ■ 



THE 



PAUEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 



LONDON; 



M DCCCLVI. 



A MONOGRAPH 



OP 



THE EOCENE MOLLUSCA, 



OK 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SHELLS EROM THE OLDER TERTIARIES 

OE ENGLAND. 



FREDERIC E. EDWARDS. 



PART III, No. II. 

PROSOBRANCHIATA 

(CONTINUED). 



LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR THE PALiEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 
1856. 



ADLAKD, PRINTER, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



CORRIGENDUM. 

Page 212, line 3 from the bottom, add " Nuneham" to the list of localities. 



J. E. ADLARD, PRINTER, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



181 



In a fossil state, the genus first appears in the cretaceous formations, in which five or 
six species are stated to occur ; but during the tertiary epoch, the species became much 
more numerous. More than forty have been described from the eocene strata, and a 
still greater number from the more recent deposits. From the English eocene strata, 
four species have been noticed ; of these, three, described by Mr. Sowerby in ' Mineral 
Conchology, 5 appear to be confined to this country ; the fourth occurs at Bracklesham, 
and is identical with a species abundant in the Paris basin. Three additional species 
are now described for the first time. 



No. 1 18. Mitra scabra. Sowerbg. Tab. XXIV, fig. G a — c. 

Small latticed Lymington whelk, Pet. 1764. Gazopliyll., t. 73, fig. 9. 

Buccinum scabriculum, Solatid. (non Gmel.) 1766. Brand. Foss. Hant., p. 15, fig. 20. 

Mitra scabra, Sow. 1823. Min. Con., vol. iv, p. 142, t. 401. 

— — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 151. 

— — D'Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 355, No. 313. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss. (2d edit.), p. 258. 

M. testa ovato-acutd, costulis longitudinalibus et lineis transversis sese decussantibus 
scabratd, ad basin profunde emarginatd spird conicd, apice obtusiusculo : anfractibus 
convexis, marginibus posticis tenuibus ; aperturd elongato-ovali, postice angustald ; labro 
incrassato, sub-marginato, intus crenulato ; columella quadri-plicatd, plicis distantibus, fere 
transversis ; labii area plicif era incrassatd. 

Shell ovately oblong, slightly ventricose, deeply notched at the base, with a conical 
spire, terminating in a small, slightly obtuse apex, formed of two smooth, nearly round, 
embryonal volutions ; whorls seven or eight, exclusive of the embryo, and covered 
with irregular longitudinal ridges, and conspicuous lines of growth, decussated by 
sharp, transverse, raised lines slightly thickened at the points of decussation, roughen- 
ing the surface of the shell; the posterior margins are thin, and pressed against the 
preceding whorls. The aperture is of a lengthened oval shape, narrowed posteriorly ; 
the outer lip sharp and thin in the young shell, but irregularly thickened at maturity, 
and presenting an obscure, slender, raised border along the outer edge, and a blunt 
triangular tooth-like callus on the inner edge, near the posterior extremity ; the colu- 
mella is furnished with four distant, nearly transverse folds, of which the anterior one 
is much the smallest ; and some specimens also present one or two obscure transverse 
lines towards the posterior part of the columella. The inner lip is very narrow, and 
much thickened where the folds are placed. Owing to the great depth of the notch, 
the base of the shell is more bent backwards than is usually the case in the fossil 
Mitra, and presents the prominent crest or ridge which, as we have seen in the 
Volutes, always accompanies a deep notch. 

24 



182 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



In the general form of the shell, the condition of the apex and of the outer lip, 
the columellar plaits, and the deep anterior notch, this Mitra so much resembles 
M . labratula, that it might almost be regarded as merely a variety of that species in 
which the longitudinal ribs and transverse lines found in the young state have been 
continued on the mature shell. I have not, however, met with any smooth specimen 
of the present species, and mature individuals of M. labratula are, apparently, always 
smooth, with the exception of a few obscure transverse lines near the suture, or at the 
base. This want of intermediate forms, therefore, confirms the title of M. scabra to 
specific distinction. 

Size. — Axis, ll-12ths of an inch; diameter, 5-12ths of an inch. 

Locality. — The species appears to be confined to the Barton beds. I have not 
met with it elsewhere. 

No. 119. Mitra labratula. Lamarck. Tab. XXIV, fig. 3 a, b. 

Mitra labratula, Lamh. 1803. Ann. du Mus., vol. ii, p. 58, No. 5, t. 3, fig. 6. 

— labratella, lb. 1816. Tab. Encycl. et Method., t. 392, fig. 3 a, b. 

— labratula, lb. 1822. Hist. Nat., vol. vii, p. 325, No. 5. 

— — Defr. 1824. Diet, des Sci. Nat., vol. xxxi, p. 491. 

— — Desk. 1830. Encyc. Method, (vers.), vol. ii, p. 465, No. 42. 

— — lb. 1824—37. Descr. des Coq. Foss. &c, vol. ii, p. 672, t. 88, figs. 

9, 10, 18 and 19. 

— — Mellev. 1843. Mem. sur les Sables tert. inf., &c, de Paris, p. 17. 
— — Roissy. . Buff. Moll., vol. v, p. 443. 

— monodonta, Sow. (non Lamk.) 1850. Dix. Geol., &c, Suss., p. 106, t. 7, figs. 20, 21. 

— labratula, If Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 354, No. 296. 

M. testa ovato-acutd, Icevi, aliquando injuventd costulis et striis transversis decussatd, 
ail basin profunde emarginatd ; spird conicd, apice obluso : aperturd elongatd, angustd ; 
labro incrassato, sub-marginato, intus unidentato ; columella quadriplicatd. 

Shell ovately oblong, slightly ventricose, smooth; sometimes in French specimens 
the early volutions present obscure undulating ribs, decussated by irregular, transverse, 
fine, raised lines, which altogether disappear on the last volution, or are reduced to a 
few f ciint lines, nearly obsolete, at the base, or round the sutural margin: the spire is 
conical with an apex formed, like that of M. scabra, of two roundish embryonal whorls, 
and. as in that species, the base is deeply notched, and bent backwards. The aperture 
is of a long, ovate shape, and rather narrow ; the outer lip thickened, slightly bent 
outwards, so as to form a narrow, raised border along the outer margin, and furnished, 
generally, with a blunt, tooth-like callus on the inner edge, near the posterior extremity ; 
the columella presents four prominent, almost transverse folds, the posterior three of 
which are nearly equal, and are larger than the one in front. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



183 



All the English specimens I have seen belong to the smooth variety, and do not 
present the longitudinal ribs and transverse lines which are sometimes found on the 
earlier whorls of the French shells, nor have I met with any specimen presenting the 
concentric striae on the surface which characterise the variety from Courtagnon and 
the neighbourhood of Valognes. 

I have already mentioned the strong resemblance between this species and M. 
scabra ; in fact, with the exception of the scabrous aspect of the latter, it would be 
difficult to point out specific differences between the two. 

M. Deshayes states that in some of the French specimens traces of the natural 
colouring remain, consisting of longitudinal iron-reddish coloured bands. The English 
specimens, imbedded in a less favorable matrix, do not present any traces of their 
original colouring. 

Size. — Axis, 1 1 - 1 2ths of an inch; diameter, rather more than 5-12ths of an inch. 

Localities. — Bracklesham Bay, where it is somewhat rare. French : Grignon, 
Parnes, Mouchy, Courtagnon, Chaumont, Valognes, St. Felix, Le Tomberay (fide 
Desk), and Laon (fide Mettev.). 



No. 120. Mitra parva. Soioerbg. Tab. XXIV, fig. 1 a — c, and 2 a— c. 

Mitra parva, Sow. 1825. Min. Con., vol. v, p. 37, t. 430, fig. 1. 

— pumila, Ib. 1825. Min. Con., vol. v, p. 37, t. 430, fig. 2. 

— parva, Ib. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Sussex, p. 106. 

— — Morris. 1843. Cat. of Brit. Foss., p. 151. 

— pumila, lb. 1843. Cat. of Brit. Foss., p. 151. 

— parva. D'Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 355, No. 314. 

— pumila. Ib. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 355, No. 315. 

— parva. Morris. 1854. Cat. of Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 258. 

— pumila. Ib. 1854. Cat. of Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 258. 

M. testa parva, ovato-fusiformi, sub-turritd, concentrice sulcata, ad basin vix emarginatd: 
spird elevatd, acuminata : anfractibus convexis. uno sulco prope marginem suturalem cir- 
cumdatis ; suturis distinctis .- aperturd lanceolatd ; labro undato, acuto, intus plicifero ; 
columella quinquies plicatd. 

Far. semiLjEVIS. Testa anfractibus uno sulco prope marginem suturalem circumdatis ; 
et ad basin obscure sidcatis, cceterum lavi ; spird exsertiori. 

Far. pumila, fig. 2 a — c. Testa fasciolis elevatis concentricis et costellis longitudi- 
nalibus decussatd. 

Far. |3. Testa costellarum longitudinalium experti. 

Shell small, ovately fusiform, transversely furrowed, and but slightly notched at 
the base ; spire elevated, pointed, and formed of seven or eight convex volutions, 



184 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



separated by a deep suture, and with the margins thickened and rather depressed, giving 
a sub-turreted character to the spire ; the furrows are broad, round, and nearly regular ; 
the posterior furrow is deeper than the others, and from this circumstance the margin 
of the whorls assumes the appearance of a rim. The aperture is narrow, and of a 
lengthened oval form ; the outer lip waved, sharp-edged, and plicated within, at a 
short distance from the margin ; the columella is nearly straight, and presents near the 
middle two rather prominent and nearly transverse folds, and in front of them three 
others more oblique, and of which the anterior one is much the smallest. 

In the variety semilcevis, the whorls are nearly smooth, presenting only the deep 
sulcus round the sutural margin, and a few obscure furrows, almost obliterated, near 
the base ; and the spire is rather more elevated than in the type. 

In the variety ptimila, the surface of the whorls presents numerous longitudinal, 
irregular, slightly waved costellae, not much elevated, but extending almost to the 
base, and crossed by concentric raised bands, which decussate them, and impart a 
rough aspect to the shell. The concentric bands are irregular, more or less nume- 
rous in different individuals, and rather flattened on the upper surface. When the 
costellse are well defined, the concentric bands, at the points of decussation, rise into 
little tubercles ; the marginal band, thus tuberculated, forms the crenulated edge to 
the whorls noticed by Mr. Sowerby; but this does not appear to be a constant 
character. 

Occasionally specimens occur (var. /3) in which the longitudinal costellse are alto- 
gether wanting, and the whorls present only the concentric bands. 

If we look only at the extreme forms figured in ' Mineral Conchology,' it need 
not excite surprise that Mr. Sowerby, who had not any intermediate forms before 
him, should have described the variety jmmila as a distinct species. On an atten- 
tive examination, however, it will be seen that the distinction between that 
variety and the type lies in the character of the transverse marking, which in 
the type consists of shallow, rounded furrows ; while in the variety it assumes 
the form of flattened bands. This difference, however, which is attributable to the 
greater. or less depth of the furrows, cannot be regarded as of specific value; and the 
occurrence of ribless specimens with transverse bands, shows that the presence or 
absence of the costellae is not a character on which reliance is to be placed. 

The apex of the shell appears to have been very susceptible of erosion, for speci- 
mens with the embryonal whorls preserved are very rare. 

Size. — Axis, rather more than 3-12ths of an inch; diameter, 2-12ths of an inch, 
nearly. 

Localities. — For the type, Highcliff, where it is found in profusion, Barton, Alum 
Bay (No. 29, Prestw.), where the variety semilavis is abundant, and Brockenhurst ; 
and for the variety pumila, Highgate, Basingstoke, Bracklesham Bay, Bramshaw (New 
Forest), and Barton. The species appears to be confined to England. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



185 



No. 121. Mitra porrecta. F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXIV, fig. 7 a—c. 

Mitra porrecta, Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 258. 

M. testa elongato-fusiformi, gracili, ad basin concentrice sulcata, cceterum lavi ; spird 
porrecta: anfractibus depresso-convexis, unico sulco prope marginem suturalem circumdatis ; 
marginibus posticis simplicibus : aperturd angustd, lineari ; labro acuto, intus crenulato ; 
columella quinquies plicatd. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, slender ; smooth, except at the base, where it is tra- 
versed by several broadish, obscure furrows ; the spire elevated, nearly equalling the 
aperture in length ; the volutions, seven or eight, flatly convex, with the posterior 
margins simple, and bordered by a deep furrow, which runs round the shell near the 
suture. The aperture is narrow, with nearly parallel margins ; the outer lip sharp- 
edged, and finely and regularly crenulated within ; the columella presents five sharp 
folds, of which the anterior two are very oblique, and much smaller than the others. 

In the smooth surface, margined whorls, sharp outer lip, and columellar folds, this 
Mitra resembles M. marginata (Lamk.), from the Paris basin. It is, however, a much 
narrower and more slender shell ; the margins of the whorls are without the crenu- 
lations which characterise that species, and the outer lip is finely crenulated within. 
The species appears to be perfectly distinct. 

Size. — Axis, 4-12ths of an inch; diameter, 1 -8th of an inch. 

Localities. — Barton, Bracklesham Bay. 



No. 122. Mitra obesa. F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXIV, fig. 4 a— d. 

31. testa ovato-oblongd, ad basin concentrice sulcata, caterum la?vi ; spird acuminata, 
aperturam in longitudine vix aquanti ; anfractibus convexiusculis, antice coarctatis, posticr 
marginal is ; aperturd elongafo-ovali ; columella ter ties plicatd. 

An ovately oblong shell, smooth except at the base, where it is traversed by a few 
obscure furrows ; spire elevated, nearly as long as the aperture, and terminating in a 
small, pointed pullus, formed of two round, smooth, unequal volutions ; the whorls, 
which are five in number, exclusive of the embryo, are flatly convex, and contract 
rather suddenly in front ; the posterior margin is bordered by a shallow furrow, which 
runs round the suture, and the edge is depressed and flattened, giving somewhat of a 
turreted appearance to the spire. The aperture is ovate, moderately wide, and termi- 
nates in front in a short, wide canal, formed by the sudden contraction of the whorl ; 
the columella is nearly straight, and presents three oblique distant folds. 

The general form, the width and greater size of the shell, and the number of the 



186 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



columellar plaits, distinguish this species from the smooth variety of M. parva, and 
from M. gracilis. It is extremely rare : the specimen figured is, I believe, unique. 

Size. — Axis, 5-12ths of an inch ; diameter, rather more than 2-12ths of an inch. 

Locality. — Highcliff. 



No. 123. Mitra volutiformis. F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXIV, figf. 5 a — c. 
Mitra volutiformis. Morr. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 258. 

M. testa parva, oblongd, turritd, longitudinaliter costatd, antice transversim Uneatd, 
postice concentrice sulcata, caterum Icevi spird exsertd, in longitudine dimidium totius 
testa superanti : anfractibus planis, antice subito coarctalis, ad suturas marginatis et 
unicd serie tuberculorum instructis ; costis crebris, elevatis, rectis, fere ad basin tenden- 
tious, postice nodulosis : aperturd angustd ; labro intus plicato ; columella quadriplicatd ; 
labio angustissimo , postice incrassato. 

Shell small, oblong, turreted, longitudinally ribbed ; spire elevated, exceeding the 
aperture in length ; whorls five or six, exclusive of the embryonal whorls, with the 
sides nearly straight, and contracting suddenly towards the base, where they present 
five or six transverse, coarse, raised lines ; the sutural margin is bordered by a single 
row of round tubercles, corresponding with the ribs ; the posterior surface is con- 
centrically furrowed ; the middle surface smooth ; the ribs, which are numerous, 
prominent, and straight, extend to the transverse raised lines on the base, and 
terminate, posteriorly, in a double row of knobs or tubercles, somewhat larger than 
those which run round the suture, and from which they are separated by a deep 
furrow. The aperture is lanceolate, and, owing to the contraction of the whorls, 
terminates anteriorly in a short, narrow canal, which is slightly emarginate in front ; 
the outer lip is plicated within ; the inner lip very narrow, and thickened near the 
suture, where it forms an oblong callus ; the columella is slightly curved, and furnished 
with four oblique folds, gradually increasing in size as they ascend the columella. 

The specimen figured is, I believe, unique. It is apparently an immature shell ; 
but the characters are so strongly marked, and so distinct from those of the other 
English Eocene Mitrae, that it cannot be passed unnoticed. 

Size. — Axis, 3-12ths of an inch: diameter, somewhat less than 2-12ths of an inch. 

Locality. — Barton . 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



187 



Family — Coni . 
Genus 25th. Conus. Linn. 

Conus Brug.; Lamarck; Cuvier ; De Blainv. 
Voluta, Browne (not Linn.), 1756. 
Strombus, Adan. (not Linn.), \757- 
Cucullus, BoUen, 1/98. 
Conarius, Burner., 1806. 
Rhombus, Montfort, 1810. 
Conulus, Rafin. (not Fitzing.), 1814. 

PUNCTICULIS CORONAXIS — CoNILITHES, Swains., 1840. 

Stephanoconus, Morch, 1852. 

Cylindrella, Swains, (not Pfeiffer), 1840. 

Dendroconus, lb. 1840. 

Lithoconus, Morch, 1852. 

Cylinder, Montfort, 1810. 

Textilia, Swains., 1840. 

Hermes, Montfort, 1810. 

Theliconus, Swains., 1840. 

Leptoconus, 76. 1840. 

Rhizoconus— Chelyconus, Morch, 1852. 
Sect, a Nubecula, Klein, 1753. 

Rollus, Montfort, 1810. 

Utrtculus, Schum., 1817. 

Tuliparia, Swains., 1840. 
Sect. /3 Conorbis, 76. 1840. 

(rew. C%ar. — Shell inversely conical, turbinate, rarely ventricose, smooth or con- 
centrically furrowed or striated ; spire truncate, short, or more or less elevated ; whorls 
numerous, coronated or simple; aperture linear, narrow, slightly effuse, and emarginate 
in front; outer lip thin, and sharp at the edge, smooth, sometimes thickened within, 
generally straight, occasionally curved, notched at the suture ; columella straight, 
smooth, truncate in front ; covered with an epidermis, and operculated ; operculum 
small, corneous. 

In the genera which constitute the families Cgpraidcc and Volutidee, the animals 
are distinguished by their large mantles, capable, as we have seen, of great extension. 
In the present genus, the type of the family to which its name is given, the animal is 
furnished with a narrow mantle, prolonged in front into a short, fleshy siphon, resem- 
bling that of the Volutes and Mitres, by which water is conveyed to the branchial 
chamber. The head is small, and carries two subulate tentacles, near the free extre- 
mities of which the eyes are placed : it terminates in a retractile, proboscis-like muzzle. 



188 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



at the end of* which is the mouth, surrounded by a funnel-shaped veil : the teeth are 
elongate, subulate, and arranged in two series. The foot is simple, oblong, narrow, 
and truncated in front ; in the middle it presents a pore, the function of which is not 
ascertained; and it bears, on the posterior extremity, a small, ovate, horny operculum, 
barely exceeding in length a third part of the aperture, and very narrow, so as to 
permit the animal to withdraw far within the shell. The epidermis, which covers the 
shell, is thick, and frequently very tenacious. 

The cone-animal is endowed with the power of dissolving the calcareous matter 
on the outer surface of the inner whorls, which are thus made exceedingly thin, 
whatever degree of thickness they may have originally possessed. This power of 
absorption is possessed by many other molluscs, but, according to Mr. George Sowerby, 
is confined to those furnished with an operculum. It affords a valuable assistance to 
the Palaeontologist. 

The present genus, although comprising very many species, remains almost as 
Linnaeus left it. The foregoing list of synonyms shows, indeed, that many dismem- 
berments have been proposed ; but at present these appear to depend principally 
on differences in the shells. In Klein's proposed genus Nubecula, however, the shell 
of which is sub-cylindrical, the animal, according to M. Gluoy,* is furnished with a 
large foot, not entirely retractile within the shell ; the margin of the muzzle is fringed, 
and the operculum is curved and unguiculate : these peculiarities apparently justify 
the division in question being retained as a sub-genus. 

The wide semicircular notch which, in many of the cones, separates the outer 
lip from the suture, closely resembles the sinus characteristic of the Pleurotomae, 
and in some of the fossil species in which the outer lip is generally very much 
curved, it is difficult to determine to which genus the particular shell should be 
referred. In the well-known Eocene species, Conus dormitor (Sol.), for instance, the 
shell outwardly possesses quite as much of the character of a Pleurotoma as of that 
of a Cone ; and Mr. Swainson has, in fact, taken it as the type for a genus which he 
has named Conorbis, and which, in his circle of affinities of the Conina, he regards as 
the representative of the Pleurotoma. This division depends entirely on the external 
characters of the shell : no living representative, I believe, has as yet been found, 
and the animal is therefore unknown. It is certain, however, that it was a true cone- 
animal ; for, on breaking the shell of a specimen of Conus dormitor, the inner whorls 
will be found reduced by absorption to a membrane-like thinness ; and the capability 
to effect this is not, I believe, possessed by the animal of Pleurotoma. The proposed 
genus is not well defined by its author, and is not generally received, although it 
may be usefully adopted as a section of the present genus. The characters appear to 
be the elevated conical spire, the produced base representing the canal which dis- 



* Zoologie of the Voyage of the Astrolabe. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



189 



tinguishes the Pleurotomce ; the condition of the outer lip, which is much thickened 
within, and so strongly arched as to be almost semicircular in form ; the deep, wide 
sinus, which divides the posterior extremity of the outer lip from the suture, and 
exactly resembles the notch by which the Pseudotomee (a section of the Pleurotomce 
proposed by Bellardi) are distinguished ; and the elevated, reflected anterior margin of 
the columellar lip, forming the right wall of the anterior canal. 

The recent cones, distinguished by the beauty and variety of their colouring, are 
very numerous : three hundred and sixty-nine species are enumerated by Messrs. 
Henry and Arthur Adams in the different divisions adopted by those authors ; and, 
excepting two species which are found in the Mediterranean, all are inhabitants of 
tropical seas, abounding chiefly in those of Asia. They inhabit fissures and holes 
in rocks, and coral reefs, ranging in depth from low-water mark to thirty or forty 
fathoms. 

In a fossil state, the genus first occurs in the upper cretaceous strata. M. 
Deslongchamps, it is true, has referred to it certain shells from the lias of Calvados, 
exactly resembling cones in outward form, and which, if the genus were correctly 
determined, would present the anomaly of the cones not being represented during the 
long epoch which elapsed between the deposit of the middle lias and that of the 
upper chalk. M. D'Orbigny, however, found, on examination, that the inner whorls 
were as thick as the outer ones ; and from this circumstance he has inferred that the 
shells in question are not true cones, and he has referred them to Acteonina, a genus 
peculiar to the Oolitic formations, and proposed by him for certain Acteon-like shells, 
without teeth or folds on the columella. And thus the apparent anomaly disappears. 
In Europe two species only have hitherto been found in the Chalk — one from Tours, 
described by Dujardin ; the other from Martigues (Bas du Rhone), described by 
Matheron : and from the eocene strata, sixteen species have been described by 
Solander, Bruguiere, Lamarck, Sowerby, and Deshayes. After the eocene era, the 
genus disappears from our Fauna ; although, on the Continent, it appears to have 
been largely developed during the miocene and pleiocene epochs, sixty-seven species 
having been described by Grateloup, Michelotti, Brocchi, Borson, and other authors, 
from the formations of those periods, in France, Italy, and Germany. In America 
only four species, I believe, have as yet been found — one in the Chalk of South 
Carolina, a second in the eocene strata of Alabama, and two in the more recent 
formations. 



25 



190 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



No. 124. Conus diadem a, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXIV, fig. 8 a — d. 

Conus diversiformis, Sow. (non Desk.) 1841. Min. Con., vol. vii, p. 26, t. 623, figs. 

3, 4, 6. 

— — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 143. 

— — Sow. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Suss., p. 108, t. 8, fig. 10. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 244. 

C. testa conicd, oblongd, sub-turritd, coronatd, Icevi, ad basin transversim obscure 
sulcata ; spird elevatd, sed trientem totius testa longitudine nequaquam cequanti ; anfracti- 
bus numerosis, angidatis, marginibus posticis depressis, sub-cavatis, concentrice lineatis : 
aperturd angustd ; labro mediocriter arcuato, postice late emarginato. 

Var. pyriformis (fig*. 8 d). Testa spird depressd. 

Conus pyriformis, Sow. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Suss., pp. 108 and 189, t. 8, 

fig. 18. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 244. 

A smooth, oblong, conical shell, with a turreted spire, formed of numerous 
(10 — 12) volutions, and moderately elevated, varying to some extent in different 
individuals, but never attaining a height equal to a third part of the length of the 
shell. The whorls are nearly straight on the sides, with the posterior margins much 
depressed, somewhat concave, and ornamented with four or five thickish, concentric, 
raised lines, separated by shallow, rounded furrows ; the angles of the whorls present 
a series of oblong, regular tubercles, which are continued almost to the last whorl, 
when they are replaced by a rounded, cord-like thickening of the shoulder ; the front 
part of the whorls is traversed by shallow, irregular furrows, which are effaced 
towards the middle part of the shell. The aperture is narrow, with parallel margins ; 
the outer lip moderately arched, and presenting a wide, shallow curvature between 
the angle and the suture. 

The specimens separated by Mr. Sowerby, under the specific name pyriformis, have 
a much depressed spire associated with the tuberculation, and other characters which 
distinguish the present species, of which, therefore, I regard them as a variety only. 

The shells for which I propose the specific name, C. diadema, were referred by Mr. 
Sowerby, in part to C. deperditus (Brug.), and in part to C. diversiformis (Desh.). In the 
former species, however, the shell is narrower and more turbinate, with a more curved 
outer lip, and the tuberculation on the spire, where it occurs, is feeble and lost on the 
very early whorls ; and in the latter species, M. Deshayes, in his description, states 
expressly that the angles of the whorls are somewhat sharp, and always simple ;* 

* It is somewhat difficult to appreciate the distinct specific value of the shells constituting the species 
C. diversiformis, without an examination of a series of specimens equal to that upon the study of which 
M. Deshayes proposed the separation. To the unschooled eye they appear to be only broader forms of 
C. deperditus, with more variable spires. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



191 



while in the English shells, the angles of the whorls are blunt and strongly tubercu- 
lated, resembling in that character C. sulciferus (Desh.), to which, indeed, I should be 
inclined to refer them, notwithstanding the transverse sulcation from which the name 
is taken, but on which much stress is not to be placed, as it does not appear to be a 
strongly marked character ; the shell of C. mlciferus, however, is thick and ponderous, 
with a narrower aperture, and a deeper curvature in the outer lip. In C. Lamarclcii 
(a name which I propose to give to the eocene species still miscalled C. antedilu- 
vianus), the tubercles are also found, but they are not so prominent nor so persistent 
as in the present species ; the shell, also, is narrower, with a sub-conical and more 
elevated spire, and it never attains the size of C. diadema. The only other eocene 
tuberculated species at all resembling the present one, is C. crenulatus (Desh.) ; but in 
that species the shell is perspicuously furrowed, even in its mature state, and the spire 
is shorter and more conical. 

Size. — Axis, 2 inches and 10-12ths (72 millim.) ; diameter, 1 inch and 8-12ths 
(42 millim.). 

Locality. — Bracklesham Bay, where it is common. 



No. 125. Conus deperditus. Bruguiere. Tab. XXV, fig. 2 a — c. 

D'Jryenv. 1742. Conchyl. Append., 2d edit., p. 349, t. 29, fig. 8. 
1 Walch. 1768. Traite des Petrifact., vol. ii, p. 102, t. 43, fig. 4. 
Favanne. 1780. D'Argenv., Conchyl., 3d edit., t. 66, fig. G 1. 
Conus deperditus, Brug. 1789. Encycl. meth., vol. i, p. 691, No 80, t. 337, fig. 7. 

— — Lamk. 1802. Ann. du Mus., vol. i, p. 386 ; vol. xv, p. 441, No. 6. 

— — De/. 1818. Diet, des Sci. nat., vol. x, p. 261. 

— — Lamk. 1822. Hist. Nat , vol. vii, p. 528, No. 6. 

— — Desh. 1823. Diet, class. d'Hist. nat., vol. iv, p. 388. 

— — lb. 1824 — 37. Descr. des coq. foss., &c., vol. ii, p. 745, t. 98, 

figs. 1, 2. 

_ _ Galeotti. 1837. Const, geog., &c, de Brabant, p. 148, No. 63. 

— — Bronn. 1838. Lethsea geog., vol. ii, p. 1118, t. 42, fig. 14. (ex plur. 

syn.) 

— — Sow. 1841. Min. Con., vol. vii, p. 25, t. 623, fig 5 (non figs. 1, 2). 
_ _ INyst. 1843. Coq., &c, de Belg., p. 583, No. 501. 

— — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 143. 

— — D'Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 355, No. 336. 

— — 1 Bell. 1851. (Foss. nuramul. du Comte de Nice), Mem. de la Soc. 

Ge'ol. de France, 2d ser., vol. iv, p. 219, No. 65. 

— allioni? Beyr. (non Michel.) 1853. Die Conchyl. des Norddeut. tertiiir., p. 24, 

t. 1, figs. 4 — 6. 

— deperditus, Roissy. 1804. Buff. Moll., vol. xlv, p. 409, No. 10. 
Conilithes ctngulatus, Schlot.1 1820. Die Petrif., vol. i, p. 125, No. 3. 



192 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



Nec Con us deperditus, Brocc. 1814. Conch. Foss. Sub-app., vol. ii, p. 592, No. 10, t. 3, fig. 2. 

nec — — Bors. 1821. Oritt. Piem., p. 14, No. 13. 

nec — — Brongn. 1823. Terr, tert., &c, du Vicentin, p. 32. 

nec — — Bast. 1825. Desc. des coq. foss., &c, de Bord., p. 39. 

nec — — Bronn. 1831. Italiens tertiargeb., p. 12, No. 5. 

nec — — Pusch. 1837. Polens Palaeont., p. 115, No. 2. 

nec — Grat. 1838. Cat. zool., &c, de la Gironde, p. 47, No. 422. 

nec — — lb. 1838. Tabl. statist. &c, de l'Adour, t. 19, No. 22. 

nec — lb. 1840. Conchyl. foss., &c, de l'Adour, t. 2, figs. 18, 19. 

nec — — Sismon. 1847. Synop. method., &c, Pedem. Foss., p. 44. 

nec — — Sow. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Sussex, p. 108, t. 8, fig. 9. 

C. testa turbinatd, elongatd, lavi, ad basin transversim, obsolete sulcata ; spird promi- 
nuld, acutiuseuld : anfractibus numerosis, angustis, angulatis, marginibus posticis depressis, 
strias tenues concentricas gerentibus ; ultimo anfractu regulariter conoideo, sursum dilatato : 
aperturd angustd ; labro tenui, simplici, valde arcuato, postice profunde emarginato. 

Shell oblong, turbinate, with a moderately elevated mucronate spire, variable in 
height, but rarely exceeding a fourth part of the whole length of the shell, and ter- 
minating in a smooth, conical pullus, formed of three volutions ; whorls numerous 
(10 — 12, exclusive of the pullus), bluntly angulated at the shoulders, nearly straight 
on the sides, with the posterior margins depressed, narrow, somewhat concave, and 
concentrically lined ; the concentric lines are usually four or five in number, sharp, 
irregular, unequal, separated by moderately deep, rounded furrows, and frequently 
decussated by the lines of growth. In some specimens the early whorls are very 
finely tuberculated on the shoulders, and concentrically sulcated ; the tubercles, how- 
ever, disappear after the third or fourth volution, and the shoulders are afterwards 
smooth and simple : the concentric furrows also become gradually effaced on the 
posterior portion of the whorls as the shell approaches maturity, and ultimately are 
altogether lost, leaving only a few very obscure waved furrows traversing the base of 
the shell. The last whorl is conical, much attenuated in front, with nearly straight 
sides ; the aperture is linear and narrow ; the outer lip, which is thin, sharp-edged and 
much arched, presents a shallow but wide curvature at the posterior extremity. 

M. Deshayes states that traces of the natural colouring are sometimes found in the 
French shells, consisting of narrow, transverse bands, occasionally interrupted by 
irregular, zigzag patches, following the direction of the lines of growth. Similar traces 
appear, though very rarely, in the English specimens. 

This species appears to be confined to the middle eocene strata ; for the shells 
from Ronca (Vicent.), described by Brongniart as C. deperditus, D'Orbigny regards as 
belonging to a distinct species, which he has named C. Brongniartii, and to this species 
the shells described by Bellardi from the nummulitic beds at Nice, probably are also 
referrible. Subsequent comparison has shown that specific differences also exist in 
the various shells from the more recent deposits which have been referred to the 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



193 



present species. Thus the Sub-apennine shells, described by Brocchi, and those from 
Perpignan and Cassel, recorded by Sismonda, have been separated by Bronn under 
the name C. Brocchii ; while to those from Dax and Gaas, described by Grateloup, 
M. D'Orbigny has given the name C. Grateloupi ; and he has referred to the same 
species certain shells described by Pusch, to which Eichwald had given the name 
C. argillcBcola. The cones described by Mr. Sowerby as belonging to the present 
species are young shells of C. diadema. 

Dr. Beyrich (' Die Conchylien des Norddeutschen tertiargebirges,' vol. i, p. 24) 
has described some shells from the North German tertiaries, which he has referred to 
C. Allioni (Michel.), but which agree so well with the present species, that it is 
difficult to separate them. That author states that, in C. deperditus of the Paris 
basin, the shells are comparatively wider, the concentric lines on the margins of the 
whorls more strongly marked, and the angles at the shoulders sharper than in 
the German specimens. These differences do not appear to be greater than may be 
fairly attributed to variations of local conditions, and I have therefore cited Dr. 
Beyrich's shell, but with a query. The English shells are wider, and appear to have 
attained a greater size, than the French shells ; and the edges of the shoulders, instead 
of being somewhat sharp and elevated, as in the latter, are rounded or flattened 
obliquely ; in all other respects our shells agree so well, that I have no doubt of their 
specific identity. 

Size. — Axis, 1\ inches, nearly (63 millim.) ; diameter, 1 inch and 5-12ths (36 
millim.). 

Localities. — Bracklesham Bay, Bramshaw (New Forest), at which places they are 
not uncommon. French — Grignon, Parnes, Mouchy, Courtagnon, &c. (fide Desk.) 
Belgian — Afflighem (fide Galeotti), Rouge-Cloitre, Saint Josse-ten-Noode and Groenen- 
dael (fide Nyst). German — Westeregeln in Magdeburgh, Hermsdorf, Freinwalde and 
Buckow, and Freden, near Alfeld (fide Beyrich). Italian — La Palarca (fide Bellardi) ? 



No. 126. Conus velatus, Sowerby. Tab. XXIV, fig. 12. 

Conus velatus, Sow. 1841. Min. Cod., vol. vii, p. 27, t. 623, fig. 7. 

— — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 143. 

— — Sow. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Sussex, pp. 108 and 189, t. 8, fig. 17. 
— Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 244. 

C. testa lavi, oblongd, turbinatd, antice sub-productd ; transversim, obsolete sulcotti . 
spird conicd, prominuld, trientem (otitis testa lonyitudine paulo superanti : anfractibus 
angulalis, inermibus ; marginibus posticis declivis, sub-concavis, lineas concentricas et ruyas 



194 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



curvas obliquas sese decussantes gerentibus, ad suturam incrassatis, plicatis : aperturd 
anaustd; labro valde arcuato, postice late emarginato. 

Shell smooth, oblong-, turbinate, somewhat produced at the base, where it presents 
traces of transverse sulcation : spire conical, slightly elevated, barely exceeding in 
height a third part of the whole length of the shell : whorls narrow, angulated, and 
smooth round the shoulders ; the posterior margins much depressed, very slightly 
concave, and presenting- four or five rather coarse, raised, concentric lines, which are 
crossed and decussated by prominent, curved, wrinkle-like elevations, corresponding 
with the curvature in the outer lip; the edge is thickened, and presents a raised 
border round the suture, plicated by the extension of the marginal wrinkles over the 
surface. The aperture is narrow ; the outer lip much arched, and separated from the 
suture by a wide, moderately deep curvature. The surface of the shell is much 
eroded, and the lines of growth are consequently more conspicuous than is usually the 
case ; these, with the decussated lines on the spire, " g-ive the shell," Mr. Sowerby 
says, "the appearance of having- been enclosed in a net or net-veil ; whence the 
name." 

The specimen from which the figure is taken, and on which the species was 
founded, forms part of Mr. Bowerbank's collection, and is, I believe, unique. In the 
general character the shell resembles C. deperditus ; but the more elevated posterior 
margins, the thickened and plicated edges of the whorls in the present species, 
apparently justify the separation. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 4-12ths; diameter, 5-12ths of an inch. 

Locality. — Bracklesham Bay. 



No. 127. Conus Lamarckti, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXV, fig. 3 a — c. 

Conus antediluvian us, Desh. (nec Britg.y nec Lam.) 1824 — 37. Descr. des coq. foss., 

&c, vol. ii, p. 749, t. 98, figs. 13, 14. 

— — Bronn. 1838. Letksea Geog., p. 1118. 

— deperditus, Sow. (non Brvg.), 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Sussex, p. 108, t. 8, 

fig. 9. 

— antediluvian us, D'Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 355, No. 335. 

— concinnus, Phil, (non Sow.) 1846. Tert. foss. Magdeb. (Paleont., vol. i, p. 80, No. 183). 

— — Beyr. (non Sow.) 1853. Die Conchyl. des Norddeutsc. tertiarg., vol. i, 

p. 21, t. 1, fig. 2. 

C. testa oblongo-turbinatd, Itevi, ad basin transversim sulcata; spird elevatd, acuminata, 
trientem totius testa longitudine supcranti .- anfractibus angusiis, nodulosis, marginibus 
posticis oblique depressis, sub-concavis, ad suturam tenuiter plicatis ; anfractu ultimo conico : 
a fieri '/< rd linear v, angusld ; labro tenui, arcuato, postice emarginato. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



195 



Var. filifer. Testa latiori ; marginibus posticis anfractuum concentrice lineatis ; 
lineis irregularibus, aliquando granulatis. 

Shell oblong, inversely conical, smooth, with an elevated, nearly conical spire, in 
height a little exceeding a third part of the whole length of the shell, and terminating 
in a small pointed pnllus of three volutions. The whorls, 8 — 10 in number, exclusive 
of the pullus, are narrow, angulated at the shoulders, the posterior margins slanting 
backwards towards the preceding whorl, and concave ; the sutural edge finely plicated 
by the strongly marked lines of growth. The early whorls present on the shoulders a 
row of small rounded tubercles, which are continued, more or less, on the later whorls, 
in different individuals. The aperture is straight and narrow; the outer lip thin, sharp- 
edged, not much arched, and separated from the suture by a wide, shallow curvature. 

In the specimens from Bracklesham Bay, forming the variety filifer, the shells are 
wider than in the type, the posterior margins of the whorls present concentric lines, 
variable in number, and occasionally finely granulated where they are decussated by 
the lines of growth, and a single row of very small, bead-like knobs runs round the 
sutural edge, instead of the plication usually found there, in this respect somewhat 
resembling C. concinnus. The specimens from Bramshaw agree better with the French 
shells than do those from Bracklesham Bay ; in the latter the shells generally are 
somewhat wider, the tubercles on the angles of the whorls disappear more early, and 
the shoulders are blunter than in the typical form. I regard these differences, however, 
rather as merely local variations than as sufficient to justify the separation of the shells 
from the present species, with which they agree in the elevated spire, the slanting 
concave margin and crenulated edge of the whorls, and the size of the shell itself. 

With regard to the nomenclature of the French shell, much confusion has arisen, 
the origin of which is explained by M. Deshayes in a note in the 2d edition of 
Lamarck's ' Histoire Naturelle' (vol. xi, p. 155). From this it appears that the shell 
described by Bruguiere as having been found at Courtagnon, and to which he gave the 
name C. antediluvianus, was, in fact, a Sub-apennine shell, and that Lamarck, misled by 
this, quoted C. antediluvianus as a Paris-basin species in his Memoire, published in the 
'Annales du Musee.' In 1814, Brocchi, in his work, applied the name given by 
Bruguiere to the Sub-apennine shells, to which it strictly and properly belongs ; but 
Lamarck, in 1822, in the first edition of his 'Histoire Naturelle/ again recorded 
Bruguiere's species as occurring in the environs of Paris. Subsequently, M. Deshayes, 
in his ' Description des coquilles fossiles,' &c, pointed out the fact that Bruguiere's 
description referred to an Italian species not found in the Paris basin ; but unfortu- 
nately, in describing the French Eocene shells, he applied Bruguiere's name to them. 
Bronn also, in the ' Letlmea Geognostica/ retained the name C. antediluvianus for the 
Paris-basin species, erroneously associating it with C. concinnus (Sow.), a species per- 
fectly distinct; and he proposed the specific name C. Apenninicus for the Sub-apennine 
shells. The same author subsequently, in his ' Index Palaeontologicus,' again united 



190 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



the so-called C. antediluvianus of the Paris basin with the English C. concinnus, retaining 
for them the name of the latter. It is obvious that the name antediluvianus belongs to 
the Sub-apennine shell, and cannot be applied correctly to the French eocene species ; 
and the attempts of MM. Bronn, Nyst, and others to remove the difficulty by giving a 
new name to the Italian species, can but increase the confusion. Dr. Beyrich, who 
fully appreciated the specific distinctness of the forms, has observed (' Die Conchyl.,' 
&c, p. 20), that " there will not be any necessity for a new name for the older eocene 
species of the Calcaire Grossier if the union proposed by Bronn be adopted." In the 
description of C. concinnus, I have stated the characters in which I consider that 
species to be perfectly distinct ; and it is a cone which, although recorded by Mr. 
Sowerby as occurring at Barton, is, I believe, peculiar to the older eocene strata, 
and cannot be associated with the present species. It becomes necessary, therefore, 
to give a new name to the middle eocene species, and I propose to distinguish it as 
C. Lamarckii. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 7-12ths (40 millim.) ; diameter, 9-12ths of an inch, nearly 
(18 millim.). 

Localities. — Bracklesham Bay, Bramshaw. French — Parnes, Mouchy, Courtagnon 
(fide Des/i.); Vaudancourt, Hermes (fide D'Orb.). 

No. 128. Conus concinnus, Sowerby. Tab. XXIV, fig. 13 a — c. 

Conus concinnus, Sow. 1821. Min. Con., vol. iii, p. 180, t. 302, fig. 2. 

— — Morr. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 142. 

— — jyOrb. 1850. Prod, de Pale'ont., vol. ii, p. 356, No. 337. 

Nec — Phil. 1846. Tert. Foss. Magdeb. (Palaeont., vol. i, p. 80, No. 183). 

nee — — Beyr. 1853. Die Conchyl. des Norddeutsc. tertiarg., vol. i, p. 21, t. 1, 

fig. 2. 

C. testa elongato-turbinatd, Icevi, ad basin concentrice sulcata ; spird elevatd, sub-conica : 
anfractibus angustis, sub-planis, angulatis, ad angulos nodulosis ; marginibus posticis 
declivis, dims vel tres lineas elevatas gramdatas gerentibus, ad suturas marginatis, plicatis 
vel moniliferis : aperturd angustissimd „■ labro valde arcuato, postice late emarginato. 

Var. (5. Testa spatiis inter suturas et angulos anfractuum tres vel quatuor lineas elevatas 
simplices gerentibus. 

Shell elongate, turbinate, concentrically furrowed at the base ; spire elevated, but 
variable in height, sometimes nearly equalling a half, sometimes not much exceeding a 
third part, of the whole length of the shell : whorls seven or eight, exclusive of the 
pullus, very narrow, nearly straight on the sides, angulated at the shoulders, with the 
posterior margins slanting backwards ; the edges round the suture thickened, and 
either plicated or furnished with a single row of rather small bead-like nobs : the space 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



197 



between the edge and the shoulder is straight, and ornamented with two or three 
concentric raised lines, very finely granulated. The shoulders bear a single row of 
prominent, round tubercles, placed at regular and not distant intervals, and continued 
throughout. The aperture is straight, and very narrow ; the outer lip much arched, 
and presenting a wide, shallow curvature at the posterior extremity. The concentric 
furrows cover the whole surface of the young shell, but become more or less effaced as 
the shell is enlarged, and on the last whorl they are confined to the anterior portion 
of the shell ; through all stages of growth the basal furrows are deep and sharp- 
edged. 

A variety occurs at Lee, near Southend, in which the sutural edge and margin of 
the whorl present four thick, prominent lines, rounded and smooth on the upper surface, 
and devoid of the granulations which characterise the type. 

I have already noticed the fact, that Bronn has regarded the present species, 
apparently confined to the lower eocene strata, as identical with the so-called C. ante- 
diluvianus of Lamarck ; and Dr. Beyrich, adopting that opinion, has applied the name 
concinnus to a shell from the German Tertiaries which belongs to C. Lamarckii. The 
narrower form, the smaller number of the volutions, the large rounded tubercles on the 
shoulders, the more depressed margins of the whorls, with their thickened edges and 
concentric rows of granulations, or strong elevated lines, and the deep, sharp-edged 
furrows, barely effaced on the posterior part by the outer coating of the shell, — appear 
to me sufficiently to distinguish the present shells from those of the middle eocene 
epoch. I do not agree, therefore, with M. Bronn and Dr. Beyrich, in referring both to 
the same species ; and in this view, apparently both M. Deshayes and M. D'Orbigny 
concur. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 3-12ths (32 millim.) ; diameter, rather more than 6-12ths 
of an inch (between 13 and 14 millim.). 

Localities. — High gate ; Fortess Green, near Kentish Town ; Lee, near Southend. 
Mr. Sowerby cites Barton, but I have never met with any specimen from that locality ; 
and the specimen on the authority of which Barton is cited (' Min. Con./ t. 302, 
lowest fig.) does not present the characteristic form of C. concinnus ; it is much muti- 
lated, but it has rather the appearance of a worn specimen of C. scabriculus. M. 
Deshayes (2d edit, of ' Lam. Hist. Nat.') states that this species occurs in the 
environs of Paris ; it is not mentioned, however, in his ' Description des Coquilles 
Fossiles,' and M. D'Orbigny has not given any French locality for it. At present 
this cone appears to belong exclusively to the earlier eocene fauna. 



26 



198 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



No. 129. Conus scabriculus, Solander. Tab. XXIV, fig. 9 a — c. 

Conus scabriculus, Sol. 1766. Brand., Foss. Hanton., p. 15, t. 1, fig. 21. 

— — Sow. 1821. Min. Con., vol. iii, p. 180, t. 303, figs. 1, 2. 

— — Desk. 1824-37. Descr. des coq. foss., &c, vol. ii, p. 751, t. 98, 

figs. 17, 18. 

— — lb. 1845. Lam., Hist. Nat., 2d edit., vol. ii, p. 158, No. 11. 
_ _ VOrb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 416, No. 1472. 

non — — Sism. 1847. Syn. Meth., &c, Pedemont. foss., p. 44. 

C. testa utrinque conicd, antice sub-productd, lineis concentricis, elevatis, ornatd ; spird 
devatd, acuminata ; lineis concentricis acutis, denticulatis, aliquando confertis, aliquando 
(({stantibus ; alternis scepissime minoribus, scepe inermibus : anfractibus planis, postice obtuse 
angulatis ; marginibus sub-concavis, ad suturam granulosis : aperturd lineari, angustd, bessem 
f otitis testes paullum superanti ; labro tenuissimo, leviter arcuato, postice sinuoso. 

Shell oblong, doubly conical, slightly produced at the base, and ornamented with 
concentric raised lines ; spire elevated, pointed, terminating in a very small conical 
pullus, formed of three smooth volutions. The concentric lines are sharp, and very 
variable in their character ; sometimes numerous, sometimes distant, and very fre- 
quently the alternate lines are smaller than the others. Most generally the concentric 
lines rise, at regular intervals, into short, tooth-like tubercles, having their bases 
prolonged, both in front and behind, into short, rounded ribs, more or less prominent 
according to the size of the tubercles, and separated by deep, pit-like hollows. The 
whorls, exclusive of the pullus, are six or seven in number, flat at the sides, slightly 
contracted towards the base, obtusely angulated at the shoulder, longitudinally ridged 
by regular conspicuous lines of growth, and bordered at the suture by a row of small 
granulations ; the space between the shoulder and the suture is traversed by two or 
three smooth, prominent lines. The aperture is straight, narrow, slightly emarginate 
in front, and in length, rather more than two thirds of the whole shell ; the outer lip 
is smooth within, thin, sharp on the edge, of a flattened elliptical form, and separated 
from the preceding whorl by a moderately wide, but not deep, sinus. The columella 
is slightly curved inwards. 

Not infrequently, the alternate smaller lines, where they do occur, are smooth 
and simple ; and the same character sometimes, although very rarely, distinguishes 
the whole transverse lineation. In the latter instances the surface of the shell between 
the raised lines is flat and smooth, except where it is ridged by the lines of growth. 

This pretty and well-marked species is, apparently, confined to the middle eocene 
strata; and the shells referred to it by Sismonda, from Piedmont and Turin, are 
considered by M. D'Orbigny to belong, in fact, to Michelotte's C. ornatus. 

Size. — Axis, 4-5ths of an inch ; diameter, rather more than 3-10ths of an inch. 

Localities. — Barton. French — Monneville ''fide Desk), Chavancon (fide D' Orb.). 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



199 



No. 130. Con us lineatus, Solander. Tab. XXIV, fig. 10 a— c. 

Conus lineatus, Sol. 1766. Brand., Foss. Hanton., p. 15, t. 1, fig. 22. 

— corculum, Sow. 1841. Min. Conchol., vol. vii, p. 27, t. 623, figs. 8, 9. 

— lineatus, Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 143. 

— corculum, Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 142. 

— — Sow. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Suss., p. 109. 

— lineatus, IX Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 355, No. 334. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 244. 

— corculum. Ib. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 243. 

non — lineatus, Chemn. 1795. Conchyl. Cab., vol. x, p. 27, t. 138, fig. 1285. 

C. testa utrinque sub-conicd, Kneis concentricis omatd, antice sub-productd ; lineis 
concentricis aqualibus, lavibus, confertis ; spird elevatd, acuminata, sub-nodulosd : anfrac- 
tibus plants, postice obtuse angulatis, marginibus sub-concavis, concentrice lineatis, ad 
suturam depressis, granulatis : aperturd lineari, angustd, longitudine bessem totius testa 
fere csquanti ; labro tenuissimo, leviter arcuato, postice sinuato. 

Shell oblong, doubly conical, ornamented with transverse raised lines ; spire 
elevated, coronated, terminating in a small pointed pullus, consisting of two or three 
smooth volutions ; the transverse lines are smooth, regular, numerous, and separated 
by rather deep, rounded furrows ; the whorls, which are five or six in number without 
the pullus, are flat at the sides, slightly contracted and produced in front, angulated 
at the shoulders, and depressed at the sutural margins, forming a narrow ledge running 
round the spire, the outer edge of which is finely granulated ; the space between the 
margin and the shoulder is slightly concave, and presents two or three faint, concentric, 
unequal, raised lines. The early whorls bear on the shoulders a row of transverse, 
oblong tubercles, imparting a somewhat nodulous character to the spire, but lost on the 
last whorl, the shoulder of which is smooth. The aperture is straight, narrow, and 
about two thirds of the whole shell in length ; the outer lip, which is but slightly 
curved, presents a shallow sinus at the posterior extremity ; the columella is nearly 
straight. 

Brander's shell, deposited in the British Museum, is unfortunately mislaid, and I 
have not been able to compare with it the shells now described. They agree, how- 
ever, with Solander's description and figure in all respects except in the striation. 
Brander's shell, which was apparently a larger and an older specimen than any I 
possess, and was probably somewhat worn, is described as obsolete striata; while the 
transverse lines on my specimen are generally bold and clearly defined. 

The Bracklesham Bay shell, described by Mr. Sowerby as C. corculum, is a little 
shorter in the spire ; but, in all other respects, it agrees exactly with the present 
species, to which, therefore, I have referred it. 



200 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



Lamarck, and, since his time, MM. Deshayes and D'Orbigny, have considered 
C. lineatus as identical with C. stromboides (Lamk.), from the Paris basin. These two shells 
do not appear to me, however, to be referable to the same species, for in the French 
species the shell is narrower, the spire more elevated, and formed of more numerous 
volutions ; the whorls, also, are more rounded at the shoulders, the transverse lineation 
is feebler and more irregular, and the outer lip is more strongly arched than in the 
English shells. I have, therefore, not cited C. stromboidss as a synonym of the presen 
species. 

So closely does C. lineatus resemble C. scabriculus, from which, in fact, it is only 
distinguished by its smooth, crowded, concentric lines, separated by rounded furrows, 
that it ought, perhaps, to be regarded as merely a variety into which the smooth lined 
specimens of the latter species would lead ; but, without an examination of Brander's 
shell, I do not venture to question Solander's species. 

Size. — The dimensions of my largest specimen are — axis, 7-12ths of an inch; 
diameter, rather more than 3-12ths of an inch : those of Brander's shell were, according 
to the figure — axis, 10-12ths of an inch ; diameter, rather more than 5-12ths of an inch. 

Localities. — Barton, Bracklesham Bay. Very rare. 



Section — Conorbis. 

No. 131. Conus dormitor, Solander. Tab. XXIV, fig. 11 a — c. 

Conus dormitor, Sol. 1/66. Brand., Foss. Hanton., p. 16, t. 1, fig. 24. 

— — Sow. 1821. Min. Con., vol. iii, p. 1/9, t. 301. 

— — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 143. 

— — TfOrb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 356, No. 338. 

— — G. Sow. . Gen. of Shells, Conus, fig. 8. 

C. testa crassiuscidd, fusiformi ; utrinque conicd, concentrice lineatd, antice sub-productd, 
via; emarginatd, paulo retrojlexd ; lineis concentricis elevatis, aqualibus, irregularibus, sub- 
distantibus ; interstitiis concavis, lineis incrementi tenuissime crenulatis : aperturd lineari, 
angustd; labro acuto, rotundato-clliptico, intus incrassato,postice late sinuato ; labii margine 
anteriori elevatd, productd. 

Far. seminuda. Testa ad basin transversim sulcata; anfractibus postice unico 
sulco eocaratis, cceterum Icevibus. 

Shell rather thick, fusiform, resembling two nearly equal cones, placed base to base, 
and ornamented with concentric raised lines ; the spire, forming the shorter cone, is 
elevated, pointed, and terminates in a very small conical pullus of three volutions; whorls 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



201 



seven or eight, exclusive of the pullus, rounded at the shoulders, nearly straight on the 
sides, somewhat produced in front, and very slightly bent backwards. The concentric: 
lines are equal, not very distant over the middle of the whorls, but varying in that 
respect in different individuals ; more crowded at the base and on the shoulders, distant 
on the posterior margins, which are much elevated, and pressed against the preceding 
whorls ; occasionally on the last whorl of mature specimens additional faint lines 
appear. The spaces between the lines are very slightly concave, and finely crenu- 
lated by the lines of growth, which are very perspicuous over the whole surface of 
the shell. The aperture is narrow, straight, except at the base, where it is a little 
deflected, and scarcely emarginate ; the outer lip thin and sharp on the edge, very 
much thickened within, faintly crenulated on the inner margin by the concentric lines, 
of a roundedly elliptical shape, and detached from the suture by a wide but very 
shallow curvature. The anterior margin of the columellar lip is elevated and pro- 
longed in front, where it serves as the wall of the rudimentary anterior canal formed 
by the produced base of the shell. 

In specimens from Brockenhurst and Lyndhurst, the middle and upper parts of 
the whorls are perfectly smooth, with the exception of a single furrow which traverses 
the posterior margins; and the base of the shell presents numerous shallow furrows, 
which extend almost up to the middle of the whorl, instead of the sharp elevated lines 
which characterise the typical form. 

This well-known species, peculiar, I believe, to the Hampshire basin, forms the 
type of Mr. Swainson's genus Conorbis. In the elevated conical spire, the almost 
semicircular form of the outer lip, and the produced base of the whorls, it presents 
the closest analogies with that section of the Pleurotomse formed of P. prisca, P. 
amp/iiconus, P. linearis, and similar species. Indeed, so closely does it approach to 
some of these, that, judging from external characters only, it is difficult to decide to 
which genus it should be referred. The straight, narrow aperture, however, is cer- 
tainly that of a cone, and indicates a necessity that the animal, in order that it might 
withdraw into the inner whorls, should be enabled to enlarge the space within the 
shell; a necessity which, as I have already stated, was met by the power of absorp- 
tion possessed by the animal. The curvature in the outer lip, also, is quite distinct 
in its character from the sinus in the outer lip of the Pleurotomae. 

Size. — Type — Axis, 1 inch and 1-12; diameter, 5-12ths of an inch. Var. — Axis, 
1 inch and 3-12ths; diameter, 6-12lhs of an inch. 

Localities. — Barton, Alum Bay (No. 29, Prestwich), Lyndhurst, and Brockenhurst 
(New Forest). 



202 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



No. 132. Conus alatus, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXV, fig. 1 a, b. 

C. testa sub -f usi for mi, utrinque corned, concentrice sulcata, antice sub-productd, retro- 
Hexd, emarginatd ; spird acuminata, in longitudine trientem totius testa superanti: anfrac- 
tibus convexiusculis, sub-angulatis ; marginibus posticis angustis, concavis, concentrice 
sulcatis ; sulcis concentricis irregularibus, postice evanescentibus : aperturd angustd ; labro 
aliformi,fere semicirculari, acuto, intus incrassato, antice crenulato, postice perparum brevi- 
tcrque emarginato ; labio antice reflexo, producto. 

Var. hemilissa. Testa breviori, latiori, postice lavi ; marginibus anfractuum valde 
cavatis, unico sulco concentrico exaratis. 

Shell nearly fusiform, doubly conical, concentrically furrowed, rather produced and 
bent backwards at the base, and deeply notched ; the concentric furrows are irregular, 
crowded, and sharp-edged over the base, more distant and obscure as they ascend the 
shell ; the spire is pointed, elevated, rather more than a third part of the whole shell 
in height, and terminates in a very small, conical pullus. The whorls are rather 
convex, slightly angulated at the shoulder, and a little thickened on the edge round 
the suture ; the posterior margin is narrow, rather concave, and traversed by two or 
three deepish furrows. The aperture is narrow and nearly straight, with the anterior 
extremity slightly curved outwards and backwards ; the outer lip is remarkably large, 
almost semicircular, thickened within, thin and sharp on the edge, and separated from 
the suture by a very small but rather deep curvature ; the inner lip produced, reflexed, 
and curved backwards ; the columella presents a broad, elevated ridge or " crest " 
in front. 

A variety occurs at Brockenhurst, in which the shell is shorter and wider ; the 
posterior portion of the whorl is smooth ; the angle on the shoulder sharper and more 
clearly defined, and the posterior margin more concave, and traversed by a single 
obscure furrow. 

The presence, in this species, of concentric furrows instead of the sharp, elevated 
lines which characterise C. dormitor, is not a character to which much specific value 
can be attached, as these ornaments interchange by insensible degrees ; but the 
depressed, concave posterior margin of the whorls, the very large wing-like, outer lip, 
the small, narrow, but deep curvature which separates the outer lip from the suture, 
and the deep anterior notch, with its usual accompaniment, the elevated crest on the 
columella, appear to me to justify the separation of the present species. Even the 
variety which, with its half-smooth half-sulcated surface, so much resembles the var. 
xcminuda of C. dormitor, is easily distinguishable by these characters. 

Size. — Type — Axis, 1 inch and 5-12ths, nearly; diameter, rather more than 
(i-12ths of an inch. Variety — Axis, 1 inch; diameter, \ inch. 

Localities. — Type : Bramshaw. Variety : Brockenhurst, Lyndhurst. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



203 



Genus 26th. Pleurotoma.* Lamarck. 

Turris, 1797, Humphreys. 
Pleurotoma, 1801, Lamarck. 
Pleurotomartus, 1806, Burner. 
Pleurotomus, 1810, Tie Montf. 
Turricula, 1817, Schum. (pot Klein). 
Pleurotoma, 1840, Swainson. 

— (exc. sect, a) 1847, Bellardi. 
Surcula, 1853, Adams. 
Genot, 1757, Adanson. 
Crassispira, 



■> 1 

1 1840, Swains. 
Brachytoma, J 

Conopleura, 1844, Hinds. 

Genota, 1853, Adams. 

Sect. Drillia, 1834, Gray. 

Gen. Char. — Shell fusiform, turreted, or conoid, ribbed or concentrically striated., 
sometimes smooth ; spire elevated : aperture oval, terminating anteriorly in a canal 
more or less elongated ; outer lip thin, with a deep fissure or notch near the posterior 
extremity ; columella smooth, nearly straight. Operculum pointed, nucleus apical. 

This genus, first indicated by Humphreys under the name Turris, was established 
by Lamarck for various shells, which by Linnaeus, Chemnitz, and others, had been 
placed with Murex, and by Brugniere with Fusus. The animal is very similar to that 
of the Cone, and, like it, presents a strong resemblance to those of the Muricida, from 
which it is mainly distinguished by the peculiar character of the dentition. It has a 
small, flat head, provided with a siphon varying in length, and with cylindrical tentacles 
wide apart, on bulgings near the bases of which the eyes are placed ; and the mouth 
terminates in a small, fleshy proboscis. The foot is oblong, truncated at each extremity, 
of nearly uniform width, and thin at the edge ; and the mantle has a notch or slit on the 
right side which corresponds with, and is represented by, the sinus in the shell. The 
function attributed to this notch is the more ready expulsion of the excretory matter, 
but the precise way in which it is subservient to that purpose is not known- Appa- 
rently it is intended, as Mr. Swainson asserts, for the protrusion of some particular 
organ of the animal ; but the existence of such an organ is not noticed by MM. Quoy 
and Gaimard in their description of the anatomy of the animal of Pleurotoma Babylonica, 
nor has it as yet been ascertained. The lingual teeth are elongate, subulate, arranged 
in two series ; but, as in the Cone animal, the central or rachidian teeth, usually found 
in other families, are wanting. 

* Etym. flXevpa, the side ; and To/ji), an incision. 



204 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



When Lamarck first established the present genus, he at the same time separated 
the species whose shells terminate in a short canal, under the name Clavatula, a 
genus which, as defined by the author, rested wholly on characters taken from the 
shell, and which was afterwards withdrawn by him as not tenable. In this suppression 
subsequent writers have concurred until recently, when, a better knowledge of the 
animal having been acquired, characters have been pointed out which are generally 
considered as sufficient to justify the separation, and the genus has accordingly been 
adopted, and has been re-defined by Dr. Gray. The most prominent of these charac- 
ters are the shape of the foot, which is large and ovular, and the condition of the 
operculum, the nucleus of which, instead of being apical as in the true Pleurotoma, is 
placed nearly at the middle of the right margin. The shell also, it must be observed, 
presents an emargination near the anterior extremity of the outer lip, similar to that 
found among the Strombida, and a thick callosity at the hind part of the columella near 
the suture, characters which are not found in the present genus. 

The genus Pleurotoma, as originally defined, comprised a large number of species, 
and the list of synonyms shows how strongly the necessity for some subdivision has 
been felt. Some of the proposed divisions, however, so far as the present imperfect 
knowledge of the animals will enable the student to estimate their value, appear 
to rest on conchological distinctions, and as yet are not generally accepted. In others, 
however, the animals exhibit distinct characters, which, taken in conjunction with 
modifications of the shells, are received as of sufficient generic value. Thus in 
Bela (Leach), the eyes are placed on the upper part of the tentacles, which are 
approximate, and the outer lip of the shell is simple, or with a slight sinus confluent 
with the suture ; and in Mangelia (Leach; Defrancia, Millet; Mapltitoma, Bellardi), 
the eyes are sub-pedicelled, the foot is short, tapering behind, and enlarged in front at 
each corner into a hook-shaped projection, and the dentition, according to Messrs. 
Forbes and Hanley, presents a simple rachidian tooth in addition to the two lateral 
subulate teeth of the present genus ; the animal, also, is without an operculum, 
and the outer lip of the shell has a sinus resembling that found in the notched 
species of Bela.* Again, in Perrona (Schum. ; Toniella, Swains.), the nucleus of 
the operculum is placed near the middle of the right side, as in Clavatula, of which 
genus, in fact, it appears to be only a smooth form ; and again, in Drillia (Gray), 
according to Messrs. Adams, the eyes are placed near the lips of the tentacles, which 
are very slender and approximated, and the outer lip presents a small sinus in front, 
like the one in Clavatula already noticed. A more extended knowledge of the animals 
may hereafter support others of the proposed genera; but, in the mean time, they can 
be received only as subdivisions for facilitating the arrangement of the very numerous 
species which crowd the present genus. 

* Messrs. Forbes and Ilanley have united Mangelia and Bela, using the latter name to distinguish the 
opcrculated species from those without an operculum, which, with those authors, form the true MunyeluE. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 205 

With regard to the genus Clavatula, several shells are found among the English 
eocene Pleurotoma, which, agreeing Avith Lamarck's definition of the genus, might be, 
perhaps correctly, referred to it; but since that genus, as re-defined, depends on 
zoological characters, and on the condition of the operculum, criteria which are not 
available to the palaeontologist, and the species themselves do not exhibit any characters 
by which they can be separated from the true Pleurotoma, those shells have been 
referred, in the following descriptions, to the present genus. 

Bellardi, in his elaborate and most useful work, ' Monografia delle Pleurotome 
fossile del Piemonte/ has divided the Pleurotomse into three genera, Pleurotoma, 
Borsonia, and Raphitoma. The first comprises the true Pleurotomse and the Clavatulae 
of Lamarck ; and with these are associated some fusiform shells generally referred to 
Fusus, the outer lips of which present, not the true notch or slit characteristic of a 
Pleur vtoma, but a wide undulation, which the author regards as a "rudimentary sinus." 
No other reason is assigned, and this certainly does not appear to be a sufficient one, 
for placing the shells in question in the present genus. Several of the so-called eocene 
Fusi present this undulation in the outer lip ; and inasmuch as to refer them to the 
present genus would, in my opinion, uselessly create much confusion, I have left them 
among the Fusi, where they were first placed. The second genus, Borsonia, is proposed 
for certain shells in which the true sinus of a Pleurotoma is associated with a fold on 
the columella.* The remaining genus, Raphitoma, consists of those species in which 
the sinus is very small and confluent with the suture, and the canal is indistinct, a 
division which corresponds pretty accurately with Mangelia (Leach). The Pleurotoma 
are again divided into three sections, according to the size and shape of the sinus ; 
namely, Pseudotomata, or false-notched shells, composed of the fusiform species before 
mentioned, in which the outer lip presents the so-called rudimentary sinus ; megatomata, 
or widely-notched shells ;f and macrotomata, or deeply-notched shells. The last 
section is again sub-divided into five groups ; deltoidea, in which the canal is but little 
produced, and the sinus is placed in an angular depression ; pteroidea, in which the 
canal is elongated, the outer lip aliform and produced in front, and the sinus is in a 
depression ; carinifera, having the canal as long as the spire, and the sinus on a keel ; 
excavata, in which also the canal is as long as the spire, but the sinus is between the 
shoulder and the suture ; and hemicycloidales, having the canal indistinct, and the sinus 
semicircular, and placed in a depression. 

Although this classification will render great assistance in the study of the present 

* Shells referable to this division, as enlarged by Rouault, occur in our middle eocene strata ; the 
genus Borsonia will therefore be noticed in its proper place. 

f Bellardi cites Tome/la, Swains., as corresponding with his section Megatoviatce ; that section, 
however, consists of two species only, P. cataphracla, Broc, and P. ramosa, Bast., in both of which the 
shells are many whorled, turreted, coronated, and concentrically striated, and therefore do not at all agree 
with Mr. Swainson's definition of his genus Tome/la. 

27 



206 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



genus, the distinctions between some of the groups will, T think, be found to be difficult 
of practical application ; nor will the groups proposed embrace all the forms which 
occur in the English eocene fauna. The employment of a few broadly marked 
characters, which the eye can readily seize, will afford, in fact, more effectual aid to 
the student ; and with this view I have adopted the division of the Pleurotomae, pro- 
posed by M. Deshayes, into fmiformes and conoidales ; but the fustformes I have divided 
into two sections, distinguished by the position of the sinus, a prominent and unvarying 
character ; while the size and, to some extent, the shape of the sinus are subject to 
modification. The first section will comprise the species in which the sinus is placed 
in the margin, that is to say the space between the suture and the shoulder, or widest 
part of the whorl ; the second section will embrace those in which the sinus is placed 
on the shoulder of the whorl. Each of these sections will be sub-divided into two 
groups, respectively consisting of the species having the canal produced, and the 
species in which the canal is short or indistinct. 

The genus Pleurotoma is one of peculiar interest ; it seems to form a central group, 
in which either the animals present close affinities with those of the neighbouring 
genera, or the shells, radiating through aberrant forms in which the typical characters 
are prominently retained, present striking analogies with those of apparently distant 
genera; analogies which, if not suggestive of affinities, at least show the repetition of 
similar forms in dissimilar groups. Thus the passage from the true fusiform Plenro- 
toma through the conoidal forms of that genus into the species of Cone forming the 
section Conorbis, and so into the true Cones, is a transition so gradual and so 
perfect as in itself to afford the strongest evidence of the intimate connection of 
the present genus with the Conidae. So, again, the passage through Lachesis into 
Murex — that through the shells before referred to with the so-called rudimentary 
sinus in the outer lip into the true 'Turns ; and also that through Borsonia into Turbinella 
or Fasciolaria ; while the short posterior canal in the species forming Swainson's genus 
Brachytoma, and the anterior notch on the outer lips of the Drillia, present strong 
resemblances to the Strombida. 

The living species of Pleurotoma are very numerous, upwards of 450, including 
those forming the different sub-genera, having been described : they are found in all 
parts of the world, but principally in the seas of China and Western America, ranging 
in depth from low- water mark to 100 fathoms. In the fossil state they first appear in 
the upper cretaceous strata, from which four species referred to this genus have been 
described by Goldfuss, Sowerby, and D'Orbigny. During the tertiary epoch the 
genus was largely developed ; upwards of 90 species, from the eocene formations of 
Europe, have been described by Lamarck, Sowerby, Deshayes, Melleville, and other 
writers ; while from the more recent formations nearly 200 species have been recorded 
by Brocchi, Grateloup, Basterot, De Koninck, Nyst, Bellardi, Sowerby, S. Wood, 
Homes, and the many other authors who have described the mollusca of the newer 



PROSOBRANCIIIATA. 



207 



tertiary deposits. In the Western hemisphere, which presents a large proportion of 
the living species, the genus does not appear to have had so large a development ; 
twenty-three species only from the tertiary deposits in the United States have been 
described by Conrad and Lea, and three species from the newer tertiaries of Chili have 
been described by Sowerby. The genus is largely represented in the English eocene 
fauna, but as yet comparatively few species have been described or identified. 

The shells of the Pleurotoma appear to have been peculiarly subject to modification 
by external conditions, and, as De Blainville has remarked, it is " apparently with 
them as with the Cerithia, the Ammonites, and other genera which contain many 
species; each locality presents different forms." 

Section I. Shells fusiform. 
A. Sinus in the posterior margin of the whorl, 
a. Canal elongated. 

No. 133. Pleurotoma stena, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXV, fig. 4 a, b. 

P. testa elongatofusiformi, angustd, sub-turritd, fasciis et filis spiralibus, lineis incre- 
menti decussatis, omnino tectd ; spird productd, apice acuminato : anfractibus convexius- 
culis, angulatis, obtuse carinatis, postice sub-concavis, ad suturam crenulatis ; filis concen- 
tricis numerosis, inaqualibus ; arfractu ultimo antice gradatim attenuato et in canali longo. 
recto, exexmti .- aperturd elongato-ovali ; labro vix arcuato ; sinu labrali angusfo, prof undo 
in margine collocato. 

Shell elongate, fusiform, narrow, ornamented with numerous spiral bands, the 
spaces between which, as well as the surface between the shoulder and the suture, 
and sometimes even the spiral bands, are covered with numerous fine, thread- 
like, unequal, raised lines, decussated, or rather roughened, by the lines of growth ; 
the spire, which is formed of seven or eight volutions, is much produced ; the whorls 
are slightly convex, sharply angulated at the shoulder; the posterior margins de- 
pressed and slightly thickened at the edge, where one or two raised lines, stronger than 
the others, and crenulated by the lines of growth, run round the suture ; the space 
between the suture and the shoulder is concave, giving somewhat of a turreted aspect 
to the spire. The spiral bands are irregular, narrow, flat on the surface, sharp edged ; 
the posterior band runs round the shoulder, forming a blunt keel, and the space 
between it and the band immediately in front of it is wider than those between the 
other bands, and is concave ; the bands, as they approach the anterior part of the 
shell, become closer, narrower, and less prominent, while, on the other hand, the con- 
centric lines become stronger, more elevated, and more distant, until the two blend 
together, and form the round, coarse, raised lines which cover the base of the shell 



.208 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



and the canal. The body whorl is gradually much attenuated in front, and terminates 
in a long, nearly straight canal. The aperture is of a lengthened oval shape ; the 
outer lip slightly arched ; and the sinus, which is in the middle of the margin, is 
narrow and deep. 

The young shell of the present species presents some resemblance to the variety 
Pagoda of P. terebralis ; but the latter shell is proportionably wider and shorter, and 
is distinguished as well by the smooth posterior margins of the whorls as by the sharp- 
edged keel, which is turned upwards, forming a deep channel round the margin. 

Size. — Axis, 2 inches and 10-12ths; diameter, 8-12ths of an inch. 

Localities. — Highgate, Clarendon Hill, Shenfield, and Southampton. 

No. 134. Pleurotoma inarata, Sowerby. Tab. XXV, fig. 6. 

Pleurotoma inarata, Soiv. 1850. Dixon's Geology, &c, of Sussex, pp. 102, 183, t. 6, 

fig. 21. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. of Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 270. 

P. testa elongatd, fusiformi, spiraliter lineatd ; spird conicd, acuminata: anfractibus 
convexiusculis, postice sub-concavis, marginatis, ad suturam leviter crenulatis ; ultimo 
anfractu in canali longo, angusto, subrecto exeunti ; striis spiralibus numerosis, lineis incre- 
menti decussatis, alternis vel trinis crassis, cateris tenuibus : aperturd ovatd ; labro arcuato, 
sinu prof undo, sub-trigono, in margine collocato. 

Shell fusiform, elongated, ornamented with spiral, raised lines : spire elevated, 
conical, pointed : whorls convex, thickened on the margin, where they present a raised 
border running round the suture, feebly crenulated at the edge, and traversed by two 
or three slender, concentric, raised lines ; the space between the suture and the shoulder 
slightly concave, and covered with very fine, thread-like, concentric, raised lines, 
which are crowded near the raised border : the last whorl terminates in an elongated, 
nearly straight canal, almost as long as the spire. The spiral lines on the middle and 
front parts of the whorls are numerous, strongly decussated by the lines of growth, 
and unequal ; every alternate or third line being thick, prominent, and sharp on the 
edges, and the intermediate lines thread-like and slender. The aperture is ovate, the 
outer lip much arched, and the sinus, which is placed in the depression between the 
suture and the shoulder, is deep, moderately wide, and sub-trigonal in shape. 

This species appears to be the analogue of the Barton and Highcliff species, 
P. rostrata, from which it is distinguished by the absence of the tubercles and the ribs, 
or undulations on the shoulders. 

Size. — Axis, 2 inches and 2-12ths; diameter, rather more than 8-12ths of an 
inch. 

Locality. — Bracklesham Bay. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



209 



No. 135. Pleurotoma helix, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXV, fig. 7 a, b. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, sub-turritd, fasciis spiralibus, lineis incrementi asperatis, 
cinctd ; spird elevatd : anfractibus convexis ; marginibus posticis latis, cavatis, tineas con- 
centricas fliformes inaquales gerentibus, ad suturam crenulatis ; fasciis spiralibus angustis, 
numerosis, alternatvm majoribus et minoribus : aperturd elongato-ovali, in canali longo ter- 
minanti ; labro valde arcuato ; sinu angusto, prof undo, in margine collocato. 

Var. ricna. Testa anfractibus sub-angulatis ; fasciis spiralibus numerosioribus, tribus 
minoribus inter majores apparentibus. 

Shell lengthened, fusiform, and covered with concentric bands, roughened by the 
strongly marked lines of growth ; spire elevated : whorls convex, rounded at the 
shoulder, produced in front ; the posterior margins wide, channeled, and bordered 
round the suture by two or three bands strongly crenulated ; the middle of the margin 
presents three coarse, rounded, raised lines, and on each side of these three or 
more fine thread-like lines. The line of the suture is very decurrent, and runs at some 
distance below the wide part of the whorl, giving a screw-like appearance to the spire. 
The spiral bands are numerous, rounded at the edges, and unequal, the alternate ones 
being smaller than the others. The aperture is of a narrow, ovate form, and terminates 
in a longish straight canal ; the outer lip is much arched, and the sinus, which is deep 
and moderately wide, is placed in the middle of the margin. 

Specimens occur at Potter's Bar (var. ricna), in which the shoulders of the whorls 
are angulated, and a fine thread-like line runs on each of the smaller spiral bands. 

The specimens figured were obtained from the railway cutting at Primrose Hill, 
and form part of Mr. Wetherell's collection. 

Size. — The exact dimensions cannot be given, but those of the largest specimen 
figured must have been — axis, nearly 3 inches; diameter, ll-12ths of an inch. 
Localities. — Primrose Hill and Potter's Bar. 



No. 136. Pleurotoma symmetrica. F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXV, fig. 5 a, b. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, gracili, spiraliter fasciatd, in juventd costulatd ; spird 
elevatd: anfractibus convexiusculis, marginibus posticis vix cavatis, ad suturam marginatis, 
crenulatis ; ultimo anfractu in canali longo exeunti ; fasciis spiralibus irregularibus, lineis 
incrementi asperatis : aperturd ovali elongatd ; labro valde arcuato ; sinu mediocriter lata, 
p arum prof undo, in margine collocato. 

Shell lengthened, slender, fusiform, ornamented with numerous spiral bands, and, 
in the early stages of its growth, obscurely ribbed : spire elevated, pointed : whorls 



210 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



(8 — 10) slightly convex; the posterior margins narrow, very slightly depressed, rather 
thickened at the edges, and presenting round the suture two raised lines, obscurely 
granulated ; in front of these, two or three fine, thread-like lines run along the middle 
part of the margin, granulated by the lines of growth, which are much elevated until 
they cross the shoulder, and give a wrinkled appearance to the margin. The spiral 
bands over the other parts of the whorls are numerous, irregular, and unequal ; smaller 
ones alternating with large ones. The aperture is narrow, and of an oblong-oval 
form ; the outer lip arched, and the sinus, which is moderately wide, and not very 
deep, is placed in the front part of the margin, immediately behind the shoulder. 

In the ornamentation the present species resembles P. helix, but the narrow posterior 
margin, the position of the sinus, and the slight but nearly regular convexity of the 
whorls, giving a symmetrical appearance to the shell, distinguishes it as well from 
that species as from P. crassa. 

Size. — The largest specimen figured would be, if perfect — axis, nearly 4 inches ; 
diameter, 1 inch. 

Localities. — Potter's Bar, Chalk Farm, Southampton, Shenfield. 



No. 137. Pleurotoma teretrium. F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXV, fig. 8 a — h. 

P. testa elongatd, fusiformi, spiraliter lineatd : anfractibus convexiusculis, marginibus 
posticis concavis, concentrice lineatis, ad suturam marginatis ; suturis perspicuis ; ultimo 
anfractu valde producto, in canali longo exeunti ; lineis spiralibus irregular ibus, alternatim 
funiculosis et tenuibus, lineis incrementi per-asperatis : aperturd elongato-ovali ; labro valde 
arcuato ; sinu lato, prof undo, in margine collocato. 

Var. nanodis. Testa breviori, latiori ; marginibus posticis anfractuum pauxillum 
cavatis. 

Var. crebrilinea. Testa minor i, graciliori : anfractibus obsolete tuberculatis, lineis 
spiralibus numerosis, aqualibus, for titer decussatis. 

Var. tuberculata. Testa graciliori: anfractibus sub-angulatis, tuberculatis, ad 
suturam crenulatis : lineis spiralibus confertis, sub-aqualibus. 

Var. l ati margin at a. Testa minori : spird tuberculata: marginibus anfractuum 
latissimis, contra spiram expressis. 

Shell elongate, fusiform, ornamented with numerous spiral, raised lines ; spire 
elevated, formed of 7 — 9 volutions : whorls somewhat convex, separated by a perspi- 
cuous suture, and much produced in front, the last whorl terminating in a long, nearly 
straight canal ; the posterior margins concave, slightly thickened, and occasionally feebly 
crenulated at the edge. The spiral lines over the middle and front parts of the whorls 
are irregular, thickish, cord-like bands, alternating with slender, thread-like lines, and 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



211 



all much roughened, almost decussated, by the lines of growth ; the spiral lines on the 
posterior margins are numerous and nearly equal, the two or three nearest the suture 
being rather more prominent than the others. The aperture is of a lengthened, ovate 
form ; the outer lip much arched ; and the sinus, which is placed in the front part of 
the marginal depression, is deep and moderately wide. Specimens frequently occur 
(var. nanodis, fig. 8 b) in which the shell is shorter and wider than in the typical form, 
and the margins of the whorls not being so much depressed and hollowed out, give a 
nearly conical form to the spire ; but the character of the concentric lineation, the 
shape and position of the sinus, and the form of the outer lip, correspond with those of 
the type. 

Other forms also occur which, although presenting differences in the proportions or 
ornamentation of the shells, or in the form of the outer lip, agree in other respects 
so closely with the present species, that they appear to me to be merely varieties 
of it. 

In the first of these forms (var. crebrilinea, fig. 8/), the shell is smaller and nar- 
rower, the spire more pointed and obscurely tuberculated ; the spiral lines are slender, 
numerous, and deeply cut by the sharp, prominent lines of growth, and the margins of 
the whorls are finely plicated. In the next form (var. tuberculata, fig. 8 c — e) the spire is 
more slender ; the concentric ornamentation resembles that of the variety crebrilinea, 
but the whorls are angulated, and present a single row of slightly oblique, oblong 
tubercles, which are continued, in some instances, even on the last whorl of the fully 
formed shell. The third variety (var. latimarginata, fig. 8 g, h) resembles the preceding 
variety in the proportions of the shell, and the angular and tuberculated whorls, but 
the posterior margins are widely spread out, and pressed against the preceding 
whorls, which are covered by them almost up to the tubercles. In all the last three 
varieties, the outer lip is not so much arched as that of the typical form. 

This species so closely resembles one from Tortona {P. granulosa, Bon. ; P. Sis- 
mondce, Bell.), that it is difficult to separate the two. In the Italian shell, the whorls 
appear to be more numerous, and the posterior margins present from three to five 
rows of bead-like granulations near the suture ; but, judging from the figure and 
description given by Bellardi, the two species appear to agree in the form of the 
whorls, the character of the spiral ornamentation, the condition of the outer lip, and 
the position and shape of the sinus. The differences pointed out are scarcely sufficient 
to justify the separation of the present species ; but without an actual comparison of 
the shells themselves, I do not venture to identify a form from the older eocene 
deposits in this country with one from the pliocene formations of Italy. 

Size. — Of the type; axis, 2 inches and a half; diameter, 10-12ths of an inch. Of 
the variety tuberculata ; axis, 1 inch and 7-12ths ; diameter, not quite half an inch. 

Localities. — The species is found, in all its varieties, at Highgate ; the variety 
crebrilinea also occurs at Potter's Bar and Shenfield ; and the variety tuberculata at 



212 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



Southampton, Shenfield, Clarendon Hill, Primrose Hill, Haverstock Hill, and Alum 
Bay (No. 4, Prestwich). In the variety crebrilinea, from Shenfield, the body- whorl is 
short, and rather suddenly contracted in front, and the lineation is very fine and nearly 
equal. 

No. 138. Pleurotoma crassa. F. E. Mivards. Tab. XXVI, fig. 1 a — d. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, longitudinaliter costulatd, spiraliter fasciatd ; spird elevatd, 
acuminata: anfractibus convexis, antice subito coarctatis ; marginibus posticis concavis, 
concentrice granuloso-Uneatis, ad suturam incrassatis, oblique plicatis ; suturis perspicuis ; 
fasciis spiralibus numerosis, plus minusve latis, crassis, cum lineis concentricis Jiliformibus 
alternantibus, lineis incrementi per-asperatis : aperturd oblongo-ovali ; labro leviter arcuato ; 
sinu lato sub-lriangidari in media margine collocate* ; canali antico, longo, recto. 

Shell elongate, fusiform, longitudinally ribbed, and spirally banded : spire elevated, 
being nearly as long as half the shell, and pointed: whorls many (9 — 11), convex, 
rather suddenly contracted, and much produced in front; the posterior margins 
hollowed out, thickened and strongly plicated by the prominent lines of growth on 
the suturai edge ; the ribs rounded, moderately distant, rather oblique and short, 
not extending, even in young shells, much in front of the shoulder, and lost on the 
last whorl of the fully grown shell. Several coarsish concentric lines traverse the 
margins of the whorls, and are decussated by the lines of growth ; two or three on 
the suturai edges are thicker and more elevated than the others, and from the deep 
decussation assume the appearance of a double row of coarse granulations : the bands 
over the middle and front of the whorls are more or less broad, prominent, rather 
closely set, and separated by strong, thread-like lines, the whole much roughened by 
the lines of growth : the body whorl is produced in front into a long, moderately wide, 
and nearly straight canal. The aperture is of an oblong, ovate shape ; the outer lip 
arched, but not much ; and the sinus, which is placed in the middle of the margin, is 
wide and subtrigonal. Occasionally specimens occur in which the shell is wider, and 
the spire not so much produced ; but in all other respects agreeing with the typical 
form. 

Size. — The large specimen figured would be, if perfect — axis, 4 inches and 3- 12ths ; 
diameter, 1 inch and 4-12ths. 

Localities. — Clarendon Hill, Southampton, Shenfield. 

No. 139. Pleurotoma planetica. F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXVI, fig. 3. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, sub-turritd, undique spiraliter lineatd ; spird elevatd, acumi- 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



213 



natd : anfractibus numerosis, angulatis, convexis, sub-ventricosis, in juventd tuberculatis ; 
marginibus posticis latiusculis, concavis; ultimo anfractu in canali longo, redo, terminanti ; 
striis spiralibus numerosis, inaqualibus, lineis incrementi asperatis ; striis duobus vel tribus 
ad humeros prominentioribus : aperturd pyriformi ; labro arcuato ; sinu lato, prof undo, in 
margine collocato. 

Shell elongate, fusiform; spire much produced, pointed: whorls many (10 — 12), 
convex, somewhat ventricose, angulated at the shoulders, much attenuated, and pro- 
duced in front, the last whorl terminating in a long, straight, moderately wide canal ; 
the posterior margins are rather wide, depressed, channeled along the middle, and 
somewhat thickened at the edge, so as to present a broadish, slightly elevated border 
round the suture. The angulated shoulders, and depressed posterior margins of the 
whorls, give a turreted character to the spire. Two sharp, elevated, and rather distant 
spiral lines run round the border, and several faint and unequal lines traverse the 
hollow part of the margins. On the middle and front parts of the whorls the spiral 
lines are numerous, irregular, and unequal, a slender, thread-like line occasionally 
occurring between thicker and more elevated lines ; two or three on the shoulder are 
more prominent and distant than the rest. The aperture is pear-shaped, rounded 
behind, contracted in front ; the outer lip much arched ; the sinus wide, very deep, 
sub-trigonal in form, and placed a little in front of the middle part of the margin. 

This elegant Pleurotoma is apparently confined to the middle eocene strata ; it has 
hitherto been obtained only from Bramshaw and the synchronous beds at Bracklesham 
Bay. 

Size. — Axis, 2 inches and 9-12ths ; diameter, 10-1 2ths of an inch. 



No. 140. Pleurotoma gonlea, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXV, fig. 10. 

Pleurotoma transversaria, Sow.\non Lam.) 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Suss., p. 102. 
— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 270. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, turritd, lineis spiralibus omnino tectd ; spird elevatd : 
anfractibus depresso-convexis, angulatis, obscure carinatis ; marginibus posticis latis, sub- 
concavis, ad suturam crenulatis ; ultimo anfractu in canali mediocri, subrecto, exeunti ; lineis 
spiralibus tenuibus, confertis, irregularibus : aperturd lanceolatd ; labro rotundo-arcuato ; 
sinu mediocriter lato, prof undo, in margine collocato. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, turreted ; spire elevated, apparently much exceeding 
the last whorl in length : whorls rather convex, flattened at the sides, and angulated 
at the shoulders, which slightly project, and present the appearance of an obscure, 
rounded keel; the posterior margins are very wide, hollowed out, and crenu- 
lated round the suture; the last whorl contracts rather suddenly in front, and 

28 



214 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



terminates in a widish, moderately long, and nearly straight canal. The whole surface 
of the shell is covered with very fine, spiral, raised lines, rather distant in front, crowded, 
unequal, and irregular over the middle part of the whorls, where very slender, thread- 
like lines frequently alternate with thicker and more prominent lines ; three or four 
faint lines run along the middle of the posterior margin, and on each side of them are 
several others, rather stronger and decussated by the lines of growth. The aperture 
is lanceolate ; the outer lip large, and roundly arched ; and the sinus deep, moderately 
wide, and placed in the very middle of the collar : the columella is slightly twisted. 

The shell figured forms part of my collection, and is the specimen which Mr. 
Sowerby (loc. cit.) has referred to P. transversaria (Lam.) ; but the long, turreted spire, 
the angulated whorls, the character of the transverse lineation, the shape of the outer 
lip, and especially the position of the labial sinus, seem to entitle it to specific distinc- 
tion. The species is very rare. 

Size. — If the specimen figured were perfect, the dimensions would be — axis, 
2 inches and4-12ths nearly; diameter, 10-1 2ths of an inch. 

Locality. — Bracklesham Bay. 



No. 141. Pleurotoma transversaria, Lamarck. Tab. XXV, fig. 9 a, b. 

Pleurotoma transversaria, Lamk. 1804. Ann. du Mus., vol. iii, p. 166, No. 6. 

— — lb. 1822. Hist. Nat., vol. vii, p. 98, No. 1. 

— — Be Blainv. 1826. Diet, des sc. nat., vol. xli, p. 389. 

— — Besh. 1832. Encyc. method. (Vers.), vol. iii, p. 796, No. 14. 

— — lb. 1824-37. Descr. des coq. foss., &c., vol. ii, p. 450, 

t. 62, figs. 1, 2. 

Nec Pleurotoma transversaria, Grat. 1838. Tabl. stat. des. coq., &c, de l'Adour, p. 13, 

No. 152. 

nec — — lb. 1838. Cat. zool., &c, de la Gironde, p. 45, No. 382. 

nec — — lb. 1847. Conchyl. foss., &c, de l'Adour, supp. Pleurot., 

t. 1, fig. 11, No. 19. 

nec — — Sow. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Sussex, p. 102. 

P. testa elongalo-fusiformi, spird acuminata : anfractibus convewiusculis, postice et 
antice tenuissime lineatis, caterum levibus ; marginibus posticis depressis, sub-canaliculatis ; 
ultimo anfractu in canali longo, angusto, exeunti : aperturd ovatd j labro tenuissimo, arcuato ; 
sinu mediocriter lato, prof undo, in margine collocato. 

Var. cypha (fig. 9 b). Testa minori ; anfractibus convexis ; marginibus posticis 
depressioribus. 

Shell fusiform, elongated, with an elevated, nearly conical spire: whorls (10 — 11) 
slightly convex, and depressed, almost channeled, on the posterior margins; the 
space between the suture and the shoulder is covered with numerous, very fine, spiral, 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



215 



raised lines, which, in well-preserved specimens, are decussated by the lines of growth ; 
the middle part of the whorl in the adult shell is quite smooth, and the body-whorl, 
which is rather longer than the spire, terminates in a long, narrow, nearly straight 
canal, ornamented with numerous, somewhat irregular, obliquely transverse, raised 
lines ; these lines, which are very fine and undulating, gradually become more and more 
feeble as they ascend the canal, and ultimately disappear towards the middle of the 
whorl. The aperture is ovately oblong ; the right lip very thin, and much arched ; 
the sinus, which is placed in the margin, just behind the shoulder, is wide and 
moderately deep. 

In the specimens from Lyndhurst (var. cypha), the whorls are more convex, the 
posterior margins more depressed, and the outer lip less roundly arched than in the 
typical form, and the shells themselves are smaller ; but in the ornamentation, and in 
the position and shape of the labial sinus, they agree with P. transversaria, of which 
they appear to be merely local varieties. 

The shells from Dax and the environs of Bordeaux, described by Grateloup, and 
to which M. Deshayes refers as being possibly a variety of the Paris basin species, 
are specifically distinct, and have been named P. opis by M. D'Orbigny ; and the 
specimen from Bracklesham Bay which Mr. Sowerby (Dixon's ' Geol./ &c.) has 
referred to the present species, also appears to be specifically distinct, and I have 
separated it accordingly under the name P. gonicea. 

Our English specimens have attained a less size, and are somewhat narrower, 
than the French ones, but in all other respects they agree well. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 10-12ths; diameter, rather more than 7-12ths of an inch. 

Localities. — Brockenhurst, Lyndhurst. French — Parnes, Grignon, Chaumont (fide 
D'Orl>.); Marquemont, Lattainville, Hermes, Neuvillebose, Saint-Felix (fide Graves) ; 
Betz, department de FOise (fide Be Plain.) 



No. 142. Pleurotoma cymjsa, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXVI, fig. 4 a, b. Tab. XXVII, 

fig. 9. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, latiuscidd, tuberculatd, undique spiraliter lineatd ; spird 
elevatd, sub-conicd ; anfractibus convexis, angulatis ; marginibus posticis latis, vix cavatis . 
tuberculis numerosis, parvis, nodiformibus, obliquis ; lineis spiralibus confertis, subtilissimis, 
undulosis, antice eminentioribus, postice fere obsoletis : aperturd oblongo-ovali, in canali 
longo, recto, exeunti ; labro arcuato, tenui ; sinu prof undo, in margine collocato. 

Var. nana. Testa minori, angustiori : canali longiori ? 

Shell rather broad, fusiform, with an elevated, nearly conical spire, formed of nine 
or ten volutions: whorls convex, sharply angulated at the shoulders, where they present 



216 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



a row of numerous, obliquely compressed, small, knob-like tubercles. The whole surface 
of the whorls is covered with very fine, slightly undulating, closely set, thread-like, 
concentric raised lines, irregular, unequal, and roughened by the lines of growth ; these 
lines are prominent on the canal and the front part of the shell, but become more and 
more faint, and at last are almost effaced as they approach the shoulders of the whorls. 
The posterior margins are wide, very slightly channeled along the middle, and orna- 
mented with numerous slender, concentric lines, four or five of which, running along 
the sutural edge, are more prominent than the rest, and are decussated by the oblique 
lines of growth of the sinus, forming a riband-like border to the whorls. The aperture 
is of an oblong, oval form, and terminates in front in a long, straight canal ; the outer 
lip is thin, sharp-edged, and much arched ; the sinus is deep, not very wide, and placed 
a little in front of the middle of the collar. 

In the variety nana (Tab. XXVII, fig. 9), which is proposed for an immature 
specimen from Colwell Bay, in my collection, the shell is much smaller and narrower, 
and, apparently, the canal is more produced ; but on this last point I cannot speak 
with certainty, as the canal is not perfect in any of the specimens of the type I have 
seen. In the general form of the shell, however, in the nearly conical spire, the 
character of the ornamentation, the position and shape of the sinus, and the roundedly 
arched outer lip, the specimen in question agrees so exactly with the true P. cymcea, 
that I can only regard it as a variety of that species dwarfed by unfavorable con- 
ditions. 

This Pleurotoma, which at first sight might be considered to be a local variety of 
P. deniata, is distinguishable from that species by the greater width of the shell, the 
more conical spire, the wider posterior margins of the whorls, the character of the 
transverse ornamentation, and the numerous small, knob-like tubercles which take the 
place of the sharp-edged transverse teeth, characteristic of P. dentata. It more resem- 
bles P. transversaria, as well in the shape and relative proportions of the shell, as in 
the form and position of the sinus and the character of the concentric lineation ; and 
a larger series of specimens may eventually lead to the conclusion that it is merely a 
variety of that species. The tuberculated and sharply angulated whorls, however, 
characters to which I am not aware that P. transversaria offers any approach, appa- 
rently entitle the shells in question to specific distinction. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 4-12ths; diameter, \ inch. 

Locality. — Brockenhurst and Colwell Bay, at each of which places it appears to be 

very rare. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



217 



No. 143. Pleurotoma cocciphora, F. E. Udioards. Tab. XXVI, fig. 2. 

P. testa elongatd, fusiformi, longitudinaliter costettatd, undique spiraliter granidoso- 
lineatis • anfractibus convexiuscutis, angulatis, ad suturas incrassatis, granulatis ; margini- 
bus posticis mediocriter latis, vix cavatis, tineas Jiliformes confertas gerentibus ; costetlis 
angustis ; lineis spiralibus numerosis, for titer decussatis, incequalibus, lineis majoribus cum 
lineis tenuibus alternantibus : aperturd ovali ; labro leviter arcuato ; sinu fere semicirculari, 
in margine cotlocato. 

Shell elongate, fusiform, longitudinally ribbed, and having the whole surface orna- 
mented with spiral raised lines ; spire elevated, pointed : whorls (7 — 9) slightly convex, 
angulated ; the posterior margins moderately wide, nearly straight, and covered with 
fine, thread-like, concentric lines ; two on the sutural edge are more prominent than 
the others, and decussated by the lines of growth so as to present a double row of 
fine granulations ; the last whorl is produced in front into a long, and apparently 
nearly straight, and moderately wide canal ; the costellse are narrow, rather short, 
barely extending beyond the middle of the whorl, and are more or less distant in 
different specimens ; the spiral lines over the middle and front parts of the shells are 
numerous and unequal, a slender, thread-like line occasionally intervening between 
others thicker and more prominent ; all are deeply and regularly decussated by the 
lines of growth, so that the larger lines assume the appearance of rows of bead-like 
knobs. The aperture is of an oblong, oval shape ; the outer lip slightly arched ; and 
the sinus, which is placed towards the front of the margin, is wide, not very deep, 
and almost semicircular. 

This Pleurotoma closely resembles the young shell of P. crassa, of which, if it 
were not for the great difference in size, it might be considered to be only a local 
variety ; the spire, however, is shorter and more conical, the whorls more angulated, 
less convex and more gradually attenuated in front ; the posterior margins narrower 
and less concave ; and the sinus nearer the shoulder, and rounder than in that 
species. The spiral lines also, broken into rows of beads by the lines of growth, 
form an ornamentation quite distinct in character from the broad, coarse bands which 
characterise P. crassa. 

The specimen figured forms part of Mr. Wetherell's collection. 

Size. — Axis, rather more than 1 inch ; diameter, 4-12ths of an inch. 

Localitg. — Highgate, where it is apparently very rare. 



218 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



No. 144. Pleurotoma rostrata, Solander. Tab XXVI, fig. 8 a — c. 

Murex rostratus, Sol. 1766. Brand., Foss. Hanton., p. 21, t. 2, fig. 24. 
Pleurotoma rostrata, Sow. 1818. Min. Con., vol. ii, p. 104, t. 146, fig. 3. 

— — De Bl. 1826. Diet. des. sci. nat., vol. xli, p. 390. 

— — Morris. 1842. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 157. 

— sub -rostrata, If Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 359, No. 406. 

— rostrata? Phil. 1851. Tert. Foss. Magdeb. (Palaeont., vol. i, p. 64), No. 118. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 270. 

Nec Pleurotoma rostrata, De Eon. 1837. Desc. des. coq. foss., &c, de Basele, Boom, &c., 

p. 24, No. 23. 

nec — — Nyst. 1843. Desc. des. coq. foss., &c, de la Belg., p. 522, t. 42, 

figs. 2, 3. 

nec — — lb. 1843. Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. xiv, p. 453. 

P. testa elongato-fasiformi, angustd, turritd, undique spiraliter lineatd ; spird elevatd, 
acuminata: anfractibus numerosis, convexis, in medio oblique tuberculatis ; marginibus 
posticis concavis, ad suturam aliquando paidum incrassatis et cingulo duplici crenuiato 
cinctis, aliquando simplicibus ; lineis spiralibus in margine tenuibus, cateris elevatis, 
rotundatis, irregularibus, inaqualibus, lineis incrementi per-asperatis : aperturd oblongo- 
ovali, in canali pralongo, angustato, subrecto productd; labro aliformi ; sinu pro/undo 
mediocriter lato, in margine collocato. 

Far. antiqua. Testa latiori, breviori ; anfractibus subangulatis. 

Shell long, narrow, fusiform, turreted, having the whole surface covered with spiral 
raised lines ; the spire much elevated, being nearly half the length of the whole 
shell, and pointed; the whorls are numerous (10 — 12 without the pullus), very 
convex, and armed near the middle with a single row of oblique tubercles, more or 
less prominent in different individuals ; the posterior margins are moderately wide, 
concave, occasionally thin, and nearly smooth along the sutural edge, but more fre- 
quently slightly thickened, plicated, and ornamented with two prominent concentric 
lines, granulated by the lines of growth. The spiral lines in the middle of the posterior 
margin are close-set and very slender ; over the other parts of the whorl they are pro- 
minent, rounded, irregular, unequal, small filiform lines intervening between larger 
ones ; and all are very much roughened, almost granulated, by the lines of growth. 
The aperture is of an oblong, ovate form, and terminates in front in a long, rather 
narrow, and somewhat curved canal ; the outer lip is roundedly arched and wing-like ; 
the sinus is deep, moderately wide, subtrigonal, and placed in the middle of the margin. 

In the specimens from Highcliff (var. antiqua, fig. 8 c), the shells are wider, and 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



219 



proportionately shorter than in the type, and the whorls are slightly angulated 
at the shoulders. 

Much confusion exists among several of the Continental authors with respect to 
this species, in consequence of the shell figured as P. rostrata in ' Mineral Con- 
chology' having been considered by them as distinct from the Murex rostratus of 
Solander, although Mr. Sowerby cites the latter as a synonym. Thus M. de Koninck 
has described a pleurotoma from Basele and Boom, which he has referred to 
P. rostrata of Sowerby, but without having cited Brander's figure ; and this pleurotoma, 
Nyst, after stating that it differs essentially from Murex rostratus, but that it is without 
doubt Sowerby's P. rostrata, regards as merely a variety of P. Selgsii (De Kon.), to which 
latter species he refers it. The same author subsequently describes another species, 
from Basele, Boom, &c, as identical with Brander's shell, but he excludes P. rostrata of 
Sowerby. The description given by M. de Koninck agrees tolerably well with the 
present species ; but, assuming that the shells described by that author belong, in fact, 
to the same species as those represented by Nyst (P. Selgsii, t. 40, fig. 1 1 and P. ros- 
trata, t. 42, figs. 2, 3), I do not think that any one familiar with the English shells can 
regard either of them as identical with the species figured by Brander, and described 
by Sowerby. Philippi has recorded a single specimen from Gorzig, in the Museum at 
Halle, which he has referred to the present species. This author, however, has not 
given either figure or description, and as, under the circumstances to which I have re- 
ferred, the accuracy of this identification cannot be assumed, I have cited Philippi 
with a query. At present there appears to be every reason for believing that the true 
P. rostrata of Solander is confined to the upper beds of the middle eocene forma- 
tions of England ; and, although Mr. Morris gives Highgate and Sheppey as localities, 
I am not aware of its occurrence at either of those places, nor even at Bracklesham 
Bay, which is also given as a locality by the same author. 

Size. — Axis, rather more than 4^ inches ; diameter, not quite 1 inch. 

Localities. — Barton, Alum Bay (No. 29, Prestwich), and Highcliff. 



No. 145. Pleurotoma Keelei, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXVI, fig. 5. 

P. testa fusiformi, turritd, tuber culatd spiraliter fasciatd; spird elevatd, acuminata : 
anfractibus convexis, ad humeros angidatis, unicd serie tuberculorum spiniformium munitis ; 
marginibus posticis latis, concavis, concentrice lineatis, adsuturas crenulatis ; ultimo anfractu 
turbinalo, in canali longo exeunti ; fasciis spiralibus, irregularibus, inaqualibus, fasciis 
crassis cum aliis tenuibus alternantibus : aperturd oblongo-ovali ; labro valde arcuato, sinu 
mediocriter lato prof undo, in margine collocato. 

Shell fusiform, turreted, tuberculated, spirally banded ; the spire much elevated, 



220 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



pointed, formed of nine or ten volutions : whorls angulated at the shoulders, and armed 
with a single row of large, pointed, rather distant tubercles ; the posterior margins 
wide, concave, thickened and obliquely plicated at the suture, and ornamented with 
several fine concentric raised lines ; of these, two running round the border are more 
elevated than the rest, and are decussated and feebly granulated by the plication on the 
edge, and two others, running along the hollow part of the margin, are also rather pro- 
minent and granulated by the lines of growth. The last whorl is somewhat turbinate, 
and terminates in front in a long, moderately wide, straight canal. The bands on the 
middle and front surfaces of the whorls are numerous, coarse, irregular, and very 
unequal, and much roughened by the lines of growth ; three or four over the middle 
part of the whorls are thicker and more prominent than the rest, and between them 
appear two or three smaller unequal bands. The aperture is of an oblong, ovate form ; 
the outer lip much arched ; the sinus deep, moderately wide, sub-trigonal, and placed 
in the very middle of the margin. 

This beautiful and well-marked species was first obtained from the Artesian well 
at Southampton, by Mr. Keele, to whom I have ventured to dedicate it. 

Size. — Axis, 3 inches and 3-12ths; diameter, 1 inch and 1 -12th. 

Localities. — Southampton and Shenfield. 



No. 146. Pleurotoma dentata, Lamarck. Tab. XXVI, fig. 5. 

Pleurotoma dentata, Lamk. 1804. Ann. du Mus., vol. iii, p. 167, No. 8 ; vol. vii, t. 13, 

fig. 1. 

_ _ lb. 1822. Hist, nat., vol. vii, p. 99, No. 13. 

— — De Bl. 1826. Diet, des sci. nat., vol. xli, p. 395. 

— costulifera? Bronn* 1827. Zeitschrift fiir Mineral., band ii, p. 535, No. 120. 

— dentata, lb. 183 1. Italiens tertiiirgeb., p. 46, No. 222. 

— — Desk. 1832. Enc. meth. (Vers), vol. iii, p. 797, t. 440, fig. 8, 

No. 16. 

— Ib. 1824-37- Descr. des coq. foss., &c, vol. ii, p. 452, t. 62, 
figs. 3, 4, 7, 8. 

— — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 157. 

— — Sow. 1850. Dixon's GeoL, &c, of Sussex, p. 102, t. 6, fig. 24. 

— — Rouault. 1848. Desc. des foss., &c., de Pau (Mem. de la Soc. Geol. 

de France, 2d series, vol. iii, p. 484), No. 92, t. 16, fig. 24. 

— — VOrb. 1853. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 358, No. 3S2. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 270. 

P. testa elongatd, fusi/ormi, undique concentrice lineatd ; spird elevatd, acuminata: 
anfractibus convexiusculis, angulatis, dentato-tuberculatis ; marginibus posticis mediocriter 
/atis, vix cavatis, ad suturas pauxillum incrassatis ; ultimo anfractu in canali longo termi- 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



221 



nanti ; striis concentricis confer tis,irregularibus, in marginibus posticis tenuissimis ; ca'teris, 
striis eminentioribus cum aliis lenuibus alternantibus : aperturd angusto-ovali ; labro 
arcuato, tenui ; sinu lato, sub-trigono, in margine collocato ; canali subrecto, antice rejlexo, 
emarginato. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, having the whole surface ornamented with concentric 
raised lines ; the spire much elevated, being nearly as long as the body-whorl, 
pointed, and formed of ten or eleven volutions. The whorls are rather convex, sharply 
angulated at the shoulders, and armed with a row of transversely compressed, tooth- 
like tubercles, rounded in front, sharp, sometimes almost carinated at the edges, 
varying both in number and prominence in different individuals, and occasionally 
having their bases prolonged into short, rounded costellse ; the posterior margins 
are moderately wide, straight, or but very slightly hollowed out, and a little thickened 
at the sutural edges, where they are sometimes obliquely plicated by the lines of 
growth of the sinus ; the surface between the suture and the shoulder is covered with 
very fine, almost obsolete, concentric lines, two of which, running round the sutural 
edge, are more elevated than the rest ; the middle and front parts of the whorls are 
ornamented with numerous, irregular, undulating, thread-like, raised lines ; of these 
some are prominent, and between them appear two or three others very slender, so 
much so, in fact, as to be barely perceptible by the naked eye. The aperture is of a 
narrow, ovate form, and terminates in a long, moderately wide, and nearly straight 
canal, bent backwards, and notched at the anterior extremity; the outer lip is thin, 
sharp-edged, and slightly arched ; the sinus wide, rather deep, sub-trigonal in form, 
and placed in the very middle of the margin ; the anterior extremity of the columella 
presents a prominent ridge or crest, formed by the notch of the canal. 

This species is very common and widely distributed in the French formations ; in 
England it is, apparently, confined to the middle beds of the Bracklesham Bay series. 
Our specimens are narrower than the French type ; and in this respect and in the 
character of the transverse ornamentation they agree with the variety a of Deshayes ; 
I have not met with the other variety recorded by that author, nor do our shells 
appear to have attained the size of those from the French beds. D'Orbigny, 
(loc. cit.) gives Claiborne, in Alabama (U.S.), as a locality. I cannot but think, 
however, that this identification is somewhat questionable. The present species is 
the type of a group of closely analogous forms, and two English species (P. exorta 
and P. madlenta, Sol.), which, as will be afterwards shown, are perfectly distinct, 
have in fact been confounded with it. No authority is cited by the author, and 
I have therefore given Claiborne as a questionable locality. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 7-12ths (40 millim.) ; diameter, not quite 7-12ths of an 
inch (15 millim., nearly). 

Localities. — Bracklesham Bay ; Bramshaw. French — Grignon, Parnes, Mouchy, 
Courtagnon, &c, La Chapelle pres Senlis, Valmondois (fide Desk.), Cuise-Lamotte, 

29 



222 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



Acy-en-Mulcien, Fosse-Martin, Ermenonville, Ver (fide Graves), Laon (fide 
Mellev.), Bos d'Arros (fide Rouaulf). North American — Claiborne, Alabama (fide 
d'Orb.)? 



No. 147. Pleurotoma textiliosa, DesJiayes. Tab. XXVI, fig. 7. 

Pleurotoma textiliosa, Desk. 1824-37. Desc. des coq. foss., &c, vol. ii, p. 454, t. 62, 

figs. 5, 6. 

— D'Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 417, No. 1480. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, angustd, sub-tarritd, longitudinaliter costatd, spiraliter 
subtilissime lineatd ; spird elevatd, acuminata : anfractibus sub-convexis, angulatis ; margi- 
nibus posticis angustis, concavis, ad suturam incrassatis ; costis distantibus, obtusis ; lineis 
spiralibus confertis, inaqualibus, lineis incrementi sub-decussatis : aperturd ovato-angustd, 
in canali mediocri exeunti ; labro acuto ; sinu lato, trigono, in margine collocate-. 

Shell elongate, fusiform, narrow, longitudinally ribbed and ornamented with 
numerous, very fine, concentric, raised lines; the spire, which is formed of eight or 
nine volutions exclusive of the pullus, is pointed and much produced, fully equalling 
the last whorl in length : the whorls are slightly convex, and angulated at the shoulders ; 
the posterior margins narrow, hollowed out, and thickened at the edges so as to form 
an elevated border round the suture ; the whole of the margin is covered with very fine, 
regular, closely set, concentric lines, of which those on the border are more conspicuous 
than the rest. The longitudinal ribs are rather distant, round, thick, and short, barely 
extending to the middle of the whorls, and terminating abruptly at the shoulders, 
where they present a sharp keel-like edge, which gives somewhat of a turreted aspect 
to the spire. The concentric lines over the front and middle parts of the whorls are 
very numerous, unequal, and irregular ; some of them, slender and thread-like, are 
prominent and more or less distant, and the intermediate spaces are covered with 
exceedingly fine lines, scarcely perceptible by the naked eye ; the whole are roughened 
by the lines of growth. The aperture is of a narrow, ovate form, and terminates in 
front in a moderately long canal, slightly notched at the anterior extremity; the outer 
lip is thin, sharp-edged, and expanded behind ; the sinus which is wide, deep, and 
somewhat trigonal in form, is placed a little in front of the middle part of the 
posterior margin of the whorl ; the columella is slightly twisted and presents a con- 
spicuous but not very prominent crest. M. Deshayes states that the columella is 
" sub-perforated at the base,' 5 presenting there a narrow, shallow " umbilical opening, 
partly covered by the inner lip ;" this opening, however, is not truly umbilical, but a 
slight hollow caused by the ridge or crest being imperfectly overlapped by the inner 
lip, and is a character very variable, and sometimes wanting. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



223 



The present species is an intermediate form between P. crassicosta and P. dentata ; 
but the thick, rounded, distant ribs, the crowded transverse ornamentation, and 
the broader and shorter canal, render it easily distinguishable. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 5-12ths nearly (35 millem.) ; diameter, half an inch (13 
millem.). The French shells attained a somewhat larger size. 

Localities. — Bracklesham Bay; Bramshaw. French — Monneville (fide Desk.), 
Aumont, Acy-en-Mulcien (fide D' Orb.). It is very rare in England, but, apparently, 
common in the French beds. 



No. 148. Pleurotoma exorta, Solander. Tab. XXVI, fig. 12 a, b. 

Murex exortus, Sol. 1766. Brand., Foss. Hanton., p. 20, fig. 32. 
Pleurotoma exorta, Sow. 1816. Min. Conchol., vol. ii, p. 104, t. 146, fig. 2. 
- — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 157. 

— — Sow. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Sussex, p. 102. 

— — UOrb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 359, No. 408. 

Nec Pleurotoma exorta, Nyst. 1835. Recher. sur les coq. foss., &c, d'Anvers, p. 28, No. 27. 
nec — — De Kon. 1837. Descr. des coq. foss., &c, de Basele, Boom, &c, p. 22, 

No. 21. 

nec — — D'Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. iii, p. 13, No. 195 m. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, turritd, undique spiraliter lineatd: spird elevatd, sub- 
conicd, nodulosd ; anfractibus convexis, prioribus obscure costellatis ; ultimo anfractu sub- 
conico scilicet sensim attenuato, in canali longiusculo exeunti ; marginibus posticis declivis, 
cavatis, ad suturam incrassatis, transversim exilissime lineatis ; striis spiralibus nonnullis 
remotiusculis, emineiilioribiis, acutis ; cateris sublilissimis aqualibus : aperturd lanceolatd ; 
labro valde arcuato, tenui ; sinu lato, in margine collocato. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, turreted, ornamented with spiral raised lines ; the spire 
elevated and terminating in a small pointed pullus formed of two or three smooth 
volutions : whorls convex, the earlier ones very broadly and obscurely ribbed, giving a 
nodulous aspect to the spire ; the posterior margins are somewhat thickened on the 
sutural edge, and but slightly depressed, so that the spire presents a nearly conical form ; 
the space between the suture and the shoulder is channeled and covered with very 
fine and regular concentric lines, so slender as scarcely to be visible by the naked eye 
or to detract from the smoothness of the surface. On the middle and front parts of 
the whorls, some of the spiral lines, rather distant from each other, are sharp and 
elevated ; the rest, which cover the intermediate spaces, are very fine, close-set, 
and regular, although somewhat unequally prominent. The aperture is lanceolate, 
and terminates in a moderately long canal, gradually diminishing in width, and thus 



224 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



assuming the sub-conical form described by Solander as the chief distinction between 
P. exorta and P. macilenta. The outer lip is thin and much arched ; and the sinus, 
which is wide and sub-trigonal, is placed in the very middle of the margin. 

The elevated transverse line on the shoulders of the whorls, broken by the 
undulations caused by the ribs, occasionally presents a resemblance to the denticula- 
tion characteristic of P. dentata ; and this circumstance probably led to P. exorta 
being considered as identical with P. dentata. The two species are, however, 
distinct ; in this the shell is wider and shorter, the spire thicker and more conical, 
the whorls not so much angulated, the posterior margins narrower and less depressed, 
and the anterior canal shorter and more conical. 

Nyst,in his 'Recherches sur les coquilles fossiles de la province d'Anvers,' has recorded 
certain shells from Boom which he has referred to the present species, and for which he 
has given Sowerby's diagnosis verbatim. Subsequently, De Koninck, in his ' Coquilles 
fossiles de Basele, Boom, &c.,' described some shells from those localities under the name 
P. regularis, and other shells he referred to the present species. These different shells, 
Nyst, in his later work, ' Description des coquilles, &c, de la Belgique," considered to be 
merely individuals of the same species in different stages of growth, and that author 
referred them, erroneously as I have already shown, to P. rostrata (Sol.) Unfortunately 
I have not any specimens of the Belgian species to refer to ; but, assuming that 
De Koninck's P. exorta is but the young shell of his P. regularise and judging from 
the figures given by him of the latter species and from those given by Nyst of the so- 
called P. rostrata, it is impossible to accept the identification of the Belgian shells with 
the present species as correct ; a conclusion at which D'Orbigny has apparently also 
arrived, as that author has placed P. rostrata (Nyst) and P. regidaris (De Kon.) in his 
" 26th etage," under the specific name P. exorta (Nyst), in forgetfulness, probably, of 
that name having been previously used by Solander. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 1-1 2th ; diameter, 5-12ths of an inch. 

Localities. — Barton, Alum Bay (No. 29, Prestwich), HighclifF, Bracklesham Bay. 



No. 149. Pleurotoma macilenta, Solander. Tab. XXVI, fig. 13 a, b. 

Murex macilentus, Sol. 1/66. Brand., Foss. Hauton., p. 30, fig. 33. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, angustd, turritd, undique spiraliter lineatd, longitudinaliter 
costatd: spird elevatd, acuminata : anfractibus convexiusculis, angulatis ; marginibus posticus 
concavis, ad suturam paulum incrassatis, transversim subtilissime lineatis ; lineis spiralibus 
numcrosis, incequalibus, quibiisdam filiformibus prcetenuibus, inter alias eminentiores, acutas 
apjjarentibus ; costis numerosis, angustis, obliquis, fere ad caudam tendentibus : aperturd 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



225 



oblong o-ov ali, in canali longo, angusto exeunti ; labro leviter arcuato ; sinu Into, in margine 
collocato. 

Shell long, narrow, fusiform, turreted, longitudinally ribbed, and concentrically 
lined : the spire, consisting of nine or ten volutions, is pointed, elevated, forming 
nearly a half of the length of the whole shell. The whorls are slightly convex and 
angulated at the shoulders ; the posterior margins concave, slightly thickened round 
the suture, and covered with fine, thread-like, concentric lines, one or two of which 
near the edge are stronger and more prominent than the rest. The spiral lines over 
the middle and front parts of the whorls are numerous, irregular, unequal ; some, more 
or less distant from each other, are prominent and sharp, and the intermediate spaces 
are occupied by two or three, occasionally by four, very slender and regular lines ; the 
longitudinal ribs, which are rather numerous, narrow, and oblique, reach almost to the 
anterior canal. The aperture is oblong and ovate, and terminates in a moderately 
long, straight, and narrow canal ; the outer lip is thin and slightly arched ; the sinus 
wide, semi-circular in shape, and placed in the middle of the margin. 

The present species, distinguished by its long costated spire, appears to be 
peculiar to the English middle eocene strata ; Defrance, it is true, refers to it, although 
with doubt, as a synonym of P. dentata, but a slight comparison of the shells will 
prevent the two species being confounded. It presents closer resemblances as well 
to P. textUiosa, as to P. crassi-costa ; from both of these species, however, not- 
withstanding the similarity in the ornamentation, it may be easily distinguished by 
the slenderer and more numerous ribs, and the longer and narrower anterior canal. 

Size. — The dimensions of my largest specimen are — axis, 1 inch and 4-12ths; 
diameter, 5-12ths of an inch. Those of Brander's specimen, although represented in 
the figure given by him as considerably larger, are, in fact, very nearly the same. 

Localities. — Barton, Alum Bay (No. 29, Prestwich), Highcliff, Bracklesham Bay. 



No. 150. Pleurotoma crassi-costa, F. E. Edioards. Tab. XXVI, fig. 10 a, b. 

P. testa elongato-fusifornii, angustd, turritd, costatd, undique spiraliter lineatd ; spird 
elevatd ; anfractibus convexiusctdis, angustatis ; marginibus posticis latiusculis, concavis, 
tenuissime lineatis, ad suturam incrassatis, cingulo duplici ornatis ; ultimo anfractu parvo, 
repente coarctato, in canali lato, longo, subrecto exeunti ; costis distantibus, brevibus, crassis : 
lineis spiralibus confertis, inaqualibus, nonnullis eminentioribus fortibus, cxteris exilibus : 
aperturd oblongo-ovatd ; labro leviter arcuato ; sinu lato, fere semicirculari, in margine 
collocato. 

Shell long, narrow, fusiform, turreted, ribbed, and having the whole surface orna- 
mented with concentric lines : the spire, formed of eight or nine volutions exclusive of 
the pullus, is moderately elevated and pointed ; whorls slightly convex, sharply angu- 



2-26 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



lated at the shoulder ; the posterior margins rather wide, hollowed out, and thickened 
on the sutural edge, which is bordered by two or three prominent, raised lines ; the 
remaining surface of the margin is covered with very fine, close-set, concentric lines ; 
the last whorl is small, and terminates in a wide and long canal, a little curved 
near the anterior extremity. The ribs are distant, rounded, short, not extending to 
the middle of the whorl, prolonged over the posterior margins almost to the suture, 
and bearing at the shoulders of the whorls a row of transverse tooth-shaped tubercles. 
The spiral lines over the middle and front parts of the whorls are numerous and 
unequal ; some, at nearly regular and not very distant intervals, are rather thick and 
prominent, and between these appear two or three slender, thread-like lines. The 
aperture is ovate, the outer lip moderately arched, and the sinus, which is placed in 
the middle of the margin, is wide but not deep. 

The P. crassi-costa bears a close resemblance to P. dentata, of which, perhaps, it 
may prove to be merely a local variety. It presents, however, certain peculiarities of form 
which appear to me sufficient to justify the separation. Thus the shell is narrower, 
the spire relatively more produced ; the posterior margins of the whorls are not so 
wide, the whorls themselves smaller and more suddenly contracted in front, and the 
longitudinal ribs thicker and more distant. From P. textiliosa it is distinguishable by 
the character of the transverse ornamentation, and the thick, rounded, and more 
distant ribs of that species. It approaches very nearly to a species from the sables 
moyens, at Senlis, at present unpublished, but which M. Deshayes purposes to 
describe under the name P. Michelini, in his forthcoming appendix ; without a 
comparison, however, with a better series of specimens of that species than I possess, 
I do not venture to pronounce on the identity. Should the English and French shells 
prove, eventually, to belong to the same species, the name proposed by M. Deshayes 
will be entitled to priority. 

Size. — Axis, 1| inch ; diameter, not quite half an inch. 

Locality. — Bramshaw. 

No. 151. Pleurotoma lanceolata, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXVI, fig. 11 a, b. 

P. testa elongatd, angustd, fusiformi, spiraliter lineatd : spird elevatd, sub-conicd, tuber- 
culatd: anfractibus convexiusculis ; marginibus posticis mediocriter latis, pauxillum 
declivis, vix cavatis, transversim exilissime lineatis ; ultimo anfractu antice gradatim 
attenuate, in canali longo exeunti: aperturd lanceolata ; labro valde arcuate; sinu late 
sub-trigono, in margine collocate. 

Shell long, very narrow, fusiform, ornamented with spiral, raised lines : the spire 
elevated, nearly conical, and terminating in a small, smooth, pointed pullus of two 
volutions: the whorls, 9 — 11 in number, are but slightly convex, and in the young 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



227 



state are tuberculated, or roundedly costellated ; the posterior margins are moderately 
wide, very little depressed, nearly straight, and almost smooth, or ornamented with 
concentric lines, so faint and slender as to be almost imperceptible without the aid of 
a magnifying glass; the last whorl is produced in front, and, diminishing very 
gradually, terminates in a long, nearly straight canal. The aperture is lanceolate ; the 
outer lip thin, sharp edged, and much arched ; and the sinus, which is very wide, and 
sub-trigonal in shape, is placed a little in front of the middle part of the margin. 

The long, narrow, lanceolate form, and nearly conical spire of this Pleurotoma 
distinguish it from all its congeners. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 4-12ths ; diameter, 4-12ths of an inch. 

Localities. — Barton and Alum Bay (No. 29, Prestwich), where it is not very 
common. 



No, 152. Pleurotoma laevigata, Sowerby. Tab. XXVI, fig. 9 a, b. 

Pleurotoma laevigata, Sow. 1823. Min. Con., vol. iv, p. 120, t. 387, fig. 3. 

— . — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 157. 

— — J? Orb. 1850. Prod, de Paleont., vol. ii, p. 359, No. 412. 
Nec Pleurotoma l^vigatum, Phil. 1836. Enum. Moll. Sic, vol. i, p. 199, t. 11, fig. 17. 

nec — LiEViGATA, DeKon. 1837. Coq. foss. de Basele, &c., p. 27, No. 27, t. 1, fig. 5. 
nec — — Mellev. 1843. Mem. sur les sables infer., &c, de Paris, p. 63, 

t. S, figs. 9— 11. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, angustd, turritd, transversim tenuissime lineatd ; spird 
elevatd, acuminata : anfractibus convexis, antice subito coarctatis, prioribus oblique costel- 
latis ; marginibus posticis angustis, depressis, sub-canaliculatis, Icevibus ; ultimo anfractu 
in canali longo, angusto, terminanti : aperturd oblongd, ovatd ; labro valde arcuato, tenui, 
sinu lato,/ere semicirculari, in margine collocato. 

Shell long, narrow, fusiform, turreted, costellated, and spirally lined : the spire 
elevated, pointed, terminating in a pullus of two round, smooth volutions ; whorls 
convex, rounded on the shoulders, contracted rather suddenly in front ; the posterior 
margins narrow, depressed, slightly hollowed out, having the sutural edges thin and 
quite simple, and the surface smooth, almost polished, presenting only very feeble lines 
of growth of the sinus. The ribs are distant, rounded, oblique, and extend almost to 
the front part of the whorl in the young shell, but become shorter and less prominent 
as the shell enlarges, and altogether disappear on the body-whorl of the fully formed 
shell ; the spiral lines are very slender, sharp, but little elevated, irregular, unequal, 
and decussated by the lines of growth. The aperture is of an oblong, ovate form, and 
terminates in front in a long, narrow, and slightly curved canal ; the outer lip is much 



22S 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



arched, and the sinus, which is wide and almost semicircular in shape, occupies the 
whole width of the margin. 

Specimens occasionally occur in which the transverse lineation is nearly obliterated, 
and the whorls present a smooth, almost a polished, surface. The individuals figured 
by Mr. Sowerby were apparently in this condition ; this smoothness, from which the 
specific name was taken, is, however, only an exceptional character. 

The present species presents some analogy with P. macilenta ; but the shell is 
narrower, the whorls more convex, more rounded on the shoulder, and more contracted 
in front ; the canal is narrower, the outer lip more arched, and the sinus wider. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 3-12ths; diameter, rather more than 4-12ths of an inch. 

Localities. — Barton, Muddiford (Highcliff). Mr. Sowerby also gives Highgate, 
but I do not know of any specimen from that locality. The species is, apparently, 
confined to the upper beds of the middle eocene deposits, and is not common. 



No. 153. Pleurotoma fusiformis, Sowerby. Tab. XXVII, fig. 1 a, b. 

Pleurotoma fusifokmis, Sow. 1823. Min. Con., vol. iv, p. 119, t. 387, fig. 1. 
— — Morris. 1843. Cat. Brit. Foss., p. 157. 

Non Pleurotoma fusifokmis, Sow. 1831. Trans. Geol. Soc, 2d series, vol. iii, p. 418, t. 39, 

fig. 20. 

P. testa elongatd, fusiformi, angustd, subturritd, longitudinaliter costatd, spiraliter 
fasciatd: spird elevatd, acuminata : anfractibus angulatis ; ultimo anfractu antice sensim 
attenuato, in canali longo, lato, terminanti ; marginibus posticis concentrice tenuiter lineatis, 
pauxillulum cavatis ; costis rotundatis, ultimo anfractu evanescentibus ; fasciis spiralibus 
numerosis, irregidaribus, inaqualibus, lineis incrementi scabratis : aperturd lanceolatd ; 
labro arcuato ; sinu lato, sub-profundo, in margine collocato. 

Shell elongated, narrow, fusiform, longitudinally ribbed, and spirally banded : the 
spire, which, in the larger specimen figured, consists of eight volutions exclusive of 
the pullus, is elevated, forming nearly two fifth parts of the whole length of the shell. 
The whorls are sharply angulated at the shoulders, giving a turreted appearance to 
the spire ; the posterior margins are moderately wide, slightly depressed, a little 
thickened and crenulated round the suture, and ornamented with fine, concentric, 
raised lines, two or three of which, immediately behind the shoulder, are stronger than 
the rest, and granulated by the lines of growth of the sinus ; the longitudinal ribs are 
rather numerous, rounded, and extend to the middle of the whorls, but become obso- 
lete on the body- whorl of the adult shell ; the spiral bands over the middle and front 
parts of the whorls are numerous, unequal, irregular, becoming more distant on the 
canal, where occasionally fine, thread-like lines rise between them ; the bands are 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



229 



much roughened by the lines of growth, giving a scabrous aspect to the shell : the 
body- whorl is attenuated very gradually in front, assuming a nearly conical shape, and 
terminates in a long, rather wide, and nearly straight canal. The aperture is lanceo- 
late, the outer lip moderately arched, and the sinus, which is placed in the margin 
immediately behind the shoulder, is wide, moderately deep, and almost semicircular 
in form. 

No foreign analogue of this well-marked species has as yet been noticed; and 
at present P. fusiformis appears to be confined to the older eocene strata in the 
neighbourhood of London, where it is exceedingly rare. Mr. Sowerby, it is true, has 
applied the name to a Pleurotoma from the so-called transition beds between the lower 
tertiaries and the upper cretaceous formation at Gosau, a notice of which is con- 
tained in a memoir ' On the Structure of the Eastern Alps,' by Prof. Sedgwick and 
Sir Roderick Murchison, published in the 'Geological Transactions' of 1831; but 
that shell is a short, wide, strongly costated shell, perfectly distinct in character from 
the Highgate shell, and the name fusiformis was used apparently in forgetfulness of its 
having been previously applied to the present species. The Gosau shell has been 
since distinguished by D'Orbigny as P. sub-fusiformis. 

The specimens figured form part of Mr. Wetherell's collection. 

Size. — If the larger specimen were perfect, the dimensions would be — axis, 1 inch 
and 9-12ths ; diameter, 6-12ths of an inch. Those of the specimen figured in ' Mineral 
Conchology' appear to be — axis, 2 inches and l-12th; diameter, rather more than 
7-12ths of an inch. 

Locality. — Highgate. 



No. 154. Pleurotoma sulculosa. F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXVII, fig. 2 a — c. 

P. testa elongatd, fusiformi, sab-turritd, concentrice sulcata : anfractibus convexiusculis, 
angulatis, tubcrcidatis ; marginibus posticis pauxillulum cavatis, transversim interrupte 
lineatis, ad suturam incrassatis : aperturd oblongo-ovali, in canali longiusculo exeunti ; 
labro valde arcuato ; sinu lato, sub-trigono, in margine collocato. 

Far. /3. Testa tubereulis longitudinal iter compressis, ultimo anfractu evanescentibus, 
instructd. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, transversely sulcated ; spire formed of seven or eight 
volutions, moderately elevated, pointed : whorls rather convex, angulated at the 
shoulders, where they present a series of oblong, longitudinally compressed, and more 
or less oblique tubercles ; the posterior margins slightly hollowed out, thickened on 
the sutural edge, round which runs an elevated, sharp line, granulated by the lines of 
growth of the sinus ; the space between this line and the angle of the whorls is occu- 

30 



230 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



pied by three or four concentric lines, broken into oblong granulations, more or less 
widely separated by smooth spaces, formed at the successive stages of growth by the 
margins of the sinus ; the angulated shoulders, and somewhat depressed margins of 
the whorls, give a turreted character to the spire. The tubercles are rather numerous, 
and prominent in all stages of growth ; the transverse furrows deep, but not 
wide, and separated by rounded ridges, which are narrow near the shoulders, but 
become broader over the middle and front parts of the whorls, and on the canal. 
The body-whorl is suddenly contracted near the middle, and produced anteriorly into 
a wide, moderately long canal. The aperture is of a narrow, oblong, oval shape ; the 
outer lip roundedly arched, almost semicircular in form ; and the sinus, which is placed 
in the middle of the margin, is deep, rather wide, and sub-trigonal. 

Specimens occur (Far. /3, fig. 2 b) in which the tubercles are compressed, and a 
little prolonged, in the direction of the axis, imparting a sub-costellated appearance 
to the earlier whorls, and becoming obsolete as the shell approaches maturity. 

This species presents a very close analogy with P. fusiformis, with which, in fact, 
it may be easily confounded. On comparing the two shells, however, it will be found 
that, in the present species, the shell is wider ; the spire relatively more produced and 
tuberculated, not costated ; the body- whorl more contracted, and less conical, in front ; 
the canal wider and shorter ; the outer lip more roundedly arched ; and the sinus 
deeper, more trigonal, and placed nearer the middle of the margin. These distinctions, 
and the different ornamentation, which consists of deep conspicuous furrows instead of 
the rough spiral bands which characterise P. fusiformis, appear to me to justify the 
separation. 

Size. — The dimensions of the largest specimen figured would be, if the shell were 
perfect — axis, 1 inch and 5-12ths; diameter, not quite half an inch. 

Localities. — Highgate and Potters' Bar, at both of which localities it is rather 
scarce. 



No. 155. Pleurotoma acuminata, Sowerky. Tab. XXVII, fig. 3 a — d. 

Pleukotoma acuminata, Sow. 1816. Min. Con., vol. ii, p. 105, t. 146, fig. 4. 

— — UOrb. 1850. Index Paleont., vol. ii, p. 359, No. 420. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 269. 

Nec Pleurotoma acuminata, Nyst. 1836. Rech. coq. foss. de Hoesselt et Vliermael, p. 32, 

No. 83. 

nec — — De Kon. 1837. Desc. des coq. foss. de Basele Boom, &c, p. 24, 

No. 24. 

nec — — Nyst. 1843. Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. xiv, p. 454, No. 27. 

nec — — lb. 1843. Descr. des coq., &c, de la Belgique, p. 519, t. 42, 

fig. 1 a, b. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



231 



P. testa elongatd, angustd, turritd, acuminata, longitudinaliter costatd, concentrice 
sulcata: anfractibus convexiusculis ; marginibus posticis angustis, concavis, transversim 
granuloso-lineatis, ad suturam plicatis ; sulcis concentricis confertis, antice distantio- 
ribus ; spatiis sulcos separantibus Uncis incrementi granulatis •• aperturd oblongo-ovali, 
in canali lato, longiusculo exeunti ; labro arcuato ; sinu fere semicirculari, in margine 
cottocato. 

Var. a. — Testa latiori, breviori. 

Far. /3. — Testa laevigata; sulcis transversis semi-obliteratis. 

Shell elongated, narrow, turreted, pointed, longitudinally ribbed and concentrically- 
furrowed ; the spire, formed of eight or nine volutions, much produced, equalling in 
length three fifths of the whole shell. The whorls are slightly convex ; the posterior 
margins narrow, channeled, ornamented with several concentric raised lines, a little 
thickened at the suture, and plicated by the lines of growth of the sinus, which, in 
some specimens, are prominent over the whole margin, granulating the concentric 
lines ; the last whorl is rather suddenly contracted in front, and terminates in a wide 
but not very long canal. The furrows in front of the shoulder are close-set, regular 
and equal, but, where the whorl begins to contract, they become more distant and 
irregular : the surface of the intervening spaces is granulated by longitudinal ridges 
formed by the elevated lines of growth ; the longitudinal ribs are rather numerous, 
narrow, and extend to the middle of the whorls. The aperture is of a narrow, oblong- 
oval form ; the outer lip but slightly arched, and the sinus, which is wide and almost 
semicircular in shape, is placed a little in front of the middle part of the margin. 
Specimens occasionally occur ( Var. a, fig. 3 b, c) in which the shell is wider and shorter, 
and the spire is relatively not so much produced ; and others, again {Var. /3, fig. 3 d), 
in which the ribs disappear as the shell is enlarged, the transverse furrows are shal- 
lower and more closely set, and the lines of growth less prominent, giving to the 
surface a levigated appearance, as if it had been rubbed smooth. 

MM. Nyst and De Koninck have severally described certain shells from Basele, 
Boom, and Kleyn-Spauwen, which they have referred, erroneously in my opinion, to 
the present species. In the general character of the ornamentation these shells 
apparently agree with the English shells ; but with them, judging from the figure 
given by Nyst, the spire is relatively longer, the whorls more convex, the posterior 
margins less depressed, giving a more conical and less turreted form to the spire ; the 
body- whorl more suddenly contracted, and the columella more arched : the characters, 
however, which most clearly distinguish the Belgian shells are the form and position of 
the sinus, which is wide and very shallow, and is placed on the shoulder, and not, as 
in the present species, in the margin of the whorls. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 3-12ths diameter, 4-12ths of an inch. 



232 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



Localities. — Highgate, Hornsey, Potters' Bar, and Clarendon Hill, at which last 
locality both varieties occur. 

The specimens represented by figs. 3 a and 3, form part of Mr. Wetherell's col- 
lection. 



No. 156. Pleurotoma pyrulata, Beshayes. Tab. XXVII, fig. 7 a, b. 

Pleurotoma pyrulata, Desk. 1824-37. Descr. des coq. foss., &c, vol. ii, p. 449, t. 66, 

figs. 1—3. 

P. testa elongatd, angustd, piruliformi, spiraliter lineatd: spird mediocriter elevatd, 
sub-conicd ; anfractibus angulatis, in medio convexiusculis, antice sensim attenuates; mar- 
ginibus posticis declivis, vix cavatis, concenlrice tenuissime lineatis ; ultimo anfractu in 
canali prce-longo terminanti ; lineis spiralibus acutis, irregularibus, incequalibus, lineis incre- 
menti fortiter decussatis : aperturd elongaio-ovali ; labro parum arcuato ; sinu latiusculo, 
prof undo, in margine collocato. 

Shell elongated, narrow, concentrically lined : the spire, formed of eight or nine 
volutions, is pointed and moderately elevated, not equalling in length a third part of 
the whole shell ; the whorls are convex at the middle, bluntly angulated at the 
shoulders ; the posterior margins but slightly depressed, giving a nearly conical form 
to the spire ; slightly thickened at the edge, where they present two strong, prominent, 
raised lines, which run round the suture, and form a border to the whorls ; the space 
between the suture and the shoulders is slmhtlv channeled, and covered with several 
very slender, unequal, raised lines ; the body-whorl diminishes gradually towards the 
base, and terminates in a very long and nearly straight canal. The gradual tapering 
of the whorls, joined to the rather short, conical spire, gives to the shell somewhat of 
the form of a long, narrow pear, from which appearance the specific name is taken. 
The spiral lines over the middle and front parts of the whorls are numerous, irregular, 
and unequal, slender thread-like lines alternating with thicker and more prominent 
lines ; all are beautifully and regularly decussated by the strongly marked lines of 
growth. The aperture is of a long, narrow, oval form ; the outer lip slightly expanded 
towards the middle ; and the sinus, which is placed in the middle of the margin is deep 
and not very wide. 

The French shells, in their typical form, are narrow, with a rather short spire ; 
but, apparently, specimens from different localities present considerable variations, 
not only in the relative height of the spire and width of the shell, but also in the stria- 
tion. The specimens from Compiegne, for instance, as M. Deshayes has recorded, 
have the spire more produced, the angle of the whorls more prominent, and the con- 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



233 



centric lines more numerous ; and in some specimens from Cuise-Lamotte, in my 
cabinet, the spire is also much elevated, the shell relatively narrower, and the concen- 
tric lines close-set, slender, and regular. In the English specimens the relative height 
of the spire and the character of the concentric lineation agree with those of the 
specimens from Compiegne ; but the shell is wider, and the margins of the whorls 
are not so much depressed. These differences, however, attributable probably to local 
conditions only, do not suggest a doubt of the correctness of the identification. 

Size. — Axis, rather more than 5-6ths of an inch (11 millim.) ; diameter, 3-12ths of 
an inch (rather more than 6 millim.). 

Localities. — Clarendon Hill. French — Compiegne (fide Desk.) ; Cuise-Lamotte, 
Trosly-Breuil (fide Graves) ; Laon (fide Mettev.) MM. Deshayes and D'Orbigny also 
give Parnes ; but M. Graves speaks with doubt of that locality. 

No. 157. Pleurotoma terebralis, Lamarck, var. Tab. XXVII, figs. 10 a — k. 

Pleurotoma terebralis, Lam/c. 1804. Anra. du Muse'e, vol iii, p. 266, No. 20. 

— — lb. 1822. Hist, nat., &c, vol. vii, p. 101, No. 25. 

— — De Blainv. 1826. Diet, des sci. nat., vol. xli, p. 391. 

— — Desk. 1832. End. meth. (Vers.), vol. iii, p. 799, No. 21. 

— Ib. 1824-1837. Desc. des coq., &c, vol. ii, p. 455, t. 62, 

figs. 14—16. 

Var. 1st. ditropis ; fig. 10a. P. testa parvuld, elongate!, fusiformi, angustd, turritd, 
lineis spiralibus eleganiissime granulatis ornatd ; spird elevatd, acuminata ; anfractibus 
bicarinatis ; marginibus posticis depressis, concavis, ad suturam granulatis, cateris Icevibus, 
vel tenuissime plicatis ; carina posticd acuta, denticulatd ; carina anticd fascioli-formi, 
denticulato-plicatd ; lineis spiralibus plus minusve distantibus, incequalibus ; ultimo anfraclu 
a?itice valde attenuato in canali longo exeunti ; sinu lato, fere semicirculari, in margine 
collocato. 

Var. 2d. concinna; fig. 10^, k. Testa parvd, hicarinatd, lineis spiralibus perceque 
granulatis, undique, etiam in marginibus anfractuum, ornatd ; carina anticd granulate!; 
lineis spiralibus numerosis. 

Var. 3d. gyrata ; fig. 10 b, d. Testa bicarinatd ; carinis fascioli-formibus, crassis, 
oblique plicato-denticulatis ; lineis spiralibus inaqualibus, granulosis. 

Var. 4th. pulcherrima ; fig. 10 e. Testa parvd, bicarinatd ; carina posticd denti- 
culatd ; carina anticd rotundatd, Icevi ; lineis spiralibus elevatis, rotundatis, simplicibus vel 
obsolete granulatis, supra canalem conferlis, cceteris distantibus. 

Var. 5th. revoluta; fig. 10/. Testa bicarinatd ; marginibus posticis anfractuum 
ad suturam Icevissime crenulatis ; carina posticd acuta, obsolete plicato-denticidatd, superne 
revoluta ; carina anticd lineisque spiralibus granulatis. 



■2U 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



Far. 6th. pagoda; fig. 10/^. Testa latiori, fasciolis et lineis spiralibus elevatis 
cinctd: anfractibus bicarinatis, ad suturam marainatis ; carinis simplicibus, singulis 
unico sidco exaratis ; carina posticd superne revolutd ; fasciolis numerosis, inaqualibus, 
IcBvibus. 

The typical form of this elegant Pleurotoma is distinguished by the smooth concave 
margins of the whorls, by the remarkable regularity of the denticulation on the keel, 
resembling the teeth of a circular saw, and by the close-set rows of even, bead-like 
granulations, which cover the middle and front parts of the shell, slightly dimi- 
nishing in size as they approach the anterior extremity of the canal. The shell, upon 
which Lamarck formed the species, was found at Parnes; and, apparently, the orna- 
mentation which characterises it is confined in the French specimens to those from 
the "calcaire grossier." The species occurs, also, in the older eocene formations of that 
country ; but the shells from them are generally of smaller dimensions, and present 
more or less strongly marked deviations from the typical ornamentation. In England 
the species has not as yet been found above the older eocene deposits ; several forms, 
indeed, occur in them ; one or two of which apparently agree with French varieties ; 
but neither among them, nor, as I believe, among those from the " groupes glauco- 
nieux" of France, does the exact ornamentation of the typical P. terebralis of Lamarck 
occur. 

In the first variety {ditropis), which corresponds with specimens in my cabinet from 
Cuisse-Lamotte, the shell is much smaller than that of the type, elongated, fusiform, 
narrow, turreted, and beautifully ornamented with concentric rows of regular bead- 
like granulations ; the spire is pointed and much produced, being rather more than 
two fifths of the length of the whole shell. The whorls are somewhat convex, sharply 
angulated, and carinated at the shoulders ; the posterior margins rather depressed, 
slightly channeled, and perfectly smooth, except round the suture, where they are 
bordered by a single row of small regular granulations ; occasionally a specimen occurs 
in which the smoothness of the surface is broken by very fine curved plications formed 
by the successive margins of the sinus. The keel on the shoulder is sharp, prominent, 
and denticulated with great regularity : in front of this, just where the whorl begins 
to contract, is a thick concentric band, rather obliquely plicated, and so prominent as 
to present the appearance of a second keel on the whorl ; the ends of the plications 
project beyond the edges of the band, giving to it a denticulated appearance. The 
concentric rows are unequal, irregular, and more or less distant in different specimens, 
but closer and more regular towards the anterior extremity. The last whorl is much 
attenuated in front, and terminates in a moderately long canal : the sinus is rounded, 
deep, and wide, occupying almost the entire width of the margin. 

In the next variety (concinna) the shell is somewhat larger than that of the preceding 
variety, but yet smaller than that of the type ; the front keel is narrower and less 
prominent than in the variety ditropis, and is evenly granulated ; the concentric rows 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



235 



of granulations are more numerous, and the margins of the whorls present, in addition 
to the sutural row of beads, three very slender concentric lines granulated by the lines 
of growth of the sinus. It has been before stated that one of the more prominent 
characters of the true P. terebralis is taken from the perfectly smooth concave margins 
of the whorls ; and the granulated margins in the present case would apparently 
indicate a distinct species ; but the occasional occurrence of a plicated margin in the 
last variety prepares the way for the present form ; and as this agrees in all the more 
important characters with the variety ditropis, I have regarded it as merely another 
variety of P. terebralis. 

The shell in the variety gyrata (fig. 10 b — d) is smaller than that of the type, and 
doubly keeled ; but both keels are thick, band-like, and strongly and obliquely plicated, 
and have a denticulated appearance from the plications being continued over the edges 
of the bands ; the plications, following the curve of the line of growth, are less oblicpie 
on the anterior keel than those on the posterior keel. A single slender raised line, 
finely granulated, traverses the space between the keels; the front part of the whorl is 
ornamented with several concentric raised lines, granulated with great regularity ; of 
these, the one next to the anterior keel, in some specimens (as in fig. 10 b), and that 
next but one, in others (as in figs. 10c and d), is the thickest and most prominent; 
the others slightly diminish in size as they approach the anterior extremity of the 
canal. 

The next variety, pulcherrima (fig. 1 e and tf),* appears to correspond with the 
variety a from Compicgne, noticed by M. Deshayes. In this variety the shell is small 
and doubly-keeled ; the posterior or shoulder-keel denticulated, the anterior keel 
rounded and obscurely plicated, almost smooth ; the front part of the whorls is 
ornamented with several distant, thickish, concentric lines, which also are smooth and 
simple, or but very feebly granulated j the whorls are bordered round the suture by a 
thickish raised line, obscurely granulated or plicated; the margins and the spaces 
between the keels and between the concentric lines are perfectly smooth. 

The variety revolula (fig. 10/) is a modification of the variety pulcherrima; in it the 
sutural edges of the whorls are very faintly crenulated ; the shoulder-keel is sharp, 
obscurely plicated and denticulated, and the edge is bent upwards : the anterior keel is 
round and feebly plicated, and the concentric lines are slender and finely granulated. 

In the last variety to be noticed, the variety Pagoda (fig. 10 h), the granula- 
tion and denticulation, which in the typical form and the preceding varieties form 
more or less prominent characters, are wanting ; and a new mode of ornamentation 
prevails. In this variety the shell, which is relatively wider, is doubly-keeled, and 
ornamented with simple spiral bands ; the margins of the whorls are concave, and 

* I have adopted for the shells forming this variety, the name by which they have been distinguished 
as a species in Mr. Wetherell's cabinet. 



23G 



EOCENE MOLLUSC A. 



quite smooth, except where two slender, faintly crenulated, raised lines form a border 
round the suture. The keels are band-like and simple ; the surface of each is traversed 
by a shallow but conspicuous furrow ; the edge of the shoulder-keel is sharp, smooth, 
and bent upwards like that of the keel which characterises the preceding variety. The 
space between the two keels and the surface of the front part of the whorls is orna- 
mented with numerous narrow, unequal, round-edged bands, between some of which 
a slender line occasionally appears ; these bands are smooth, or but slightly roughened 
by the lines of growth. 

A form intermediate between and connecting the last two varieties occurs, in which 
the sharp, smooth-edged, and furrowed shoulder-keel of the variety Pagoda is associated 
with an obscurely plicated anterior keel, and faintly granulated spiral lines. 

Although the shell for which the variety Pagoda is proposed, differs so much in the 
ornamentation from the typical form, I do not regard it as specifically distinct. In the 
several varieties described, the characteristic ornaments of the species have been 
modified, and have become gradually less prominent, until at last, in the variety 
revoluta, they are almost obliterated ; and the intermediate form, before noticed, con- 
nects that variety with the one in question, which, in fact, merely presents in strength a 
character of ornament which has already appeared in other varieties. 

All the varieties are rare except the varieties gyrata and Pagoda, which appear to 
be more abundant. 

Size. — Of the var. ditropis — axis, 5-I2ths of an inch ; diameter, 2-12ths of an inch : 
of the var. concinna and pulcherrima — axis, 7-12ths of an inch; diameter, rather 
more than 3-12ths of an inch: of the var. gyrata — axis, 1 inch, nearly; diameter, 
rather more than 5-12ths of an inch : and of the var. Pagoda, if the shell were per- 
fect — axis, 1 inch and 2-12ths, nearly; diameter, 5-12ths of an inch. 

Localities. — For the var. ditropis — Highgate, Potters' Bar, Hornsey, Hampstead ; 
for the var. concinna — Highgate, Potters' Bar, Hornsey, Finchley ; for the var. gyrata — 
Hornsey, Southampton, Shenfield ; for the var. pulcherrima — Highgate and Clarendon 
Hill; and for the var. revoluta and Pagoda — Clarendon Hill. French — Parnes, 
Grignon, Beyne, Mouchy-le-Chatel, Compiegne (fide Desh.), Chaumont, Amblainville, 
Cuisse-Lamotte, Pont-Sainte-Maxence (fide Graves). 

The specimens, fig. 10 b and k, are from Mr. Wetherell's cabinet. 



No. 158. Pleurotoma microdonta, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXVII, fig. 4. 

P. testa elongatd, fusiformi, tuber culatd, spiraliter exilissime lineatd: spird elevatd, 
h -co filed : anfractibus angulatis,unicd serie tuberculorum denti-formium munitis ; margini- 
bus posticis talis, pauxillum cavatis, ad suturam cingulo triplici, distanter plicato, cinctis -. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



237 



ultimo anfractu antice repentissime coarctato, in canali angusto, longiusculo, terminanti ; 
lineis spiralibus confertis, inaqualibus, nonnullis eminentioribus, denliculatis : aperturd 
oblongo-ovali ; labro vakle arcuato, intus plicato ; sinu lato, sub-trigono, in margine collocato. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, tuberculated, and ornamented with very fine, concentric, 
raised lines ; spire nearly conical and much produced, exceeding one half of the whole 
shell in length ; whorls convex, sharply angulated at the shoulders, where they pre- 
sent a single row of small, rather close-set, tooth-shaped tubercles ; the posterior 
margins wide, frequently extending almost to the angle of the preceding whorl, slightly 
channeled, and bordered round the suture by three sharp, elevated lines, crossed by 
distant, oblique plications, corresponding with the tubercles on the shoulders of the 
whorls ; the space between the suture and the shoulder is covered with very fine and 
nearly equal concentric lines. The spiral lines over the middle and front parts of the 
lines are numerous, very slender, but unequal ; every fourth or fifth line being rather 
thicker and more prominent than the rest, and denticulated ; the intermediate lines 
are simple, nearly equal, and so fine as to be barely perceptible by the naked eye. 
The body- whorl is suddenly much contracted in front, and terminates in a narrow, but 
not very long canal : the aperture is of an oblong oval form ; the outer lip much 
arched and plicated within, and the sinus, which is wide and sub-trigonal in shape, 
is placed a little in front of the middle part of the margin. 

The present species presents some resemblance to P. cymcea, but is easily distin- 
guishable by the more elevated spire, the more numerous and smaller tubercles, the 
character of the transverse ornamentation, and the shorter canal. 

Size. — Axis, 1 inch and 2-12ths ; diameter, 5-12ths of an inch, nearly. 

Localities. — Highcliff, where it is very abundant, and Bracklesham Bay. 



Section I — Shells fusiform. lt d 

A. Sinus in the posterior margin of the whorl. \ 
b. Canal short or indistinct* 

No. 159. Pleurotoma attenuata, Sowerbg. Plate XXVII, fig. 6 a — c. 

Pleurotoma attenuata, Sow. 1816. Min. Con., vol. ii, p. 103, t. 146, fig. 1. 

— — lb. 1850. Dixon's Geol., &c, of Sussex, p. 102, t. 6, figs. 11,14. 

— — Morris. 1854. Cat. Brit. Foss., 2d edit., p. 269. 

* The sub-divisions dependent on the length of the canal are, it is unnecessary to say, merely artificial, 
and towards the extremes of the two, species occur which may be referred, apparently with equal propriety 
to either sub-division : in shells with a short canal, however, the anterior notch is generally wider and 
deeper, and consequently the crest on the columella will be more prominent. 

31 



238 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



Nec Pleuromoma attenuata, Desk. 1824-37. Descr. des coq. foss., &c, vol. ii, p. 483, t. 68, 

figs. 6, 8. 

nec — Dujar. 1837. Mem. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. ii, p. 291, t. 20, 

fig. 22. 

P. testa elongato-fusiformi, turritd, costatd, undique spiraliter lineatd : spird elevatd, 
acuminata ; anfractibus angulatis, unicd serie nodorum spiniformium, costas coronantium, 
armatis ; marginibus posticis latis, declivis, concavis, ad suturam joauxillum incrassatis, 
tenuiter crenulatis ; ultimo anfractu antice sensim attenuate, in canali longiusculo, lato, 
terminanti ; costis brevibus, sub-distantibus, rotundatis ; lineis spiralibus numerosis, in 
marginibus tenuibus ; cetaris incequalibus : aperturd lanceolatd ; labro arcuato j sinu lato, 
subtrigono, in margine collocato. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, turreted, longitudinally ribbed, and ornamented with con- 
centric raised lines: the spire, formed of eleven or twelve volutions exclusive of the pullus, 
is much elevated and pointed ; the whorls, angulated at the shoulders, are gradually 
attenuated towards the base, assuming an almost conical form ; the body-whorl termi- 
nates in a wide, moderately long canal, rather deeply notched at the anterior extremity ; 
the posterior margins are wide, slightly bent towards the preceding whorls, channeled 
along the middle, thickened at the sutural edge, and bordered by two thickish, promi- 
nent, raised lines, granulated or feebly plicated by the lines of growth. The ribs are 
rather distant, short, oblique, rounded, and terminate at the shoulder in large, trans- 
versely compressed, spiniform tubercles, the bases of which are frequently prolonged 
backwards half-way across the posterior margin. The whole surface of the whorls is 
covered with close-set concentric raised lines, which are thread-like and nearly equal 
on the margins, but irregular and unequal over the middle and front parts of the 
whorls ; one or two more or less slender lines intervening between thicker and more 
prominent lines : the whole surface is roughened by the lines of growth, which in the 
Bracklesham Bay specimens are very prominent, and give a coarse, rugged character 
to the shell. The aperture is of a long, narrow, lanceolate form ; the outer lip mode- 
rately arched ; and the sinus, which is wide, not very deep, and sub-trigonal in shape, 
is placed in the margin. The columella is nearly straight, and presents a large promi- 
nent crest or comb at the anterior extremity. 

M. Deshayes (loc. cit.) has given the specific name attenuata to certain shells from 
the older eocene beds of France, quite distinct from the present species, to which, in 
point of priority, the name belongs ; and Dujardin has fallen into the same error with 
regard to a Pleurotoma from Touraine. D'Orbigny, in his ' Prodrome/ has distin- 
guished the French eocene shells by the name sub-attenuata, and the miocene shells by 
that of pseudo-attenuata. 

Size. — Axis, 4 inches, nearly ; diameter, 1 inch and 2-12ths. 

Localities. — Although Mr. Sowerby (Dixon's ' Sussex/ p. 1 02) and Mr. Morris 



PROSOBRA.NCHIATA. 



239 



both cite Barton as a locality for this well-marked species, I have not been fortunate 
enough to meet with any specimen of it from that locality ; it is confined, I believe, to 
the lower beds of the middle eocene formations. It is found plentifully at Bracklesham 
Bay, of which locality it may be said to be one of the characteristic fossils : it 
also occurs at Stubbington and White-Cliff Bay, and in the synchronous beds at 
Bramshaw. 



No. 160. Pleurotoma conica, F. E. Edwards Tab. XXVII, fig. 8. 

P. testa elongatd, fusiformi, omnino concentrice sulcata, unicd serie tuber culorum munitd ; 
spird conica, elevatd, dimidium totius testa in longitudine superanti •• anfractibus convexius- 
culis, antice subito coarctatis, suturd conspicud separatis ; marginibus posticis latis, pauxil- 
lulum declivis, cavatis ; ultimo anfractu in canali longiusculo terminanti ; tuberculis longi- 
tudinaliter compressis, obliquis, curvis : aperturd oblongo-ovali ; labro arcuato ; sinu lato, 
sub-trigono, in parte anticd marginis collocato. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, concentrically furrowed, and bearing on the shoulders a 
single row of tubercles : the spire conical, rather thick, and much elevated, exceed- 
ing one half of the whole shell in length. The whorls are slightly convex at the 
shoulders, rather suddenly contracted in front, and separated from each other by a 
very conspicuous suture ; the posterior margins are wide, very slightly depressed, 
rather deeply channeled along the middle, and a little thickened on the sutural edge. 
The tubercles, which are somewhat numerous, are longitudinally compressed, narrow, 
oblique, and curved ; the concentric furrows are nearly regular, shallow, and separated 
by narrow, rounded ridges, of which, as they approach the beak, every alternate one 
becomes more prominent than the rest. The aperture is of an oblong-oval form, and 
terminates in front in a slightly produced, widish canal ; the outer lip is moderately 
arched ; and the sinus, which is placed in the very front part of the posterior margin, 
almost on the shoulder of the whorl, is wide and sub-trigonal in shape. 

This species, characterised by its thick, elevated, conical spire, is apparently con- 
fined to the older eocene beds in the neighbourhood of London. I have not met with 
any specimen of it either from Clarendon Hill or from the synchronous formations in 
Hampshire. 

Size. — Axis, ll-12ths of an inch; diameter, 4-12ths of an inch. 
Locality. — Highgate. 



240 



EOCENE MOLLUSCA. 



No. 161. Pleurotoma desmia, F. E. Edwards. Tab. XXVII, fig. 5. 

P. testa etongatd, fusiformi, tuberculatd, spiratiter fasciolatd et Kneatd: spird sub- 
conicd, valde productd : anfractibus convexis, sub-angulatis, longitudinaliter plicatis ; mar- 
ginibus posticis depressis, concavis, concentrice lineatis, ad suturam cingulo duplici, 
distanter plicato, cinctis ; ultimo anfractu repente coarctato, incanali breviculo exeunti : 
fasciolis nicmerosis, antice simplicibus, cateris inaqualibus, nonnullis majoribus, crasse 
granulatis, cum at its minoribus simpticibus, atternantibus : aperturd ovali ; labro valde 
arcuato, intus plicato ; sinu lato, sub-trigono, in margine collocato. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, tuberculated, and ornamented with concentric bands 
and raised lines ; the spire rather thick, nearly conical and much elevated, almost 
equalling two thirds of the whole shell in length : the whorls short, convex, and 
obscurely angulated at the shoulders, where they present a double row of small, 
transverse tubercles ; the posterior margins much depressed, hollowed out, and con- 
centrically lined along the middle, and bordered round the suture by a double line, 
distantly and obliquely plicated by the lines of growth of the sinus, which are very 
prominent over the whole width of the margin ; the last whorl is suddenly contracted 
in front, and terminates in a rather short and narrow canal, widely notched at the 
anterior extremity. The spiral bands over the middle and front parts of the whorls 
are divided with much regularity into rows of coarse, oblong granulations, placed 
nearly below each other in an oblique direction, following the curve of the outer lip, 
and giving an appearance of plication to the whorl : the rows of granulations, which 
are separated by thickish, raised lines, rounded on the surface, diminish in size towards 
the front part of the whorls, until, on reaching the canal, they barely exceed the 
intervening lines in size, and the granulations become nearly obliterated. The 
aperture is of an oval form ; the outer lip much arched, projecting in front, and pli- 
cated within ; and the sinus, which is placed rather towards the front of the margin, 
is wide, moderately deep, and sub-trigonal in form. The columella is slightly curved, 
and presents in front, at the anterior extremity, a conspicuous crest or comb. 

The present species, in the young state, somewhat resembles P. microdonta, but 
the shell is narrower, the spire relatively longer, and the canal shorter ; the regular 
granulations which characterise the concentric ornamentation also render it easily 
separable. It is apparently confined to the middle eocene formations of Barton, where 
it is not uncommon. 

Size.— Axis, 1 inch and 8-l2ths, nearly ; diameter, half an inch. 



TAB. XXIV. 

Fig. 

1. Mitra parva, No. 120, p. 183. 

a. Back view, natural size. 

b. Back view, magnified. 

c. Front view, ditto. 

2. Mitra parva (y&r. pumila) . No. 120, p. 183. 

a. Back view, natural size. 

b. Back view, magnified. 

c. Front view, ditto. 

3. Mitra labra tula. No. 119,/?. 182. 

a. Back view. 

b. Front view. 

4. Mitra obesa. No. 122,/;. 185. 

a. Back view, natural size. 

b. Back view, magnified. 

c. Front view, natural size. 

d. Front view, magnified. 

5. Mitra volutiformis. No. 123, jt?. 186. 

a. Back view, natural size. 

b. Back view, magnified. 

c. Front view, ditto. 

6. Mitra scabra, No. 118,j». 181. 

a. Front view, shell of mid-growth. 

b. Front view, adult shell. 

c. Back view, ditto. 

7. Mitra porrecta. No. 121, p. 185. 

a. Front view, natural size. 

b. Front view, magnified. 

c. Back view, ditto. 

8. Conus diadema. No. 124,/;. 190. 

a. Back view, shell of mid-growth. 

b. Back view, adult shell. 

c. Front view, ditto. 

d. Back view, ditto. (Var. piriformis.) 

9. Conus scabriculus. No. 129, p. 198. 

a. Front view. 

b. Back view. 

c. Side view. 



TAB. XXIV {continued). 



10. Conus lineatus. No. 130, p. 199. 

a. Front view, natural size. 

b. Front view, magnified. 

c. Front view, (specimen described as C. corculum, Sow.) 

11 Conus dormitor. No. 131, p. 200. 

a. Side view. 

b. Front view. 

c. Back view. 

12. Conus velatus. No. 126, p. 193. 

Back view. 

13. Conus concinnus. No. 128,^. 196. 

a. Front view, shell of mid-growth. 

b. Back view, adult shell. 

c. View from above, showing the posterior margins of the 

whorls forming the spire. 



Tah.XXlV. 




XDeC.Sowerby sc 



TAB. XXV. 



Fig. 

L. Conus alatus. No. 132, p. 202. 

a. Back view. 

b. Side view. 

2. Conus deperditus. No. p. 191. 

a. Back view, young shell. 

b. Front view, shell of mid-growth. 

c. Side view, adult shell. 

3. Conus Lamarckii. No. \27,p. 194. 

a. Side view, young shell, from Bracklesham Bay. 
a* Back view, adult shell, from ditto. 

b. Front view, adult shell, from ditto. 

br Front view, adult shell, from Bramshaw. 

c. Back view, adult shell, from ditto. 

4. Pleurotoma stena. No. 133,j». 207. 

a. Back view, young shell, from Southampton. 

b. Back view, adult shell, from Highgate. 

5. Pleurotoma symmetrica. No. 136, p. 209. 

a. Front view, young shell, from Highgate. 

b. Back view, adult shell, from Southampton. 

6. Pleurotoma inarata. No. 134, p. 208. 

Side view, adult shell. 

7. Pleurotoma helix. No. 135, jo. 209. 

a. Side view, adult shell. 

b. Side view, shell of mid-growth. 

8. Pleurotoma teretrium. No. 137, /j. 210. 

a. Back view, adult shell, from Highgate. 

b. Back view, adult shell, from ditto. (Var. nanodis.) 

c. Back view, young shell, from Southampton. (Var. tuberculata.) 

d. Back view, young shell, from ditto. ditto. 
c. Back view, shell of mid-growth, from ditto. 

/. Back view, adult shell, from Highgate. (Var. crebrilinca.) 

g. Back view, Highgate specimen. (Var. latimarginata.) 

h. Back view, ditto. ditto. 

9. Pleurotoma transversaria. No. 141, p. 214. 

a. Back view, Brockenhurst specimen. 

b. Back view, Lyndhurst specimen. (Var. cypha.) 

10. Pleurotoma goniaea. No. 140, p. 213. 

Back view. 



Tab XIV. 




TAB. XXVI. 

Fig. 

1. Pleurotoma crassa. No. 138, p. 212. 

a. Back view, young shell, from Southampton. 

b. Back view, shell of mid-growth, from Shenfield. 

c. Back view, ditto, from Shenfield. 

d. Back view, adult shell, from Nuneham. 

2. Pleurotoma cocciphora. No. 143, p. 217. 

Back view, adult shell. 

3. Pleurotoma planetica. No. 1 39, jo. 212. 

Back view, shell of nearly full growth, from Bramshaw. 

4. Pleurotoma cymsea. No. 142, p. 215. 

a. Back view, shell of mid-growth, from Brockenhurst. 

b. Back view, adult shell, from ditto. 

5. Pleurotoma dentata. No. 146, p. 220. 

Back view. 

6. Pleurotoma Keelei. No. 145,^. 219. 

Back view, nearly adult shell, from Shenfield. 

7. Pleurotoma textiliosa. No. 147, p. 222. 

Side view, shell from Bracklesham Bay. 

8. Pleurotoma rostrata. No. 144, p. 218. 

a. Side view, shell past mid-growth, from Barton. 

b. Back view, adult shell, from ditto. 

c. Front view, adult shell, from Highcliff. (Var. antiqua.) 

9- Pleurotoma laevigata. No. 152,jo. 227. 

a. Side view, shell of mid-growth, from Barton. 

b. Back view, adult shell, from ditto. 

10. Pleurotoma crassicosta. No. 150,^.225. 

a. Front view, adult shell. 

b. Back view, ditto. 

11. Pleurotoma lanceolata. No. 151, p. 226. 

a. Front view, adult shell. 

b. Back view, ditto. 

12. Pleurotoma exorta. No. 148, p. 223. 

a. Side view, adult shell. 

b. Back view, ditto. 

13. Pleurotoma macilenta. No. 149, p- 224. 

a. Front view, adult shell, from Barton. 

b. Back view, adult shell, from ditto. 



Tab. XXVI 




TAB. XXVII. 



1. Pleurotoma fusiformis. No. 153, p. 228. 

a. Back view. 

b. Front view. 

2. Pleurotoma sulculosa. No. 154, jy. 229- 

a. Back view, young shell, from Potters' Bar. 

b. Back view, shell of mid-growth, from ditto. 

c. Back view, adult shell, from Highgate. 

3. Pleurotoma acuminata. No. 155, p. 230. 

a. Back view, adult shell, from Highgate. 

b. Front view, adult shell, from ditto. 

c. Front view, adult shell, from Hornsey, smooth variety. 

d. Front view, adult shell, from Clarendon Hill. 

4. Pleurotoma microdonta. No. 158, jy. 236. 

Side view, adult shell, from High cliff. 

5. Pleurotoma desmia. No. 161, p. 240. 

Front view, shell nearly adult. 

6. Pleurotoma pyrulata. No. 156, p. 232. 

a. Back view, adult shell. 

b. Side view, ditto. 

7. Pleurotoma attenuata. No. 159, p. 232. 

a. Side view, shell nearly adult. 

b. Side view, adult shell. 

c. Back view, shell of mid-growth. 

8. Pleurotoma conica. No. 160, p. 239- 

a. Back view, adult shell. 

9. Pleurotoma cymsea. No. 142, p. 215. 

a. Back view, young shell, from Colwell Bay. 

10. Pleurotoma terebralis, var. No. 1 57. 10. 233- 

a. Back view, shell magnified (var. ditropis), from Hampstead. 

b. Back view, shell magnified (var. gyrata), from Hornsey. 

c. Back view, shell natural size (var. gyrata), from Shenfield. 

d. Back view, shell magnified (var. gyrata), from Southampton. 

e. Back view, shell magnified (var. pulcherrima) , from Highgate. 

/. Back view, shell natural size (var. revolida), from Clarendon Hill. 

g. Back view, shell magnified (var. pulcherrima), from ditto. 

h. Back view, shell natural size (var. Pagoda), from ditto. 

i. Front view, shell natural size (var. concinna), from Potters' Bar. 
k. Front view, shell magnified (var. concinna), from Highgate. 

note. — The lines indicate the size of the specimens. 



Tab XXVII. 




.1 \\-C Sowerby sc. 



THE 



PALEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVIL 



LONDON: 



HDCCCIVI. 



DESCRIPTION 



FOSSIL REMAINS OF MOLLUSCA 



CHALK OF ENGLAND. 



BY 

DANIEL SIIAKPE, Pres. Geol. Soc., F.K&G.S. 



PART III. 

CEPHALOPODA. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PALiEONTOG RAPHICAL SOCIETY. 
1856. 



J. E. ADLARD, PBINTEB, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



AMMONITES. 



37 



22. Ammonites Cenomanensis, D'Archiac. Plate XVII, fig. 1. 

Ammonites Cenomanensis, D'Archiac. Mem. de la Soc. Ge'ol. de France, 2ine serie, 

vol. ii, pp. 62 and 78 ; Histoire des Prog, de la Geol., 
vol. iv, p. 347, note. 

— — D' Orbigny. Prodrome, vol. ii, p. 146. 

— Woollgari, Id. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cre't., vol. i, t. 108, figs. 1—3. 

— Vielbancii? Id. Prodrome, vol. ii, p. 189. 

A. testa injlatd, transversim costato-tubercidatd ; anfractibus quadratis ; costis nume- 
rosis, rectis, atate juniori ad dorsum quinque-tuberculatis, adultd simplicibus, continuis, 
bituberculatis ; dorso latissimo, utroque latere tuberculato. 

Shell inflated ; whorls nearly square, crossed by about sixteen thick, straight, equal 
ribs ; each rib starts from a large tubercle on the margin of the umbilicus, and bears 
another larger tubercle at the side of the back ; the very young shell has not been seen ; 
but at 4 inches diameter there are three tubercles on the dorsal part of each rib, between 
the two larger ones already mentioned ; at the diameter of 8 or 9 inches these three 
tubercles are lost in a strong straight rib crossing the back, and forming right angles at 
its continuation with the lateral ribs ; in the still older shell, of a foot in diameter, the 
ribs are less prominent, but the two tubercles at the sides of the back project 1| inch. 

Largest diameter, 1 foot ; width, 5 inches ; height of aperture, 4 inches. 

Common in the Grey Chalk of Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. 

This Ammonite is so closely related to A. Rhotomagensis, that it may perhaps be only 
a variety of that species. The principal differences are in the ribs of the old shells, which 
in A. Mhotomagensis become less and less distinct, till they finally disappear ; in A. Ceno- 
manensis grow very prominent and square, and finally run into large projecting horns. 
It appears to have been distinguished by M. D'Archiac and M. D'Orbigny indepen- 
dently. The latter author first confounded it with A. Woollgari, of Mantell, with which 
it has little in common ; but M. D'Archiac gave it the name which it must retain. 

23. Ammonites hippocastanum, Sowerbg. Plate XVII, figs. 2, 3, and 4. 

Ammonites hippocastanum, Sowerby. Mineral Conchology, t. 114, fig. 2. 

A. testa injlatd, costatd, spinoso-tuberculatd j anfractibus paucis, celeriier crescentibus, 
angulatis ■„ costis 12 — 20 valde inaqualibus, tuberculatis ; tuberculis 7 seriatis, inaqualibus ; 
lateralibus interdum spinosis : dorso lato, 5 tuberculato : umbilico parvo, prof undo : aper- 
turd transversim rhomboided. 

Shell gibbose, with few broad and angular whorls, which increase rapidly in size, 
ornamented with transverse, unequal ribs, and seven rows of large unequal tubercles : 

7 



38 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



when young, the ribs are about twelve in number, nearly equal, each bearing seven 
tubercles ; one large, close to the umbilicus ; another, very large and conical, near the 
side of the back ; and three on the back, which are smaller and compressed laterally : in 
the middle stage there is occasionally one small rib, bearing three or five tubercles, 
between the larger ones ; and in the adult shell there are usually two such smaller tuber- 
culated ribs between the principal ones, making about twenty ribs on the whorl, and the 
tubercles are very unequal in size : back very broad : umbilicus small and deep, exposing 
half the inner whorls : aperture transversely rhomboidal : septa with a very broad dorsal 
saddle, and two lateral lobes, of which the superior is bifid ; the other has not been well 
seen. 

Diameter, 2^ inches ; height of last whorl, 1 \ inch ; width of aperture, 1^ inch. 

Tolerably common in the Chalk with silicious grains of Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire ; 
and Chardstock, Somersetshire. 

Many of the Continental authors have united this species with A. Rhotomagensis, 
probably without having seen the shell, which appears to be confined to one bed in the 
West of England. When very young the two shells are nearly alike ; but A . Mppocastanum 
may be known by its greater breadth of whorl, and large lateral spines. As it increases 
in size, it is distinguished by the rapid enlargement of its whorls, great breadth, and great 
inequality of its ribs and tubercles ; while A. Rhotomagensis is, at all its stages, known by 
their uniformity. A. Cunningtoni has more affinity to A. Mppocastanum ; but not having 
seen the young state of that shell, I am unable to compare them thoroughly. 

24. Ammonites Goupilianus, D'Orbigng. Plate XVII, figs. 5, 6. 

Ammonites Goupilianus, TfOrhigny. Paluont. Franc;. Terr. CreU, t. xciv, figs. 1 — 3. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, carinatd, transversim undaio-costatd ; costis depressis, 
numerosis hicequalibus bicurvatis : dorso obiuso, carinato, producto : anfractibus tribus, ad 
umbilicum declivibus, sub-carinatis, deinde sab-sidcatis, compressis : umbilico mediocri : 
aperturd elongato-ovatd : septorum lobis lateralibus 6, trifidis. 

Shell discoidal, flattened on the sides, keeled ; ornamented with numerous unequal, 
flexuous ribs, which, rising from the raised edge of the umbilicus, incline forward for two 
fifths of the width of the whorl, then bend slightly backwards, and again bend forward 
near the back, and are produced forward at the keel, marking the outline of the mouth of 
the shell at its successive stages of growth ; a few of the ribs are stouter than the rest : 
umbilicus of moderate size, exposing about one fourth of the inner whorls, and bounded 
by nearly perpendicular walls : sides of the whorls depressed into a slight channel near the 
umbilicus : back obtuse, with a sharp keel, and projecting in a point over the oval mouth : 
septa with six trifid lateral lobes. In the youngest stage of growth seen, the larger ribs 



AMMONITES. 



39 



rise into a tubercle near the umbilicus, and also on each side of the back : the old shell is 
nearly smooth, with faintly marked obsolete ribs. 

Diameter, 3 inches; height of the last whorl, 1^ inch; width of aperture, 1 inch. 

From the Grey Chalk of Hamscy, near Lewes. The only specimen seen is in the 
British Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell. In France it has been found in the 
Grey Chalk near Saumur, and in the Upper Green Sand of Mondragon, near Orange. 
(I)' Orbigny, loc. cit., p. 319.) 

With some general resemblance to the variety mb-plana of A. varians, this species is 
distinguished from that and all the other known species of the Chalk by the depression of 
the sides of the whorl near the umbilicus, and the peculiar sigmoidal flexure of the ribs, 
in which characters it is related to A. serpentinus, Schloth., and several other species of 
the Lias and Lower Oolite. 

25. Ammonites Velled^e, Michelm. Plate XVII, fig. 7 ; and Plate XIX, -fig. 6. 

Ammonites Velled/e, Michelin. Magasin de Zoologie, t. xxxv. 

— — D' Orbigny. Paleont. Fran?. Terr. Cret., vol. i, t. lxxxii. 

— — Pictet and Roux. Foss. des Gres Vert des env. de Geneve, t. ii, fig. 1. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, transversim subtilissime costatd : anfractibus paucis i 
lateribus complanatis , dorso rotundatis : costis tenuibus, rectiusculis, numerosissimis, anfrac- 
tum totum amplectentibus : umbilico minimo : aperturd elongato-ovatd, septorum lobis late- 
ralibus trifidis. 

Shell discoidal compressed, with few whorls, flattened on the sides, and rounded at 
the back ; crossed by numerous fine, equal, thread-like ribs, which embrace the whole 
whorl : umbilicus very small :* aperture elliptical : lateral lobes of the septa trifid. 

Diameter, If inch; height of the last whorl, 1 inch; width of aperture, ^ inch. 

Found rarely in the Upper Chalk near Norwich, and in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, 
Isle of Wight. In France and Savoy it is found in beds of the age of the Gault, attaining 
a diameter of 7 inches. 

i 

26. Ammonites naviculars, Mantell. Plate XVIII, figs. 1 — 3, 5, 8. 

Ammonites navicularis, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. xxii, fig. 5. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Conch., 555, fig. 2. 

— — D' Orbigny. Prodrome, vol. ii, p. 146. 

— Gentoni, Brongniart. Env. de Paris, t. vi, fig. C. 

— Mantelli, V Orbigny. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. 103. 

— Milletianus, Dixon. Geol. of Sussex, t. xxix, fig. 15. 

* Owing to the specimen, pi. xvii, fig. /, consisting of very soft Chalk, the umbilicus has been too 
much excavated, and is represented too large. 



40 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



A. testa inflatd, costatd, interdum tuberculoid : anfractibus rotundatis : costis rectis, 
sitnplicibus, inaqualibus, ad dorsum continuis ; junior ibus tuber culatis ; adultis angulatis, 
vel rotundatis : dorso rotundato, transversim costato , junior e trituberculato : umbilico parvo, 
■prof undo : aperturd semi-ellipticd septorum lobis lateralibus, primo incequaliter bifido, 
cateris trifidis : variat angulis, tuberculisque costalibus plus, minusve conspicuis. 

Shell inflated, with few rounded or angular whorls, crossed by numerous strong, 
unequal ribs : back round, or angular at the sides : umbilicus small and deep, with 
half the inner whorls visible : ribs alternately longer and shorter ; the longer ribs 
commence from a tubercle at the edge of the umbilicus, and sometimes bear a second 
tubercle on each side of the whorl ; the shorter ribs rise on the side of the whorl, nearer 
to the umbilicus than to the back ; all the ribs cross the back : in young shells there are 
three tubercles on the dorsal part of each rib, which give a slight angularity to the back 
and to the mouth ; in older shells the rib is strong and prominent over the back, without 
any tubercles, and the back and the mouth are rounded : the superior lateral lobe of the 
septa is unequally bifid, the two others are trifid ; only two lateral lobes are visible on the 
side of the whorl, the second auxiliary lateral lobe being on the slope of the umbilicus. 

Diameter, 4^ inches ; height of last whorl, 2 inches ; width of aperture, 2 inches. 

Common in the Lower Chalk of the South of England. 

This species was first described by Dr. Man tell from a very imperfect specimen, but 
was afterwards admirably figured in the ' Mineral Conchology / nevertheless it was united 
to A. Mantelli by D'Orbigny, Broun, and other Continental writers. They are, however, 
to be distinguished when young by the row of tubercles on the middle of the back of 
A. navicularis, and when old by the ribs of that species continuing elevated over the 
middle of the back ; while in A. Mantelli there is a depression on the middle of the back 
at all periods of its growth. A. Mantelli is usually flatter, more angular, and more 
tuberculated than A. navicularis, but there are varieties which differ in these respects. 
The species are both found in the Lower Chalk ; but I have seen no specimens of A. navi- 
cularis from the Upper Green Sand. In the ' Prodrome de Paleontologie,' M. D'Orbigny 
has again separated the two species. 

A. Gentoni of Defrance and Brongniart, is the young of A. navicularis, in the con- 
dition of my figure 5 c. 

A. Milletianus of Dixon (not of D'Orbigny), is one of the many forms of this species, 
nearly the same as my figure 5. 

27. Ammonites Mantelli, Soiuerby. Plate XVIII, figs. 4 — 7. 

Ammonites Mantelli, Sowerly. Min. Conch., t. lv. 

— — Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. xxi, fig. 9 ; t. xxii, fig. 1 . 

— — D'Orbigny. Paleont. Fran?. Terr. Cret., t. 104, figs. 1 and 2. (Not 

t. 103.) 

— — Id. Prodrome, vol. ii, p. 146. 



AMMONITES. 



41 



A. testa discoided, costatd, tuberculald : anfractibus angulatis : costis simplicibus, recti- 
usculis, inaqualibus ; ad dorsum subcontinuis vel obsoletis, bituberculatis ; ad laterd \, 2, 
vel 3 tuberculatis : dorso angulalo, medio depresso : umb'dico parviusculo : aperturd rhom- 
boided: septorum lobis later alibus, primo incequaliter bifido, ceteris trifidis. 

Var. A. Anfractibus tumidis : aperturd octangulari ; costis rectis, majoribus 8 tubercu- 
latis, minoribus 6 tuberculatis ; tuberculis spinosis. 

Var. B. Anfractibus compressis : aperturd angulato-ovali : costis subjlexuosis .- tuberculis 
dorsalibus conspicuis, cateris obsoletis. 

Shell discoidal, with twenty to twenty-five tuberculated ribs, alternately long and 
short : whorls angular, depressed or tumid : ribs simple and usually straight, the longer 
ones commencing at a tubercle at the edge of the umbilicus, the shorter below the middle 
of the whorl, and all continuing across the back, with a depression in the middle of the 
back : tubercles varying from four to eight rows, of which the umbilical and dorsal rows 
are always present, the lateral rows being either well or faintly marked, or altogether 
absent : back depressed in the middle, with a row of tubercles on each side : umbilicus 
small and deep, allowing half the inner whorls to be seen : aperture rhomboidal : septa 
with three lateral lobes, the first unequally bifid, the others trifid. 

Var. A. Whorls tumid : aperture octangular : ribs straight, with eight rows of large 
tubercles. 

Far. B. Whorls flattened : aperture nearly oval : ribs slightly flexuous : dorsal tubercles 
distinct, the others nearly obsolete. 

Diameter, 3 inches; height of last whorl, 1| to 1^ inch; width of aperture, 1| to If 
inch, according to the variety. 

Found in the Lower Chalk and the Upper Green Sand of the South of England, and 
in beds of the same age throughout France. 

The distinction between this species and A. navicularis will be found after the descrip- 
tion of that species. 



28. Ammonites Renauxianus, D'Orbigny. Plate XIX, fig. 2. 

Ammonites Renauxianus, TfOrbigny. Paleont. Franc;. Terr. Cret., t. xxvii. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, tuberculato-costatd : costis bi- vel tri-f dis, flexuosis, bi- 
tuberculatis, ad dorsum sub -inter ruptis : dorso bituberculato ; juniore transversim sub-costato ; 
adulto sub-carinato : umbilico mediocri : aperturd truncato-elliplicd. 

Shell discoidal, compressed, with few whorls, ribbed and tuberculated : ribs, about 
fifteen, bifid or trifid, each springing from a large tubercle near the edge of the umbilicus, 
and dividing into two or three flexuous branches, each of which bears another tubercle at 
the edge of the back : in young shells the ribs are faintly continued across the back ; but 



12 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



in older specimens they end at the side of the back, and there is a slightly elevated ridge 
along the middle of the back, with a row of tubercles on each side ; these dorsal tubercles 
are elongated transversely in the direction of the rib's : umbilicus shallow, leaving nearly 
half of the inner whorls visible : aperture nearly elliptical. 

Diameter of the figured specimen from the Grey Chalk, l T 3 7 inch; height of the last 
whorl, T 6 7 inch; width of aperture, T 4 F inch. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight. It is also found in the Upper 
Green Sand, near Dorking, where it attains a diameter of 4 inches. In France it has 
been found in the lower part of the "Craie Chloritee." 

Not having seen the young stage of any specimens of A. Benauxianus found in the 
Upper Green Sand, it is with some hesitation that I unite to that species these small 
shells found in the Lower Chalk. On a side view, they closely resemble A. varians, from 
which they differ in the form of the back, which never rises into a decided keel as in that 
species. The dorsal tubercles are also different, as they slope with the rib ; while in A. 
varians they are compressed transversely to the rib, and parallel to the keel. 



29. Ammonites octo-sulcatus, Sharpe. Plate XIX, fig. 3. 

A. testa discoided : anfractibus complanatis ; dorso rotundatis, subtrilissime costatiS' 
sulcis 8 transversis, rectiusculis, impressis ; costis numerosis, brevibus, dorsum ampledentibus : 
umbilieo mediocri .- aperturd semi-ovatd. 

Shell discoidal ; with few whorls, flattened on the sides, and rounded on the back, 
crossed by eight deep, very slightly flexuous furrows, between which are many short, 
delicate ribs bending forward, and well defined on the back, fading away in the middle of 
the sides of the whorl : umbilicus rather small, leaving a fourth of the inner whorls visible : 
aperture semi-oval. 

Diameter, 1 inch ; width of aperture, § inch ; height of last whorl, T 4 ff inch. 

Found in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, in the Isle of Wight, and in the Chalk with 
silicious grains, of Chardstock. 

This species is nearly allied to A. plamdatus and A. Mayorianus, of the Lower Chalk, 
and to A. Guettardi of the Neocomian of the South of France. It differs from the first 
two in having the constrictions more numerous, and the inner whorls more concealed ; 
and from the last, in having the furrows straighter, and projecting more forward, a rather 
larger umbilicus, and flatter sides to the whorl. Unfortunately the septa have not been 
seen. A. Belus, D'Orbigny, has a similar form and ornaments, but the furrows incline 
backwards on crossing the back ; while in all the other species just mentioned, they project 
forwards at the middle of the back. 



AMMONITES. 



43 



30. Ammonites Icenicus, Sharpc. Plate XIX, fig. 4. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, Icevi, inornatd : anfractibus paucis : umbilico mediocrt . 
dorso rotundato : aperturd ovatd : septorum lobis later alibus, primo trifido, cateris incs- 
qualiter bifdis. 

Shell discoidal, smooth ; with few whorls, flattened on the sides, and rounded on the 
back : umbilicus of middling size, allowing two fifths of the inner whorls to be seen ; 
aperture ovate : septa with four lateral lobes, the first trifid, the others unequally bifid. 

Diameter, 2 inches ; height of last whorl, 1 inch ; width of aperture, | inch. 

Rare in the Upper Chalk near Norwich. 

The Ammonite here described has few characters by which it can be distinguished, and 
may perhaps prove to be only a young shell. But the Upper Chalk contains so few 
Ammonites, that it is desirable to place on record all that are known. It belongs to the 
same group as A. Lewesiensis. 



31. Ammonites Deverianus, D'Orbigny. Plate XIX, fig. 5. 

Ammonites Deverianus, TfOrbigmj. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. Ill, figs. I and 2. 

A. testa itiflatd, transversim tuberculato-costatd : anfractibus paucis, lateribus com- 
pressis, dorso rotundatis : costis incequalibus, simplicibus vel bifurcatis, 9 tuberculatis i aper- 
turd quadrato-rotundatd : umbilico mat/no. 

Shell discoidal ; with few whorls, flattened on the sides, and rounded at the back, 
crossed by numerous tuberculated ribs, which are continued over the back : about half the 
ribs commence at a tubercle on the edge of the umbilicus, and are either simple or bifur- 
cating ; between these there is often a shorter rib, commencing on the middle of the side 
of the whorl ; all are equal on the back : tubercles large and round, in nine rows ; viz., 
three on each side, and three on the back ; the dorsal rows containing about twice as many 
as the umbilical row : umbilicus very large, leaving nearly two thirds of the inner whorls 
visible : aperture nearly square, with the corners rounded off. 

Diameter, 4 inches ; height of last whorl, If inch; width of aperture, If inch. 

From the Grey Chalk of Sussex. The only specimen seen is in the British Museum, 
from the collection of F. Dixon, Esq. It has been found in France in the " Craie Chlo- 
ritee " of Uchaux. 

This species is readily distinguished from all others by the number and position of the 
tubercles. 



44 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



32. Ammonites rusticus, Sowerby. Plate XX, fig. 1. 

Ammonites rusticus, Sowerby. Min. Conch-, t. 177. 

— — D'Orbiyny. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. Ill, figs. 1 and 2. 

A. testa discoided, tuberculatd : anfractibus paucis, rotundatis : tuberculis 4 seriatis ; 
2 lateralibus distantibus, maximis, conicis ; 2 dorsalibus minor ibus, depressis, numerosis : 
umbilico maximo : dorso rotundato, medio piano. 

Shell discoidal, tuberculated, with few rounded whorls : umbilicus very large, rounded 
at the sides, exposing three fourths of the inner whorls : tubercles in four rows, viz., one on 
each side of the whorl, a little above the middle, of ten or twelve very large, conical 
tubercles ; and two on the back, of about twenty-four smaller, rounded, depressed tuber- 
cles : aperture nearly round. 

Diameter, 6 inches ; height of last whorl, 2^ inches ; width of aperture, 2 inches. 

A very rare shell, found in the Lower Chalk near Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire. 

33. Ammonites Renevieri, S/iarpe. Plate XX, fig. 2. 

A. testa discoided, compressd : umbilico parvo : aperturd truncato-hastatd : septorum 
lobis lateralibus tribus trifidis : (state juniore, undato-costatd, tuber culatd ; tuberculis 4 
seriatis, ad umbilicum paucis, majoribus, dorsum versus elongatis, numerosis ; dorso subcari- 
nato ; adultd omnino Icevi, dorso rotundato. 

Shell discoidal, with few flat whorls : umbilicus small, leaving half the inner whorls 
visible : mouth truncato-hastate : septa with three trifid lateral lobes : at the diameter of 
four inches, as in the specimen figured, the whorls have their sides ornamented with about 
ten ribs, each springing from a round tubercle at the edge of the umbilicus, reaching across 
half the width of the whorl, and then changing to a flattened undulation, which ends at 
the side of the back in a tubercle, elongated in the direction of the whorl ; alternating with 
these ribs are similar flattened undulations, ending in similar tubercles : back faintly 
keeled in the middle : in older specimens the sides are quite smooth, and the back 
rounded. 

Diameter, 6| inches ; height of last whorl, 3^ inches , width of aperture, 2 inches. 

Found in the Grey Chalk near Bonchurch, Isle of Wight, and near Devizes. 

This species has probably been overlooked from its resemblance to some of the forms 
of A. varians, from which it is to be distinguished by straighter and more simple ribbing, 
and by the septa, which have the dorsal saddle divided into three parts, in a manner which 
rarely occurs in this genus. I have named the species after M. E. Renevier, whose labours 
among the Cretaceous Rocks of Switzerland deserve our warmest thanks, and who has 
lately visited this country with the view of helping to bring into harmony the synonymy 
of the Cretaceous Fossils of England and the Continent. 



AMMONITES. 



45 



34. Ammonites Saxbii, Sharpe. Plate XX, fig. 3. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, tuber cidato-costatd .- anfractibus paucis, complanatis, an- 
gulatis : dorso piano, bi-tuberculato : costis rectis 8 — 10 major ibus tri-tubercidatis, 20 mi- 
noribus bi-tuberculatis • aperturd rhomboided •• septorum lobis later alibus bifidis. 

Shell discoidal, compressed ; whorls few, flattened on the sides : back flat, with angular 
edges, and a row of tubercles on each side : ribs about thirty, straight, of which eight or 
ten rise from a tubercle on the edge of the umbilicus, and the others begin on the middle 
of the side of the whorl ; all ending in a large tubercle at the side of the back, and also 
bearing a smaller tubercle before reaching the back ; there being either two or three of the 
smaller ribs between every two longer ones : aperture rhomboidal : umbilicus small, 
bounded by steep sides, and allowing two thirds of the inner whorls to be seen : lateral 
lobes of the septa bifid. 

Diameter, 1 inch; height of the last whorl, ^ inch; width of the aperture, f inch. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 

A pretty little shell, readily distinguished from all the varieties of A. varians by its 
straight ribs and want of keel. It is named after S. Saxby, jun., Esq., who has rendered 
me much assistance in collecting together the fossil species of the Chalk of the Isle of 
Wight. 



35. Ammonites Vectensis, Sharpe. Plate XX, fig. 4. 

A. testa discoided: anfractibus, lateribus compressis, dorso rotundatis, transversim 
costatis: costis inaqualibus, flexuosis, supra dorsum continuis: umbilico mediocri ; aperturd 
ovali. 

Shell discoidal, with few whorls, which are flattened on the sides, rounded at the back, 
and crossed by about twenty flexuous, slightly elevated ribs ; the ribs commence at the 
edge of the umbilicus, and slope forward to the middle of the side of the whorl, where 
they bend backwards a little way, and then again slope forwards over the back ; besides 
these there are about ten shorter ribs occasionally inserted between the former, which only 
begin on the middle of the side, and equally cross over the back : umbilicus of moderate 
size, leaving more than half the inner whorls exposed : aperture oval : septa not seen. 

Diameter, 2£ inch ; height of last whorl, 1 inch ; width of aperture, § inch. 

Only one imperfect specimen has been seen, which was found in the Chloritic Marl, 
near Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 

This species is related to A. consobrinus, D'Orbigny, and A. ductus, Sowerby, but is not 
in danger of being confounded with either. It is also related to A. undatus, Sowerby ; but 

8 



46 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



I find it impossible to compare them properly, for the original specimen of A. undatus 
which Mr. J. de C. Sowerby has had the kindness to lend me, is so much crushed, that its 
real characters cannot be distinguished; and that name had better be omitted from our 
lists. 

36. Ammonites Lewesiensis, Mantell. Plate XXI, fig. 1. 

Ammonites Lewesiensis, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. 22, fig. 2. 

— — VOrbigny. Paleont. Franc. Ters. Cret., t. 102, figs. 1, 2? note 

t. 101. 

A. testa subinjtatd : anfractibus rotundatis, later aliter sub-compressis, undato-costatis ; 
dorso loevi rotundato : umbilico parvo : aperturd ovatd : septorium lobis lateralibus 4 
inequaliter trijidis. 

Shell inflated : whorls few, with their sides a little flattened, and crossed by about 
twelve broad, radiating undulations, or indistinct ribs, which commence at the edge of the 
umbilicus, and die out before reaching the rounded, plain back : umbilicus rather small, 
with steep sides, allowing above one third of the inner whorls to be seen : aperture oval ; 
septa with four unequally trifid lateral lobes, and a very narrow dorsal lobe. 

The young shell differs little from the adult ; it has the same plain, round back, but 
the undulations are hardly visible till it has reached a diameter of 4 to 6 inches : in very 
old shells, of 2 feet in diameter, the outer whorl becomes quite smooth. 

This is one of the largest species of Ammonite found in the Chalk, sometimes 
exceeding two feet in diameter : the dimensions of the specimen figured are — diameter, 
16 inches ; height of the last whorl, 6 inches ; width of the opening, 5 inches. 

Rather rare in the Grey Chalk near Lewes and Dover. 

Three species have been published under the name of A. Lewesiensis by Mantell, 
Sowerby, and D'Orbigny. The description and figure given by the first are so imperfect 
as to have made me almost despair of ascertaining what it represented, until Mr. Woodward 
discovered Dr. Mantell's original specimen in the vaults of the British Museum. The 
specimen is very imperfect, a part of the back on the younger side of the whorl being 
worn off, and the whole being so much crushed as to reduce the size of the umbilicus 
considerably, and to render the whorls flatter, and the back less round, than in perfect 
specimens : nevertheless it is sufficient to enable us to recognise the species with certainty. 

A. Leioesiensis, when full grown, much resembles A. peramplus ; but it is flatter, and 
the undulations are continued all across the side of the whorl, instead of stopping in the 
middle of its side, as in A. peramplus. The young shells of the two species have no 
resemblance, A. Lewesiensis being nearly smooth, and the other ornamented with nume- 
rous ribs, which cross over the back. The form of the lateral lobes of the septa is nearly 
the same in the two species ; but in A. Lewesiensis the dorsal lobe is very narrow, while 



AMMONITES. 



47 



in A. peramplas the dorsal lobe is broad, and the superior lateral lobe thrown in conse- 
quence farther from the middle of the back. 

The A. Lewesiensis of the Mineral Conchology (my A. leptophyllui) has flatter whorls, 
a narrower aperture, more distinct ribs, an impressed line along the middle of the back, 
and the lateral lobes of the septa branching into most complicated subdivisions, in strong 
contrast with those of the true A. Lewesiensis. Hitherto it has only been found in the 
Upper Chalk. 

M. D'Orbigny's shell has no resemblance whatever to the A. Lewesiensis of Mantell, 
and very little to that of Sowerby. It is readily distinguished by a series of numerous 
short ribs, which, commencing outside the middle of the whorl, are continued towards the 
middle of the back, where they are suddenly interrupted by an impressed line : the septa 
are as minutely subdivided as in A. leptopkyllns, but the lateral lobes are straight and 
regularly trifid. It is stated in the ' Paleont. Franc./ that this species is found in France, 
in the Lower Chalk : here I have only received it from the North of Ireland, from a bed 
which I suspect to belong to the Upper Chalk. In the ' Prodrome de Paleontologie,' 
p. 212, M. D'Orbigny, has named this species A. GoUevillensis, having learned that it 
differs from the A. Lewesiensis of Sowerby, and he removes its habitat from the Terrain 
Turonien, or Grey Chalk, wherein he quoted it in the ' Paleontologie Francaise/ to the 
Terrain Senonien, or White Chalk. 

M. d'Archiac, in his ' Histoire du Progres de la Geologie,' quotes A. Leivesiensis as 
peculiar to the Lower Chalk of France ; but I do not know to which of the three species 
here mentioned he alludes. 

37. Ammonites Wiestii, Sharpe. Plate XXI, fig. 3. 

A. testa discoided, costatd : anfractibus paitcis injtatis : costis 24 — 30 prominentibus, 
incequalibus : dorso rotundato, costato : umbilico parviusculo, prof undo ; aperturd semi- 
ovatd. 

Shell discoidal, with few inflated whorls, ornamented with twenty-four to thirty strong, 
rounded ribs of unequal length, of which ten rise near the edge of the umbilicus, and the 
rest near the middle of the side of the whorl, and all are continued across the broad, 
rounded back, where they incline a little backwards : umbilicus deep and rather small, 
allowing half of the inner whorls to be seen : opening semi-ovate : the lobes of the septa 
have not been seen. 

Diameter, 2f inches ; height of the last whorl, \\ inch ; width of the opening, \\ inch. 

Very rare in the Chalk with silicious grains, Chardstock, Somersetshire. 

I have seen only one specimen of this elegant Ammonite, which I have named after its 
discoverer, J. Wiest, Esq., of Chardstock, from whom I have received great assistance in 
the preparation of this work. 



48 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



38. Ammonites leptophyllus, Sharpe. Plate XXI, fig. 2, and Plate XXII, fig. 1. 

Ammonites Lewesiensis, Sowerby. Mineral Conchology, t. 358. 

— — D'Orbigny. Prodrome de Paleontologie, vol. ii, p. 189. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, undulato-costatd : anfractibus lateraliter costatis, dorso 
lavibus : costis numerosis, paulum elevatis : dorso rotundato Icevi, lined angusta impresso ; 
umbilico parvo : aperturd elevato-ettipticd : septorum lobis lateralibus ramosissimis, ramis 
irregulariter alternantibus. 

Sbell discoidal, flattened at the sides, rounded at the back ■ sides of the whorls crossed 
by numerous radiating undulations, or low, broad ribs, which commence at the umbilicus, 
and die out before they reach the back : umbilicus small, bounded by steep sides, allowing 
more than half the inner whorls to be seen : back smooth and rounded, marked with a 
narrow, impressed line : opening high and narrow : lobes of the septa much subdivided ; 
the superior lateral lobe very large, with numerous irregularly alternate branches, ending 
in long, pointed digits. In very old specimens the undulations are very faint, and 
gradually disappear. 

This species reaches a diameter of more than 2^ feet. The proportions of the specimen 
figured are — diameter, 12 inches; height of the last whorl, 5 inches; width of the 
aperture, 3 inches. 

Found in the Upper Chalk of Brighton, Ramsgate, Greenhithe, &c. ; but, from the 
softness of the chalk in which it occurs, it is very seldom met with in good preservation. 

This is not the species originally named by Dr. Mantell A. Lewesiensis, nor is it the 
species published under that name by M. D'Orbigny in the ' Paleontologie Francaise,' 
which is now called A. Gollevillensis ; but in his ' Prodrome de Paleontologie/ that author 
has so far corrected himself as to separate the last-named species from the one here 
described. 

As there have thus been three species passing under the name of A. Lewesiensis, it is 
impossible to know what is meant when this name is cited in geological works ; a com- 
parison of the three species is given, after the description of A. Lewesiensis. 



39. Ammonites Gollevillensis, D 'Orb. Plate XVII, fig. 2. 

Ammonites Lewesiensis, D'Orbigny. Pale'ont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. 101. 

— — Id. Prodrome de Paleontologie, vol. ii, p. 212. 

A. testa discoided, compressd, costatd: anfractibus lateraliter Imvibus, dorso costatis: 
costis brevibus, numerosis, aqualibus, ad dorsum interruptis : dorso rotundato, costato, lined 



AMMONITES. 



49 



angustd, castas interrumpente, impresso : umbilico parviusculo : aperturd ovatd ; septum 
lobis later alibus trifidis raruosissimis. 

Shell discoidal, whorls smooth and flattened on the sides, and ribbed on each side of 
the rounded back ; ribs short, numerous, and equal, commencing beyond the middle of 
the side of the whorl, and suddenly interrupted at the middle of the back by a narrow, 
impressed line : umbilicus rather small, allowing about one third of the inner whorls to be 
seen : aperture oval : septa very numerous, with minutely subdivided lobes ; lateral lobes 
trifid, with regularly opposite branches. 

Diameter, 1^ inch; height of the last whorl, 2 inches; width of the aperture, 
\\ inch. 

Rare in the hard Chalk of the county of Londonderry, which is supposed to be of the 
age of the Upper Chalk of England. 

This species is closely related to A. Old/iami, from which it is distinguished by its 
short ribs, nearly confined to the back, and its smooth sides. In the ' Paleontologie 
Francaise,' M. D'Orbigny confounded this Ammonite with Sowerby's A. Lewesiensis 
{A. leptophjllus, Sharpe), and quoted it from the upper beds of the " Craie Chloritee," or 
on the level of our Grey Chalk. In his 'Prodrome' he separates it from that species, 
and considers the beds in which it is found as part of the Upper Chalk. 

It is difficult to understand how two such different species could ever have been con- 
founded, as the only character common to both is the impressed dorsal line. The lobes 
of the septa of both are much subdivided, with spiked terminal digits, but in A. Gollevil- 
lensis they are trifid, with opposite and extremely regular branches. In A. leptophyllus 
they bifurcate several times with very unequal alternating branches, and great irregularity. 



40. Ammonites curvatus, Mantell. Plate VII, figs. 8, 9 ; Plate XXIII, fig. ] . 

Ammonites curvatus, Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, p. 1 18, t. 21, fig. 18. 

— — Sowerby. Min. Conch., t. 5/9, fig. 2. 

— falcatus? Pictet and Roux. Gres Verts des Env. de Geneve, t. 5, fig. 5. 

A. testa discoided, sub-compressd, tub erculatd, pier umque costatd ; anfractibus paucis 
sub-a7igulatis, lateribus depressis, tuberculatis ; dorso canaliculate-, utrinque bituberculato : 
costis bicurvatis variautibus ; interdum paucis, latis, depressis; inter dum ad umbilicum 
numerosis, dorsum versus paucis, latisque ; scepe omnino obsoletis: tuberculis utrinque tri- 
serialibus, ad umbilicum simplicibus, prope dorsum binis : umbilico parvo : aperturd rho in- 
folded : septorum lobis later alibus tribus trifidis. 

Shell discoidal, flattened on the sides and back, with very few nearly rhomboidai 
whorls ; strongly tuberculated, and frequently ribbed : back with two rows of tubercles on 



50 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



each side, and a hollow canal in the middle : ribs falcate, very variable in number and 
size, and, rising from tubercles on the edge of the umbilicus, they extend forward to the 
middle of the side of the whorl, then suddenly turn backward, and again curve forward 
to the dorsal tubercles ; sometimes they are five in number, broad and depressed ; in 
other specimens they are small and numerous on the inner half, and broad and few on 
the outer half of the whorl; frequently they are well marked on young shells, and 
gradually disappear with age ; and in many specimens they are altogether wanting : three 
rows of tubercles on each side of the whorl, one at the edge of the umbilicus, and two 
near the edge of the back ; the umbilical tubercles vary both in size and number ; when 
there are no ribs, the tubercles are few in number, and very large ; but they diminish in 
size, and increase in number, in proportion to the development of the ribs ; the dorsal 
tubercles are usually large, but they vary in number from 15 to 30, being fewest and 
largest where there are no ribs : umbilicus small and deep, allowing about one third of the 
inner whorls to be seen : aperture rhomboidal : septa with three trifid lateral lobes on 
each side. 

Diameter, 1^ inch ; height of last whorl, J- inch ; width of aperture, \ to § inch. 

Found abundantly in the Chloritic Marl of the Isle of Wight ; the Chalk with 
silicious grains at Chardstock, Somersetshire ; and the junction bed of the Chalk and 
Upper Green Sand, near Warminster. 

In the first part of this Memoir, I followed M. D'Orbigny "and most other modern 
palaeontologists in uniting together the Ammonites falcaius and curvatns of Mantell and 
Sovverby ; but, as better materials have appeared, I have been obliged to separate them 
again. Both are most variable species, and there are varieties which can only be distin- 
guished with difficulty. The only invariable distinction which I have found between them 
is in the termination of the superior lateral lobe, which is trifid in A. curvatns and bifid in 
A. falcatus ; see PI. XXIII, figs. 1 c and 2. In comparing the external forms, it will be 
found that the more tuberculated varieties all belong to A. curvatus, the flatter, ribbed 
varieties to A. falcatus ; but there are intermediate forms combining falcate ribs with 
dorsal tubercles, which can hardly be distinguished without the aid of the lateral lobe. 



41. Ammonites Salteri, Sharpe. Plate XXIII, figs. 3 and 5. 

A. testa discoided, cost aid, tuber cidatd : costis ter-natis jlexuosis, bi-tuberculatis, ad 
dorsum interruptis : dorso utrinque tuberculato, tubercidis alternantibus : umbilico parvo : 
aperturd oblongd : septorum lobo dorsali longissimo. 

Shell discoidal, with few whorls, ornamented with ribs and tubercles on their sides : 
back plain, and slightly elevated in the middle, with a row of tubercles on each side ; these 



AMMONITES. 



51 



are not opposite to one another, but alternate : ribs flexuous, rising in threes from twelve 
large tubercles which surround the umbilicus, forming an irregular zigzag pattern on the 
side of the whorl, and ending at twenty-four rather smaller tubercles on the side of the 
back : two rows of tubercles on each side of the shell : umbilicus small, allowing about 
one third of the inner whorls to be seen : aperture oblong : septa with the dorsal lobe 
considerably longer than the trifid superior lateral lobe. 

Found by Mr. Wiest, in the Chalk with silicious grains, at Chardstock, Somersetshire. 



42. Ammonites Ramsayanus, Sharpe. Plate XXIII, fig. 4a — c. 

A. testa discoided, costatd, tuberculatd anfradibus paucis, sub-compressis ; costis 
continuis, bi-tuberculatis, ad dorsum bifurcantibus : dorso lato, rotundato, costato, utrinque 
tuberculato : umbilico parvo : aperturd oblongd. 

Shell discoidal, with few, slightly flattened whorls, and a broad, rounded back : the 
whorls are ornamented on the sides by twenty ribs, each of which rise from a small tubercle 
at the edge of the umbilicus, and bear another larger tubercle near the back ; at the latter 
tubercle each rib divides into two smaller ribs, which continue across the back, and unite 
again at the corresponding tubercle on the other side of the back : umbilicus small, 
allowing nearly half of the inner whorls to be seen : aperture oblong : the septa have not 
been seen. 

Diameter, 1^ inch ; height of the last whorl, -| inch ; width of the aperture, \ inch. 

Very rare in the Chalk with silicious grains, at Chardstock, Somersetshire. 

The only specimen which has been seen of this species is deformed, owing, without 
doubt, to an accident met with when very young. In consequence of this malformation, 
the two sides have very little resemblance to each other ; and the specific character given 
above may prove incorrect when more perfect specimens are met with. 

A. Ramsayanus belongs to the group of the Coronarii, which, for the most part, belong 
to the lower and middle divisions of the Oolitic series : its nearest congeners are perhaps 
A. Humphriesianus and A. BracJcenridgii. It is the second species of that group which 
has been found in the Chalk ; A. catinus having been the first. 

This species is named after Professor Ramsay, of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain. 



43. Ammonites Feraudianus, D'Orb. Plate XXIII, fig. 6a — c. 

[" A. testa compressd, transversim costatd : costis intequalibus, red is ; dorso complanato, 



52 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



lateraliter angulato, anfractibus compressis, sub -quadr Hater alibus, ultimo ; aperturd 
oblongd, antice truncatd." — D'Orbigng, 'Terr. Cret.,' t. i, p. 324. 

The species thus described by M. D'Orbigny, in 1840, was said to have been dis- 
covered by M. Emeric in the " Craie Chloritees " at Vergons, Basses- Alpes ; but in a 
later work, the ' Prodrome de Paleontologie,' t. ii, p. 98, it is referred to the " Neocomien 
superieur ou Urgonien." 

The specimen figured in Plate XXIII, fig. 6, was obtained by Mr. Sharpe from the 
Grey Chalk at Ventnor, in the Isle of Wight, and named by him " Feraudianus " but as 
no memorandum exists to support this identification, it might possibly have been changed, 
as it rests upon a single, crushed, and immature specimen.] 



44. Ammonites Bravaisianus, D 'Orb. Plate XXIII, figs. 7 a, b, 8, and 9. 

Ammonites Bkavaisianus, UOrbigny. Paleontologie Francaise, Terrains Cretaces, t. 91, 

figs. 3 and 4. 

A. testa compressd, carinatd, costatd: costis inaqualibns, simplicibus vel bifurcatis, 
dorsum versus bituberculatis, interruptis -. dorso carinato ; carina elevatd, acuta : umbilico 
magno .- aperturd oblongd. 

Shell discoidal, with few depressed whorls, which are ornamented by about thirty 
transverse, slightly flexuous ribs : back keeled : the ribs are unequal, either simple and 
alternately long and short, or occasionally branching in pairs from the edge of the 
umbilicus ; each rib terminates at the side of the back, where it is ornamented with two 
smaller tubercles : keel distinct, sharp, and elevated : umbilicus large, allowing two thirds 
of the inner whorls to be seen : aperture oblong. 

Diameter, 1 inch ; height of last whorl, f inch ; width of aperture, \ inch. 

Found in a hard bed of the Middle Chalk, near Dover. In France it has been found 
in the Upper Green Sand of the department of Vaucluse. 

This pretty little Ammonite has some resemblance to A. varians, from which it is at 
once distinguished by the pair of tubercles at the termination of each rib. Moreover, its 
ribs are simpler than in that species, and never fork on the middle of the side of the whorl. 
As yet A. Bravaisianus has only been found in this country in one bed of rather hard 
Chalk, which occurs near the bottom of the Chalk with Flints, and contains A. peramplus, 
Scaphites, and several other species of Mollusca hitherto undescribed, and only known in 
that bed. 



AMMONITES. 



53 



45. Ammonites Wiltonensis, Sharpe. Plate XXIII, fig. 10 a — c. 

\_A. testa compressd, transversim costatd, costis parvis, numerosis, obtusis, inaqualibus ; 
aperturd elongaid, antice rotundatd ; umbilico parvo. Lat. maj., 13 ; inin., 11 ; alt., G lines. 

This figure is taken from a small Ammonite in hard, gritty Chalk, with green stains, 
stated to have been found near Devizes, by Mr. W. Cunnington. The form is unusual 
in the Chalk ; the ribs are simple, and sub-equal on the back of the shell, but many 
become obsolete on the sides, the remainder becoming stronger at the umbilicus ; the 
sutural lobes are few and rather simple.] 



46. Ammonites Jukesii, Sharpe. Plate XXIII, fig. 11 a — e. 

\A. testa discoided, late umbilicatd, transversim costatd; costis numerosis, acutis ; an- 
fractibus sub-compressis, interdum constrictis ; aperturd ovatd. 

This specimen figured is the fragment of an Ammonite which, when perfect, probably 
measured 5 or 6 inches in diameter ; it consists of about one third of the external volution 
and portions of two inner whorls, which have been detached, and represented separately 
(fig. 11 b, c). The curvature of the ribs is convex towards the aperture; but the figures 
are not only reversed, but placed upside down. The outer whorl shows one of the 
periodic constrictions, and another is seen on the inner whorl when detached, and also a 
more prominent rib on the posterior side of the constriction. 

Ammonites Jukesii was discovered by Colonel Portlock, R.E., in the hard Chalk of the 
county of Londonderry.] 



Genus — Aptychus, H. Von Meyer. 1821.* 

The operculum [or calcarious plates presumed to have closed the aperture] of certain 
species of Ammonites, of which there are three forms distinguished by Voltz : 

1. Cornei, consisting of a single horny plate, of a semi-circular, semi-elliptic, or 
truncato- ovate form, marked by concentric wrinkles, with a semi-circular notch on the 
middle of the straight side. 

2. Imbricati, consisting of a pair of equal plates, each a quarter of a circle, or quarter 



* The name Trigonellites, given by Parkinson, who described and figured several forms in 1811 ('Org. 
Rem.,' hi, 18-1), ought to have been employed. Meyer added nothing to our knowledge respecting them. 

9 



54 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



of an ellipse, in form, marked on one or both sides by strong concentric lines or wrinkles, 
produced by the imbricated growth of the shell ; each plate has a fold along its straight 
side, the fold of one plate lapping over that of the other : the plates usually thin. 

3. Cellulosi, consisting of a pair of plates, similar in form to those of the Imbricati, 
and meeting in the same manner, but thick, and with the convex side cellular in structure. 

Few organic remains have given rise to more different opinions than these curious 
bodies. [Professor Quenstedt regards them as the opercula of Ammonites, a view which 
has been generally adopted in Germany. See Woodward's 'Manual,' 1851, p. 80, and 
Owen's 'Lectures on the Invertebrata,' 2d edit., 1855, p. 596. In Part I, p. 19, of this 
Monograph, the concave side of the Aptychus is incorrectly stated to have been external 
instead of the convex side.] 

All the Aptychi yet found in the Chalk belong to the group of the Imbricati ; they 
have all very thin shells, owing to which they are seldom found perfect ; and they are all 
from the Upper or Middle Chalk.* As there is now little doubt that these bodies really 
belong to some part of Ammonites, I have endeavoured to assign them to their respective 
species of Ammonites, in which I have been guided by a comparison of the form and size 
of the Aptychi with the apertures of the Ammonites found in the same beds of the Chalk 
Formation, and in the same localities, for I am not aware that any Ammonite has yet been 
found in the Chalk containing an Aptychus within it. As there are but few species of 
Ammonites known in the Upper and Middle Chalk, the comparison is more satisfactory 
than might have been anticipated ; but the result is only conjectural, as the discovery of 
other species of Aptychus or of Ammonites might materially alter our conclusions on this 
subject. 

The species of Ammonites known in the Upper and Middle Chalk are A. Griffithii and 
A. Oldhamii, only known in Ireland, whence I have seen no Aptychi ; for which they are 
excluded from the comparison. 

A. Gollevillensis* found in the Upper Chalk in Ireland and the North of France, and 
which may consequently be expected to occur here. 
A. JPortlocH*) 

A. Icenicus* I in the Upper Chalk of Norwich. 

A. Vctteda* J 

A. leptophyttus* in the Upper Chalk of Kent and Sussex. 

A. peramplus* 1 

A. Woolgari, /in the Middle Chalk of our Southern Counties. 

A. BravaisianusJ 

The species marked * have round backs, and belong to Von Buch's family of Ligati. 
A. Woolyari has a serrated keel, and belongs to the Rothomagenses ; A. Bravaisianus 



* Mr. Flower has also found two species in Flint Pebbles in the Gravel, near Croydon. 



APTYCHUS. 



55 



has a sharp keel, and may be excluded from the comparison, as it is too small to admit 
any of the Aptychi yet found. 

As yet we have only seven forms of Aptychus from the Chalk, six of which have so 
many characters in common, that it is natural to suppose that they belong to Ammonites 
of the same, or nearly allied groups ; the remaining species, A. ruyosus, differs in having 
the convex side strongly ribbed. 

In Plate XXIV, which is devoted to this subject, are represented all the known 
Aptychi of the Chalk, and outlines of the openings of the various Ammonites to which it 
seems probable that the Aptychi may belong ; and, to facilitate the comparison, a dotted 
line is drawn across each opening. It must be remembered that the two plates of the 
Aptychi did not lie flat in the same plane, but were slightly inclined towards one another 
[on the inner side], in which position the width they occupied would be rather less than 
when they are represented lying side by side on the plate. 

Among the Aptychi belonging to the Chalk, figured by Continental authors, Aptychus 
cretaceus, of Minister, so nearly approaches several of those which are here described, as 
to show that they belong to nearly allied Ammonites. But sad confusion has been made 
with that specific name. Geinitz gives three figures of Aptychus cretaceus ( c Charakteristik 
des Sachsischen Kreidegebirges,' t. 17, figs. 25 a and b and 20), which evidently belong 
to three different species ; another distinct species is figured under the same name by 
Reuss (' Versteinerungen der Bohmischen Kreideformation,' t. 7, fig. 13), and both these 
authors refer to Aptychus cretaceus, the plate described under the name of Anatifa convexa, 
by Roemer ('Kreidegebirges,' t. 10, fig. 7), which, if the figures are to be trusted, differs 
from all the others. 



Aptychus leptophyllus, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, fig. 1 a, b. 

A. bivalvis, subtruncato-ovatus ; valvis imbricatis, latere convexo lavi, latere concavo 
concentrice lineato ; plica media inconspicud. 

Bivalve, thin, the united valves ovate, with a slight truncation at the lower end ; outer 
edge reflected : the convex side smooth ; the concave side delicately marked by very close, 
concentric imbrications : medial fold narrow, and but little elevated. 

Height, 1| inch ; breadth of each valve, ^ inch. 

Found in the Upper Chalk, near Brighton, by Mr. Morris. 

The form of this Aptychus corresponds to that of the opening of Ammonites leptophyllux, 
and which is also found in the Upper Chalk, near Brighton ; for these reasons it is probable 
that it belongs to that species. 



56 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



Aptychus Portlocki, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, figs. 2, 3, and 4 (6 ?) 

A. bivalvis, transversim semi-ellipticus ; valvis imbricatis, utrinque concentrice stdcatis ; 
sulcis distantibus ; plica media elevatd. 

Bivalve, the united valves forming, transversely, a semi-ellipse, with a uniform curve 
to the outer margin ; valves thin, marked on both sides by rather distant concentric 
furrows, produced by the terminations of the broad imbricated additions to their outer 
edges : medial fold large, and separated from the rest of the valve by a deep furrow. 

Height, f- inch ; breadth of each valve, ^ inch. 

Found in the Upper Chalk, near Norwich, by Mr. Bayfield ; and in a Flint Pebble, in 
the Gravel, near Croydon. 

Of the Aptychi yet met with in the Upper Chalk, this species has the transverse 
diameter of its united valves greatest in proportion to its height ; and Ammonites Portlocki 
is the only species known in the Upper or Middle Chalk which has the . diameter of its 
mouth greater than its height (see Plate XXIV, fig. 12). Moreover, the carves of the 
respective outlines of the two nearly correspond, and both are found in the Upper Chalk, 
near Norwich. The probability of this Aptychus belonging to A. Portlocki is therefore 
very strong. 

One of the three forms figured by Geinitz under the name of Aptychus cretaceus 
(' Charakteristik, &c, des Sachsischen Kreidegebirges,' t. 17, fig. 25 a) nearly resembles 
A. Portlocki in outline, but, being a fragment, its proportions are not shown ; and it is 
distinguished by its closely set imbrications from our species. 

Anatifa convexa, Roemer, ' Kreidegeb.,' t. 16, fig. 7, is the plate of an Aptychus 
closely approaching A. Portlocki ; but his figure and description do not enable me to 
identify them. 



Aptychus Gollevillensis, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, fig. 5. 

A. bivalvis, truncato-ovatus ; valvis imbricatis, utrinque concentrice sulcatis ; sulcis 
approximatis : plied media elevatd. 

Bivalve, truncato-ovate, the united valves forming about two thirds of the shape of an 
egg ; very convex, especially towards the outer edges : valves thin, marked on both sides 
by closely set concentric furrows, produced by the terminations of the narrow imbricated 
additions to the outer edges : medial fold elevated, and sharply separated from the rest of 
the valve by a deep furrow. 



APTYCHUS. 



57 



Height, | inch ; breadth of each valve, f- inch. 

Found in the Upper Chalk of Norwich, by Mr. T. G. Bayfield, and in Flint Pebbles in 
the Gravel, near Croydon. 

Of the Ammonites found in the Upper Chalk, the one of which the outline of the 
mouth most nearly resembles this Aptychus is A. Gollevillensis (PI. XXIV, fig. 15). I 
have not seen this species of Ammonite from Norwich; but as, besides being found in the 
North of Ireland, it occurs in France, in the Upper Chalk of the department of the 
Manche, it may be expected to occur also on our side of the Channel ; so that it is probable 
that the Aptychus here described belongs to Ammonites Gollevillensis. 

Of the varieties of Aptychus cretaceus figured by Geinitz, one form (/. c, t. 17, fig. 25 b) 
approaches our species, but does not admit of absolute identification with it. 



Aptychus Icenicus, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, fig. 7 a, b. 

A.bivalvis, ovalis ; valvis imbricatis .- latere convexo rugis paucis, latis, longitudinalibus, 
inconspicids, ornato .• plica media parvd. 

Bivalve, very thin ; oval, with nearly straight sides : valves very convex, especially 
towards the lower end : the convex side faintly marked by a few broad, longitudinal folds, 
which are not parallel to one another, and which cross the imbrications : medial fold small 
and straight : the concave side has not been seen. 

Height, |- inch ; breadth of each valve, \ inch. 

Found in the Upper Chalk, near Norwich, by Mr. T. G. Bayfield. 

Ammonites Icenicus is the only species yet seen from the Upper Chalk which has its 
opening corresponding to the peculiar outline of this Aptychus, which has its sides nearly 
straight, and its two extremities nearly equal ; and as both are found in the Upper Chalk, 
near Norwich, there is every probability that they must be connected. 



ArTYCHUs rugosus, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, figs. 8 a, b, and 9. 

[A. bivalois, truncato-oblongus ; valvis imbricatis, latere convexo corrugutis, plicis dis- 
tantibus, elevatis, tuberculatis, antice angidariter inflectis. 

Bivalve ; together oval or oblong, and notched at each end ; separate plates nearly 
flat, thin, finely imbricated by lines of growth on the concave side, and ornamented with 
elevated wrinkles on the outer surface ; ridges from \ line to 1 line apart, irregularly 
tuberculated, sub-parallel with the outer margin, and bent back at a sharp angle at the 
upper end ; slightly irregular and flexuous, and becoming obsolete near the suture. 



58 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



Height of largest specimen (fig. 9), 2^ inches; breadth of single valve, 11 lines. Small 
pair (fig. S), height, 1| inch; breadth, 1 inch. 

From the Upper Chalk of Norwich, in the collections of Mr. John King and Mr. 
T. G. Bayfield.] 



Aptychus peramplus, Sharpe. Plate XXIV, fig. 10 a, b. 

A. bivalvis ; truncato-ovatus ? valvis imbricatis, latere convexo corrugatis, latere concavo 
mbtiliter concert trice lineatis : plica media elevatd. 

Bivalve ; truncato-ovate ? valves imbricated, thin near the medial fold, thicker towards 
the edge ; convex side corrugated, the corrugations covered with irregular and unequal 
tubercles ; concave side marked by fine concentric lines, indicating the edges of the closely 
set imbrications : medial fold large. 

From the Chalk, near Norwich, in the collection of Mr. Bayfield. 

I have only one fragment of this Aptychus, \\ inch in breadth, and can offer but an 
imperfect description of it : the convex side is concealed in the specimen, and the direc- 
tion of the corrugations cannot be seen. It is with great hesitation that I propose to 
connect it with Ammonites peramplus. 

[This specimen was described by Mr. Bayfield in 1851 ('Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History/ 2d series, vol. viii, p. 23G), being the first instance on record of the 
occurrence of Trigonellites in the English Chalk.] 



Since the preceding descriptions of the species of Aptychus were in type, a memoir* 
has appeared on the Cretaceous Fossils of Meudon, France, by M. Ed. Hebert, in which 
three species of Aptychus are described ; A. obtusus, crassus, and insignis, the last form 
being closely allied to, if not identical with, A. rugosus, above noticed. 



* Mem. Soc. Geol. de la France, vol. v, p. 367, pi. 28. 



TURRILITES 



59 



Genus — TURRILITES, Lamarck. 1801. 

Animal unknown : shell chambered, turreted, usually sinistral, with numerous angular 
whorls, twisted spirally round a central cavity, and contiguous throughout on their upper 
and lower sides : chambers separated by transverse, flexuous septa, deeply sinuated towards 
the edges, and divided into six branching lobes, which are unsymmetrical, those on the 
outer side of the whorls being much larger than the corresponding lobes on the inner side ■. 
spire traversed by a continuous tube, situated on the outer side of the whorl, a little below 
the suture : mouth of the adult shell produced downwards, and bent over somewhat into 
the form of a hood. 

The genus Turrilites, as it has been usually received, includes, in addition to the shells 
here classed in it, other chambered, turreted species, with contiguous, rounded whorls, 
and the siphuncle placed on the middle of the outer side of the whorl. I have ventured 
to remove these species to the genus Helicoceras, with which they agree in the round form 
of their whorls, and in the position of their siphuncle, and only differ in having their 
whorls contiguous instead of separate. The importance of that difference is destroyed by 
our finding a species with rounded whorls, Helicoceras or Turrilites pohjplocus, Roemer, 
in which the whorls are separate during the early part of their growth, contiguous in 
their next stage, and again separate when full grown ; in consequence of which it has been 
moved from one to the other genus, according to the part of the spire which was described. 
M. D'Orbigny had already pointed out that there were two very distinct groups of 
Turrilites, and assigned their characters — 1st, the rotundati, which are those which [ 
propose to unite to Helicoceras ; 2d, the angulati, which form the genus Turrilites, as here 
retained. 

The produced, arched mouth has not yet been seen in all the Turrilites, but there are 
indications of it in so many species, that it may be presumed to be universal in the genus. 
I can find no evidence that this mouth was formed more than once during the life of the 
animal, as is conjectured by M.. D'Orbigny ('Terr. Cret.,' p. 570); on the contrary, we 
find that, before the mouth is produced, there is always some modification in the form of 
the ribs which would betray the previous position of the produced mouth, if such had 
existed and had been absorbed by the animal ; but no specimens show any such irregu- 
larity of the ribs in any of the upper whorls, so that we must conclude that the mouth 
was only produced once, and the different size of individuals of the same species on 
which this occurs only show that some reached their adult form sooner than others. 

There is very little difference in Turrilites between their forms and ornaments in the 
young and older stages of their growth, excepting near the produced mouth ; so that the 
species may be recognised in specimens of any size or age. 



60 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



None of the group of the rotundati have been found with the produced mouth like the 
Turrilites, and the only modification known in the adult shells of that group is a thicken- 
ing of the edge of the mouth : probably this will be found to be another generic difference 
between Turrilites and Helicoceras. 



Classification of Turrilites. 

1. Rotundati, D'Orb. Whorls round; siphuncle near the middle of the exterior side 

of the whorl ; ribs simple ; mouth thickened. 
Common in the Gault. 
T. acuticostatus, D'Orb. C. C. 

2. Angulati, D'Orb. Whorls angular; siphuncle near the suture; mouth covered 

with a hood. 

2 a. Lateral lobe trifid ; ribs or tubercles not arranged in regular lines 
across the whorl. 
T tuberculatus, Bosc. L. Chalk. 
T. Gravesianus, D'Orb. PL 144, fig. 3. L. Chalk. 
T. Mantetti, Sharpe. 

2 a a. Lateral lobe trifid; tubercles in regular rows across the 
whorl. 

T Bergeri, Brong. Gault and L. Chalk. 

2 b. Lateral lobe bifid ; tubercles or ribs arranged in regular lines 
across the whorl. 
T. catenatus, D'Orb. PI. 140, fig. 1. Gault. 
T. Puzosianus, D'Orb. PL 143, fig. 1. Gault. 
T. Scheuchzcrianus, Bosc. L. Chalk. 

T costatus, Lam. L. Chalk. 
T. Wiestii, Sharpe. L. Chalk. 

2c. Lateral lobe bifid; tubercles not in regular rows across the 
whorl. 

T. Morrisii, Sharpe. U. G. Sand and L. Chalk. 



TURIULITES. 



61 



1. Turrilites tuberculatus, Bosc. Plate XXV, figs. 1 to 4, and PL XXVI, figs. 15, 16. 

Turrilites tuberculatus, Bosc. Buff, da Deterville, Vers., t. 42, fig. 8. 

— — Sow. Min. Conch., t. 74. 

— — Mantell. Geol. of Sussex, t. 24, fig. 7. 

— — D'Orb. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. 144, figs. 1, 2. 

— — Pictet and Roux. Foss. des Gres Vert de Geneve, t, 15, fig. 10. 

— varicosa, Bosc. I. c, p 190. 

— giganteus, Haan. Mon. Amm. et Goniat., p. 78. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd ; anfractibus numerosis, extra convexis, tuberculato-spinosis : 
tuberculis 4-serialibus ; serie superiori, in medio anfractuum, tuberculis 20 distantibus, 
maximis, spinosis ; seriebus tribus inferioribus prope suturam tubercidis parvis, numerosis, 
approximatis ■■ ayigido spirali 16° — 20°. 

Shell turreted, with a spiral angle of 16° to 20°, sinistral : whorls numerous, rounded 
externally, with one row of above 20 very large spinose tubercles near their middle, and 
three rows of numerous small tubercles near their base, the lowest of which three rows is 
concealed by the suture ; the tubercles of the middle row have a rounded base, those of 
the three lower rows are elongated in a direction parallel to the suture, and are of the 
same number in each row : upper and lower sides of the whorls ornamented with faint, 
radiating ribs, corresponding to the tubercles of the lowest row : umbilicus narrow : 
section of the whorls nearly rhomboidal, with the outer side convex : mouth somewhat 
produced, and rising to a blunt point on the inner side of the whorl, and surrounded by a 
wing-shaped expansion, with a nearly semicircular outline. 

The figures 1 and 4 represent the usual form of this species, with nearly twice as many 
tubercles in the lower rows as there are in the upper one ; but specimens are often found 
like tig. 3, with less difference between the different rows in the size and number of the 
tubercles, and with the two lower rows of tubercles almost coalescing. I have seen no 
specimen in which these two varieties are found in the same individual, as is represented 
in M. D'Orbigny's fig. 1 ; but as the lobes of the septa of the two forms closely correspond, 
we must presume that they belong to the same species. In very large individuals the 
tubercles of the upper row are fewer in number, and proportionably larger. 

The lobes of the septa are much divided and branching ; the outer side of the whorl 
holds half of the dorsal lobe, the dorsal saddle, and half of the superior lateral lobe, which 
last lias five principal branches ; the dorsal saddle is divided into two nearly equal parts, 
and each of these is divided into two nearly equal branches (fig. 15). This is the character 
by which T. tuberculatus is best distinguished from T. Gravesianus, which has the dorsal 
saddle divided into two very unequal parts, only the upper of which is again divided. 

The larger specimens of Turrilites are never found perfect, so that their length must be 

10 



62 



FOSSIL MOLLUSCA OF THE CHALK. 



calculated. The specimen of this species figured in the 'Mineral Conchology ' has a 
diameter of 5 inches in the lower whorl, and must have been above 18 inches long. The 
common-sized specimens have their largest diameter about 2^ inches, and probably 
reached 9 or 10 inches in length. 

Common in the Grey Chalk of the South of England, and in the Chloritic Marl of the 
Isle of Wight, and the Chalk with siliceous grains, of Dorset and Somerset. 



2. Turrilites Gravesianus, D'Orbigny. Plate XXV, fig. 7, and Plate XXVI, fig. 14. 

Turrtlites Gravesianus, D'Orb. Pal. Fran^ Terr. Cret., t. 144, figs. 3 — 5. 
— tuberculatus, Mantell. Geol. of Sussex, t. 24, fig. 6. 

T. testa turrito-conicd, sinistrorsd ; anfractibus paucioribus, extra angulato-convexis, 
tuberculato spinosis ; tuberculis 4 serialibus ; serie superiore, in medio anfractuum, tuber- 
culis 10 — 12 maximis, spinosis, distantibus ; seriebus tribus inferioribus prope suturam 
tubercidis parvis, numerosis, approximates ; angulo spirali 30°. 

Shell conical, with a spiral angle of about 30°, sinistral : whorls few, externally convex, 
and somewhat angular in the middle, with one row of 10 or 12 very large spinose tuber- 
cles a little above their middles, and three rows of numerous small tubercles near their 
base ; the two lowest of these rows are so near together that the tubercles almost coalesce, 
and are partially concealed by the suture ; the tubercles of the upper row have a rounded 
base, those of the other three rows are elongated in a direction parallel to the suture, and 
are of the same number in each row : upper and lower sides of the whorls ornamented with 
radiating ribs, corresponding to the tubercles of the lowest row : umbilicus narrow : section 
of the whorls somewhat pentagonal : the perfect mouth has not been seen. 

The lobes of the septa are much divided, and form a very complicated pattern ; the 
dorsal lobe, dorsal saddle, and nearly two thirds of the superior lateral lobe are visible on 
the outer side of the whorl ; the latter has four principal branches, of very unequal size : 
the dorsal lobe is short ; the dorsal saddle is very large, and unevenly divided, the upper 
half having two principal branches, of which the upper ends in three, the lower in two 
terminal branchlets ; the lower half of the dorsal saddle has only one undivided straight 
branch, parallel to the siphuncle : this peculiarity in the dorsal saddle distinguishes the 
species from T. tuberculatus ; the superior lateral lobe is very large, and is divided into 
five large branches (Plate XXVI, fig. 14). 

Diameter of the largest whorl, If inch ; presumed length, 5 inches. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk, near Lewes, and in the Chloritic Marl of Ventnor, Isle of 
Wight. 

The external form of this species is very similar to that of T. tuberculatus, with which 



TURRILITES. 



03 



it was long confounded. M. D'Orbigny pointed out the distinctions between them, which 
consist in the shorter and blunter spire, fewer and larger tubercles of T. Gravesianus. 
Slightly crushed specimens of T. tuberculatus are sometimes very difficult to distinguish 
from T. Gravesianus, unless the outline of the septa can be traced, when the different forms 
of the dorsal saddles set all doubts on the subject immediately at rest. 



3. Turrilites Mantelli, Sharpe. Plate XXV, figs. 5 and 6. 

T. testa turrita, sinistrorsd : anfractibus numerosis, extra convexis, tuberculatis : tuber- 
culis 4 serialibus ; serie superiori, in medio anfractuum, tuberculis 20 — 24, basi rotundatis ; 
seriebus tribus inferioribus, tuberadis 30 minoribus, basi elongatis, approximatis : angulo 
spirali 18°— 20°. 

Shell turreted, with a spiral angle of 18° to 20°, sinistral: whorls numerous, convex 
externally, with one row of 20 to 24 tubercles near their middle, and three rows of about 
30 smaller tubercles near their base, the lowest of which rows is hid by the suture ; the 
tubercles of the middle row have a rounded base, those of the three lower rows are 
elongated in a direction parallel to the suture, and are of the same number in each row : 
upper and lower sides of the whorls ornamented with radiating ribs, corresponding to the 
tubercles of the lower row : umbilicus narrow : mouth somewhat produced, and rising to a 
blunt point on the inner side of the whorl, and surrounded by a broad, wing-shaped 
expansion of somewhat rhomboidal form. 

Only a small part of the outline of a septum has been seen, which is shown on the 
upper whorl of fig. 5 ; the dorsal saddle is divided into two unequal parts, which are inter- 
mediate in form between those of T. tuberculatus and T. Gravesianus, more nearly 
resembling the latter. 

Diameter of last whorl, 2^ inches; probable length, 12 inches. 

Rare in the Grey Chalk, near Lewes, Sussex. 

This species is readily distinguished from T. tuberculatus by the greater number and 
smaller size of the tubercles of the upper row, which are almost as numerous as those of 
the three lower rows. There is also a marked difference in the rhomboidal form of the 
expanded margin of the mouth. These distinctions will probably be strengthened when a 
more complete view is obtained of the lobes of the septa. 

The only specimens which I have seen were collected by Dr. Mantell, and are now in 
the British Museum. The specific name is therefore a just tribute to the memory of that 
zealous geologist. 



64 



FOSSIL MOLLUSC A OF THE CHALK. 



4. Turrilites Scheuchzerianus, Bosc. Plate XXVI, figs. 1—3. 

Turrilites Scheuchzerianus, Bosc. Buffon du Deterville, vol. v, p. 190. 

— undulatus, Sow. Min. Con., t. 75, figs. 1 — 3. 

— — Mantell. Fossils of the South Downs, t. 23, figs. 14 and 16 ; t. 24, 

fig. 8. 

— — Geinitz. Kreide, t. 13, figs. 1 — 3. 

— — jyOrb. Paleont. Fran?. Terr. Cr6t., t. 146, figs. 3, 4. 

— Desxoyersi, If Orb. Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret., t. 146, figs. 1, 2. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd : anfractibus numerosis, extra rotundatis, costatis : costis 
numerosis, sub-angulatis ; junioribus interruptis ; adultis continuis : angulo spirali 
15°— 18°. 

Shell turreted, with a spiral angle of 15° to 18°, sinistral: whorls numerous, rounded 
externally, crossed by 20 to 24 sharp, elevated ribs ; on the upper whorls the ribs are 
nearly straight, and broken into two unequal parts by a depression a little below their 
middle ; towards the middle of the shell the depression gradually disappears, and on the 
lower whorls the ribs continue uninterruptedly across the whorl, and become more and 
more flexuous : upper and under sides of the whorls smooth : umbilicus very small : mouth 
produced considerably downwards, partially arched over, and expanded towards the 
umbilicus : the outline of the septa has not been seen. 

Diameter of last whorl, If inch; estimated length, 8 inches. 

Common in the Grey Chalk, wherever that bed occurs, in the South of England. 

This species is so well distinguished from all the other Turrilites by its elongated form 
and comparatively simple ribs, that it had remained free from all confusion, until M. 
D'Orbigny unfortunately proposed the specific name of T. Desnoyersi for its young form, 
and gave an appearance of probability to his suggestion by representing both the young 
and the old forms as full grown shells on his plate 146, without any variation in the ribs 
during the growth of either."* Such errors are the natural consequence of what is called 
restoring the entire form of a shell from a fragment, instead of representing what is actually 
seen. Dr. Mantell had already given an admirable figure of a nearly perfect specimen, 
exhibiting the change from the broken ribs of the upper whorls to the unbroken ribs of 
the older whorls, which ought to have preserved M. D'Orbigny from this unnecessary 
addition of a synonym. 

Figure 2 represents a young shell, with ribs still divided, which is already beginning 

* Figures 1 and 3, plate 146, are both stated to be"restaure sur un Lchantillon de ma collection." 
If Orb., 'Terr. Cret.,' vol. i, pp. 602 and 604. 



TURR1LITES. 05 

to form a mouth like an adult, with the ribs becoming fiexuous. A still younger shell, 
with the produced mouth completed, is shown in fig. 3 ; but as this specimen has the 
lower side of the whorl strongly ribbed, it may be doubted whether it belongs to the 
same species. 



5. Turrilites Morrisii, Sharp?. Plate XXVI, figs. 4 — 8. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd : anfractibus numerosis, extra planimculis tuberculatis : 
tuberculis 3 vel 4 serialibics ; serie superiori, in medio anfractuum, tuberculis 8 — 12 
majoribus, distantibus ; seriebus inferioribus prope suturam, tuberculis minoribus, numerosis .- 
angulo spirali 1 5°. 

Shell turreted, with a spiral angle of about 15°, sinistral: whorls numerous, nearly flat 
externally, with one row of 8 to 12 large tubercles near their middle, and two or three 
rows of above 20 smaller tubercles near the suture, all of them with a round base : upper 
and lower sides of the whorls ornamented with faint, radiating ribs, corresponding to the 
tubercles of the lowest row : umbilicus very narrow : section of the whorls rhomboidal : 
septa with the superior lateral lobe bifid, with four branches on each side, and the dorsal 
saddle divided into two very unequal parts : the perfect mouth has not been seen. 

In the young shell the three lower rows of tubercles are usually distinct; in older shells 
the tubercles of the two lower rows gradually coalesce, and at last hardly more than one 
row can be distinguished, close to the suture. 

Largest diameter, 1^ inch; probable length, 6 inches. 

Common in the Chloritic Marl of the Isle of Wight, and in the Chalk with siliceous 
grains, Chardstock, Somersetshire. 



6. Turrilites Bergeri, Brongniart. Plate XXVI, figs. 9 — 11. 

Turrilites Bergeri, Brong. Env. de Paris, t. 7, fig. 3. 

— — I)' Orb. Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cret., t. 143, figs. 3—6. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd (vel dextrorsd ?) : anfractibus paiicioribus, rotundatis, tuber- 
culatis: tuberculis 4 serialibus, aquidistantibus, aqualibus : aperturdrotundato-rhomboided. 

Shell turreted, turned to the left : whorls not very numerous, increasing rapidly in 
size, rounded, and ornamented with four equidistant rows of numerous, rounded tubercles, 
which are of the same number, aud nearly the same size in each row ; only three rows are 



66 



FOSSIL MOLLUSC A OF THE CHALK. 



exposed, the upper one being covered by the next whorl ; the tubercles are so placed as to 
appear to form sloping, transverse bands across the whorls : section of the whorls somewhat 
rhomboidal : septa, and position of the siphuncle, unknown. 
Spiral angle about 35°. 

Diameter of the largest specimens from Chardstock, in Mr. Wiest's collection, 3 inches. 

This is a well-marked shell, which can hardly be confounded with any other species. 
We have not met with any specimen turned to the right like that figured by M. D'Orbigny, 
t, 143, fig. 6. 

Abundant in the Chalk with green grains, at Chardstock. {Mr Wiest.) 



7. Turrilites Bechii, Sharpe. Plate XXVI, fig. 13. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd : anfractibus paucioribus, extra rotundatis, costatis, tubercu- 
latisque : costis numerosis, superioribus, jiexuosis, tenuibus, infra inierruptis : tuber cults 
biserialibm, inferioribus, numero costarum aqualibus : angulo spirali 30°. 

Shell turreted, sinistral, with a spiral angle of 20° : whorls few, externally rounded, 
prettily ornamented with numerous delicate, flexuous ribs, which extend from the suture 
across the upper two thirds of the whorl, where they are interrupted by a smooth space, 
in which are two rows of tubercles, elongated in the direction of the suture, and equal in 
number to the ribs ; below these the ribs appear again, bending backwards over the lower 
side of the whorl ; thus each rib, with its corresponding pair of tubercles, forms a flexuous 
line across the outer and the under sides of the whorl : umbilicus small : the outline of the 
septa has only been partially seen; the dorsal saddle is divided into two slightly unequal 
parts : the specimen figured shows the beginning of a produced mouth. 
Diameter of last whorl, 1 inch ; estimated length, 4 inches. 

Only one specimen has been seen, which was found in the Chalk with siliceous grains, 
near Lyme Eegis, by Sir H. T. de la Beche, and by him presented to the British Museum : 
it, is named in honour of his memory. 



S. Turrilites costatus, Lamarck. Plate XXVII, figs. 1 — 5, and 15, 16. 

Tukrilites costatus, Lamk. 1801. An. sans Vert., p. 102. 

— — Sowerby. 1813. Min. Conch., t. 36. 

— — Brong. 1822. Env. de Paris, p. 83, t. 7, fig. 4. 

— — Mantell. 1822. Geol. of Sussex, t. 23, fig. 15. 

— — IfOrbigny. Pateont. Franc., Terr. Cret., t. 14"). 
TiUFi.iCATUS, J. Sow. Iii Dixon's Geol. of Sussex, t. 29, fig. 1G. 



TURRILITES. (17 

T. testa elongato-turritd, sinistrorsd, costatd et tuberadatd; anfractibus convexlus culls, 
infernk costatis, superne bituberculatis ; costis tuberculisque numero aqualibm ; aperiuvra 
ovali ; wnbillco minima. 

Shell turreted, turned to the left, with a spiral angle of about 25°; whorls slightly 
convex, separated by a moderately impressed suture, and ornamented on their lower half 
by numerous straight, elevated ribs, which rise at their upper ends into round tubercles, 
and then terminate abruptly at a smooth spiral band, which encircles the shell ; above are 
two rows of tubercles, the upper of which are smaller, and concealed by the next whorl ; 
ribs and tubercles equal in number ; aperture oval, higher than broad ; umbilicus very small. 

[The complicated form of the septa in this species is represented in PI. XXVII, fig. 15. j 

In Dixon's ' Geology of Sussex,' a Turrilite is described under the name of T. tripli- 
cates, J. Sow., which appears to be a variety of the above. [This specimen is figured in 
PI. XXVII, fig. 15.] 

Found in the Chalk Marl of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; and in the Chalk with green 
grains, at Chardstock. 



9. Turrilites bifrons? D 'Orb. Plate XXVII , figs. 6, 7. 

[T. testa turritd, elongatd, sinistrorsd ; anfractibus convecciusculis, sulco longitudinaliter 
ornatis ; transverslm costatis ; costis curvatis, interruptls, biseriatls, anterloribls ad 
suturam dlvisis. 

The specimens figured differ from the ordinary examples of T. costatus in the flatten- 
ing of the whorls, occasioned by the shallow furrow which divides the curved transverse 
ribs into a double series : the ribs are simple, rounded, and about as wide as the inter- 
spaces ; the lower series of ribs is again divided by a furrow exactly at the suture, forming 
a third set of little tubercles, only visible on the base of the shell when broken. 

Found in the Lower Chalk, of Ventnor, Isle of Wight.] 

10. Turrilites Wiestii, Sharpe. Plate XXVII, fig. S, 9 a, b, and fig. 17. 

T. testa turritd, sinistrorsd ; anfractibus exlernis rotundatis, tuberculatis, intus lavibus ; 
tuberculis conlcls 4 seriallbus, numero equallbus, superiore et inferiore mlnoribus, in suturd 
profunda crenulatd, coalescentibus, mediis binis majorlbus promlnentibus ; aperturd sub- 
quadratd; umbilico parvo. 

Shell turreted, tuberculated ; spine turned to the left, with a spiral angle of about 22°; 
whorls rounded, separated by a deep, crenulated suture, ornamented with four rows of 
conical tubercles, which are of the same number in each row, and set obliquely under one 



FOSSIL MOLLUSC A OF THE CHALK. 



another, without ribs between them ; the tubercles of the two outer rows are smaller than 
the others, and meet at the junction of the valves, forming a crenulated suture ; while the 
tubercles of the two middle rows, which are nearly equal, are prominent on the side of the 
whorls ; surface of the whorls between the the tubercles smooth ; aperture nearly square ; 
umbilicus small. 

The largest specimen seen has a diameter of 1^ inch, which requires a length of 4 or 
5 inches. 

As yet we have only seen it from the Chalk with green grains, where it is very 
abundant. 

This elegant shell is at once distinguished from T. tuberculatus by having the same 
number of tubercles in each row, in which it agrees with T. Bergeri. From this it differs 
in the shape of the whorl, and the position of the lower row of tubercles, which is at the 
suture instead of projecting at the side of the whorl : in consequence of this, it has only 
two rows of tubercles visible instead of three on the side of the whorl. 

Found in the Grey Chalk, of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; and also in the Chalk with green 
grains, at Chardstock, Somersetshire; and at Chaldon and Man-of-War Cove, Dorsetshire. 



] 1 . Turrilites Puzosianus, IP Orb., var.? Plate XXVII, fig. 11. 

? Turrilites Puzosianus, JPOrbigny. Terr. Cret., pi. 143, figs. 1, 2. 

I. lestd turritd, sinistrorsd ; anfractibus externi planiuscidis, costulatis, tuberculatis ; 
costis mi nicrosis, Jlexuosis, obliquis, sup erne interrupts tuberculatisque ; tuberculis bi-seriali- 
bus, ser Us superior is binis, inferioris longitud&naliter compressis ; aperturd ovali ; umbilico 
parvo. 

Shell turreted ; spine turned to the left, with a spiral angle of about 15°; whorls 
flattish, w ith the lower angle rounded oft', separated by a moderate suture, and ornamented 
with numerous oblique, flexuous, slight ribs, interrupted near the top of the whorl by a 
smooth spiral band, on each side of which the ribs rise into longitudinally flattened 
tubercles ; the tubercles of the upper row bifid or double, and stand at the angle of the 
whorl ; aperture somewhat oval ; umbilicus small. 

I have as yet only seen one fragment of this shell. It resembles T. Puzosianus, D'Orb., 
in having ribs rising into tubercles on each side of a smooth band, which, running round 
the upper part of the whorl, divides the ribs into two unequal parts. Our shell differs 
from T. Puzosianus in the flexure of the ribs, and in the position of the upper row of 
tubercles, which, in that species, is placed at the suture, and thus concealed by the next 
whorl ; but in this one it is at the upper angle of the whorl, and always prominent. It 
differs from T. coslatus in the flexure of the ribs and flatness of the whorls. 

Found in the Chloritic Marl, of Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 



PLATE XVII. 

Fig. gfj ^f ^ t>c«pr** g<4e-r&o^vtt 5^«M; Qol. Mzf.CS, y£ 
la and ('Ammonites Cenomanensis ; from the Grey Chalk of Dover; reduced to two 
thirds its natural diameter; in the collection of J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., 
p. 37. 
la, side view. 
lb, front view. 

P pre ta.c*Athoctv*i j*he$-LY*»*t* -S>«M, ^W./Hcr?. ?• Z^ 2 -*' 

2. Ammonites hippocastanum ; from the Lower Chalk of Man of War Cove, Dorsetshire ; 
in the collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq., p. 37. 

3a and b. Ammonites hippocastanum, young; from the Lower Chalk of Chardstock ; in 
the collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq., p. 37. 
3a, side view. 
3b, front view. 

4a, b, and c. Ammonites hippocastanum ; a fragment, from the Lower Chalk of Chard- 
stock ; in the collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq., p. 37. 
4a, back view. 
4b, side view. 

4c, outline of a septum. , A'oHto-w) 

5a and b. Ammonites Goupilianus, ; from the Lower Chalk of Sussex ; in the British 
Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 38. 

6. Ammonites Goupilianus ; outline of a septum, copied from PI. xciv of M. D'Orbigny's 

' Paleont. Franc. Terr. Cret.,' p. 38. 

£«?f6fy/>r y SohhHerh Grot*- . fceSSU^ Q-ross* ' (^9^ 

la and b. Ammonites Velled^e ; from the Upper Chalk near Norwich ; in the collection 

of F. G. Bayfield, Esq., of Norwich, p. 39. 

7a, side view. n.b. The umbilicus is represented too large, the artist having 

been deceived by the breaking away of the soft chalk. 

lb, front view. 



Plai.e XVII 




PLATE XVIII. 

1. Ammonites (navicularis;) from the Grey Chalk of White Nore, Dorsetshire; in the 

collection of E. H. Bunbury, Esq., p. 39. 

2. Ammonites navicularis ; from the Grey Chalk near Lewes ; in the collection of 

Henry Catt, Esq., p. 39. 

3a and b. Ammonites navicdlaris ; from the Lower Chalk of Chardstock ; in the collec- 
tion of John Morris, Esq., p. 39. 
3a, front view. 
3b, side view. 

4a and b. Ammonites Mantelli ; from the Grey Chalk of Boncbnrch, Isle of Wight ; in 
the collection of S. Saxby, jun., Esq., p. 40. 
4a, side view. Sec. Mo J tip*** ' 

4b, front view. 

5a, b, and c. Ammonites navicularis ; from the Lower Chalk of Chardstock ; in the 
collection of John Morris, Esq., p. 39. 
5a, side view. 
5b, front view. 

5c, front view of the inner whorl of the same specimen. 

6a and b. Ammonites Mantelli ; from the Chloritic Marl of the Isle of Wight ; in the 
collection of John Morris, Esq., p. 40. 



6a, side view. 
6b, front view. 



la, b, and c. Ammonites Mantelli ; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, Isle of 
Wight ; in the collection of S. Saxby, jun., Esq., p. 40. 

la, side view. HfaMU**** w WW/7 (starf>e) 
lb, front view. 

7 c, outline of septum. voty/zc 
8. Ammonites navicularis; outline of the septum of the specimen fig. 1, above. 



Fig 



- 

PLATE XIX. 

la, b, and c. Ammonites Coupei ; var., from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; 
in my possession, p. 23. 
la, side view. 
lb, back view. 
lc, section of a whorl. 

2a, b, and c. Ammonites Renauxianus ; a young shell, from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, 
Isle of Wight ; in my possession, p. 41. 
2a, side view. 
2b, back view. 

3 c, front view of inner whorl of the same specimen. 

3a and b. Ammonites octo-sulcatus ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; 
in my possession, p. 42. 
3a, side view. 
2>b, front view. 

4a and b. Ammonites Icenicus; from the Upper Chalk, near Norwich; in the collection 
of Mr. King of Norwich, p. 43. 
4a, side view, showing the outline of a septum. 
43, front view. 

5a and b. Ammonites Deverianus ; from the Grey Chalk of Sussex ; in the British 
Museum, from the collection of F. Dixon, Esq., p. 43. 
5 a, side view. 
53, front view. 



6. Ammonites Velled^e ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my pos- 
session, p. 39. 
6, outline of a septum. 



PLATE XX. 



Fig. 

la, b, c. Ammonites rusticus ; from the Lower Chalk, near Lyme Regis ; in the Museum 
of Practical Geology; reduced to two thirds its natural diameter, p. 44. 
The surface of the inner part has decayed away. 

la, side view. 

Id, back view. 

lc, section of the outer whorl. 

2a, b, and c. Ammonites Renevieri ; from the Grey Chalk, near Blackdown, Isle of 
Wight; in the collection of E. Renevier, Esq., of Lausanne, p. 44. 
2a, side view. 
2b, front view. 
2c, outline of a septum. 

3a and b. Ammonites Saxbii ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my 
possession, p. 45, 
3a, side view. 
3b, front view. 

4a and b. Ammonites Vectensis ; from the Chloritic Marl of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in 
my possession, p. 45. 
4a, side view. 
4<5, front view. 




Geo.WeslltOi " " : ■ 



PLAT E 



XXI. 



Fig. 

la, b, c. Ammonites Lewesiensis ; from the Grey Chalk, near Dover; in the collection 
of S. J. Mackie, Esq., of Folkstone, p. 46. 
la, side view. 
lb, front view. 
lc, outline of a septum. 

2. Ammonites leptophyllus ; outline of a septum of the specimen, Plate XXII, tig. 1. 

3a, b, c. Ammonites Wiestii; from the Chalk with silicious grains, Chardstock, 
Somersetshire; in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq., p. 47. 
3a, side view. 
3b, back view. 
3c, section of a whorl. 



PLATE XXII. 



Fig. 

la, b. Ammonites leptophyllus ; from the Upper Chalk of Greenhithe, Kent; in the 
collection of L. Barrett, Esq., reduced to two fifths its natural diameter, 
p. 48. 
la, side view. 
lb, front view. 

2a, b, c. Ammonites Gollevillensis ; from the hard Chalk of Damlaght, in the county 
of Deny, Ireland ; in the Museum of Practical Geology ; reduced to 
three fourths its natural diameter, p. 48. 

2a, side view. 

2b, front view. 

2c, outline of a septum. 



Plal.e Ml 




Goo.West.I.ith . 

Ford >c West, Imp 



PLATE XXIII. 



Fig. 

la, b, c. Ammonites curvatus ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my 
possession, p. 49. 
la, side view. 
lb, front view, 
lc, outline of a septum. 

2. Ammonites falcatus ; outline of the septum of a specimen from the Chloritic Marl of 

Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in my possession, p.. 21. 
3a, b, c. Ammonites Salteri; from the Chalk with siliceous grains, Chardstock, 
Somersetshire ; in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq., p. 50. 
3a, side view. 
"6b, front view. 
3c, outline of a septum. 

4a, b, c. Ammonites Ramsayanus ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains, Chardstock, 
Somersetshire; in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq., p. 51. 
4a, view of the left side. 
4b, view of the right side. 
4c, front view. 

oa, Ammonites Salteri ; from the Chalk with siliceous grains, Chardstock, Somerset- 
. shire ; in the collection of J. Wiest, Esq., p. 50. 
5a, side view. 
5(5, front view. 

6a, b, c. Ammonites Feraudianus; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in 
my possession, p. 52. 
6a, side view. 
6b, front view. 
6c, back view. 

la, b. Ammonites Bravaisianus ; copied from Plate XCI, figs. 3 and 4, of D'Orbigny's 
' Paleontologie Francaise, Terrains Cretaces.' p. 52. 

S. Ammonites Bravaisianus; from the Middle Chalk of Dover; in the collection of 
of S. J. Mackie, Esq. : the specimen has been worn, and the tubercles 
are nearly all rubbed off, p. 52. 

9. Ammonites Bravaisianus; from the Middle Chalk of Dover; in the collection of 
J. W. Flower: restored by the artist from a broken specimen, p. 52. 

10a, b, c. Ammonites Wiltonensis ; from the Grey Chalk, near Devizes, Wiltshire; in 
the collection of W. Cunnington, Esq., of Devizes, p. 53. 
10a, side view. 
10b, front view. 
10c, outline of a septum. 

11a, b, c, d, e. Ammonites Jukesii ; from the hard Chalk of the county of Londonderry ; 
in the Museum of Practical Geology, p. 53. 
11a, side view of a fragment, with part of three whorls. ■ 
lib, side view of the two inner whorls of 11a. 
11c, back view of lib. 
lid, section of the whorls restored. 
11c, part of the outline of a septum. 



"i. XXI II 




GeoWestJith 



Ford fcMk*t,bwj3. 



PLATE XXIV. 



Fig. 

la, b. Aptychus leptophyllus ; from the Upper Chalk of Brighton ; in Mr. Sharpe's 
collection (Geol. Soc), p. 55. 
la, concave (internal) surface. 
lb, smooth, convex surface. 

2, 3, 4. Aptychus Portlockii ; from the Upper Chalk of Norwich ; 2 and 3 in the col- 
lection of Mr. Bayfield ; 4 in the British Museum, p. 56. 

5. Aptychus Gollevillensis ; Upper Chalk, Norwich ; in the collection of Mr. Bayfield, 

p. 56. 

6. Aptychus Portlockii ? p. 56. 

7. Aptychus Icenicus ; Upper Chalk, Norwick; Mr. Bayfield, p. 57. 

8a, b, and 9. Aptychus rugosus; Upper Chalk, Norwich, p. 57. 

8a, external, sculptured surface of a pair of valves ; in the collection of Mr. 

Bayfield, p. 57. 
8b, internal surface, showing lines of growth. 

9, external surface of a large valve, in the collection of Mr. John King, of 
Norwich, p. 57. 

10a, b. Aptychus peramplus ; Upper Chalk, Norwich; Mr. Bayfield, p. 58. 
10a. internal, striated surface. 
10b, external surface of a fragment. 

11. Outline of the aperture of Ammonites Icenicus. 

1 2. „ „ A. Portlockii. 

13. „ „ A. LEPTOPHYLLUS. 

14. ,, „ A. PERAMPLUS. 

15. „ „ A. Gollevillensis. 



PL XXIV 




Geo W«sb.jltli 



Ford 8e Vest, Irev 



* 



PLATE 



XXV. 



Fig. 

1. Turrilites tuberculatus j from the Grey Chalk of Ringmer, Sussex; in the British 

Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 61. 

2. Turrilites tuberculatus, showing the produced mouth; from the Grey Chalk, near 

Lewes; in the British Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 61. 

3. Turrilites tuberculatus ; a fragment, showing the position of the lobes of a septum 

on the outer side of a whorl ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight, in 
my possession, p. 61. 

4. Turrilites tuberculatus ; a young specimen, from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle 

of Wight; in the collection of S. Saxby, jun., Esq., p. 61. 

5. Turrilites Mantelli ; from the Grey Chalk, near Lewes ; part of the outline of a 

septum is shown on the upper whorl ; in the British Museum, from the collection 
of Dr. Mantell, p. 63. 

6a, b. Turrilites Mantelli ; from the Grey Chalk, near Lewes ; an adult individual, 
showing the produced mouth ; in the British Museum, from the collection of Dr. 
Mantell, p. 63. 

la, b. Turrilites Gravesianus • from the Grey Chalk, near Lewes ; the position of the 
lobes of a septum is shown on the lower whorl of fig. la ; in the British Museum, 
from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 62. 



PLATE 



XXVI. 



Fig. 

1. Turrilites Scheuchzerianus ; adult, with the mouth produced; from the Grey Chalk 

of V entnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession, p. 64. 

2. Turrilites Scheuchzerianus; a young shell, on which part of the produced mouth 

is preserved ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession, 
p. 64. 

3. Turrilites Scheuchzerianus ? a very young shell, with the produced mouth com- 

pletely formed ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my posses- 
sion, p. 64. 

4. 5«, b, 6, la, b, and 8. Turrilites Morrisii ; five specimens of different ages; from 

the Chloritic Marl of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in my possession, p. 65. 
55, shows the base of the whorl of 5a. 
7b, is the outline of the septum of la. 

9. Turrilites Bergeri ; a fragment, showing part of the outline of a septum ; from the 

Chloritic Marl of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession, p. 65. 

10. Turrilites Bergeri; a fragment, from the Grey Chalk, near Lewes; in the British 

Museum, from the collection of Dr. Mantell, p. 65. 

11. Turrilites Bergeri; fragment of a young shell; from the Chalk with siliceous 

grains, Chardstock, Somersetshire ; in the collection of J. Morris, Esq., p. 65. 

12. a, b. Turrilites, species undetermined ; the last whorl of an adult shell, with the mouth 

produced ; from the Grey Chalk of Lewes ; in the British Museum, from the 
collection of Dr. Mantell. 

13<z, b. Turrilites Bechei; from the Chalk with siliceous grains, near Lyme Regis; 

part of the outline of a septum is seen on the second whorl ; presented to the 
British Museum by the late Sir H. T. de la Beche, p. 66. 

14. Turrilites Gravesianus ; outline of part of a septum. 

1 5. Turrilites tuberculatus ; outline of part of a septum. 

10. Turrilites tuberculatus ; outline of part of a septum; from the Chloritic Marl of 
Bonchurch, Isle of Wight ; in the collection of S. Saxby, jun., Esq., p. 61. 






C West Lull 



PLATE XXVII. 



Fig. 

1. Turrilites costatus; young, from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in 
my possession, p. 66. 

2a, b. Turrilites costatus ; adult, with the mouth completely formed ; from the Grey 
Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my possession, p. 66. 
2a, side view. 

2b, view of the base, with the perfect mouth. 

3 and 4. Turrilites costatus ; two small specimens which have already formed the 
produced mouth; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in my 
possession, p. 66. 

5. Turrilites costatus; young, from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight; in 
my possession, p. 66. 

6 and 7. Turrilites bifrons ? .D'Orb. ; from the Lower Chalk, Ventnor, p. 67. 

8. Turrilites Wiestii ; from the Grey Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; in my posses- 
sion, p. 67. 

9a, b. Turrilites Wiestii ; young, from the Chalk with siliceous grains, Charclstock, 
Somersetshire; in the collection of Mr. John Morris, p. 67. 
9a, side view. 
9b, base of a whorl. 

10. Turrilites Bergeri ? var. ; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 

{Mr. Saxby.) 

11. Turrilites Puzosianus, D' Orb. var. ; from the Chloritic Marl of Bonchurch, p. 68. 

12. Turrilites costatus, var. ; from the Lower Chalk of Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 

13. Turrilites tuberculatus, var. ; from the Lower Chalk of Ventnor. 

These two figures (12, 13) are doubtfully referred to the above species, and 
may hereafter prove to be distinct : the specimens are only fragments, and in 
an imperfect state of preservation. 

14a, b. Turrilites Wiestii, var. ; from the Lower Chalk of Ventnor. 

15. Turrilites costatus, var. T. triplicates, J. Sow. ; Lower Chalk, Sussex; from the 

original in the British Museum, p. 66. 

16. Septum of T. costatus, p. 66. 

17. Septum of T. Wiestii, p. 67. 



THK 



PALiEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVIL 



LONDON; 



M DCCC L VI. 



A MONOGRAPH 



01 rill 



TERTIARY ENTOMOSTR AC A 

OF 

ENGLAND. 



BY 

T. RUPERT JONES, F.G.S. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PALiEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1850. 



ADLARD, PRINTER, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSli. 



INTRODUCTION 



The Tertiary Entomostraca of Britain have hitherto received but little 
notice. In my 'Monograph of the Cretaceous Entomostraca/ 1849, published by the 
Palaeontographical Society, I referred to the occurrence of some of the Cretaceous 
species in our Tertiary deposits. 1 Dr. Reuss, about the same time, figured and 
described two forms which he had received from the Barton Clay of Hampshire ; and I 
have since described a few species from Woolwich and Col well. 2 Several of the Post- 
tertiary fresh-water Entomostraca, however, have been noticed by me, in 1 850, in the 
' Annals of Natural History.' To these latter species I have now to add two others ; 
and of the Tertiary Entomostraca I am enabled, from my own collection and with the 
aid of my friends, to enumerate 50 species ; altogether amounting to 58 species. Of 
these, 30 (including three described by me in the ' Memoirs of the Geological Survey ' 
whilst preparing this Monograph) are new. 

The Post-tertiary species are included in this Monograph for the sake of con- 
venience, and to render the subject as perfect as circumstances will permit. The 
recent forms which have become fossilized in the Post-tertiary deposits, either of fresh- 
water, estuarine, or marine origin, not only complete the geological series up to the 
present day, but are of considerable value in assisting us in the identification of some 
carapace-remains, otherwise obscure in their relations. The list of these later species 
of Ostracoda may be also regarded as a not uninteresting addition to the valuable 
resume of the Molluscan fauna of the Post-tertiary and Pleistocene eras, with which 
Mr. S. V. Wood has enriched his elaborate and valuable ' Monograph on the 
Mollusca of the Crag.' 

1 In a few instances the determination of the species or of the deposits has since appeared to me to be 
unsatisfactory : the localities, therefore, given in the present Monograph are to be considered as corrected 
in such cases. 

2 With respect to the Colwell species which -were inadvertently quoted as from Woolwich, see further 
on, p. 26. 



viii 



INTRODUCTION. 



With regard to the sources from whence I have derived the materials for the 
present Monograph, I have first to acknowledge the value of Mr. S. V. Wood's 
extensive series of Entomostraca from the Crag of Suffolk (chiefly from Sutton), which 
he most liberally confided to my care for description. 

Mr. F. Edwards also kindly placed his numerous specimens from Barton, High 
Cliff, Col well, and Bracklesham in my hands; Mr. H. C. Sorby supplied the Brid- 
lington specimens ; and I have the pleasure of noticing in the Monograph my debts to 
Mr. Brown, Mr. Pickering, Mr. Harris, Mr. Wetherell, Mr. Parker, Mr. Prestwich, 
and other friends for like assistance. 

The London Clay specimens were chiefly collected by Mr. J. Purdue from the 
Copenhagen Fields. 

To Mr. Morris and Mr. Salter I am especially obliged for the opportunity of 
examining an extensive series of " Cypris-shales " from the Hempstead and the 
Osborne Series of the Isle of Wight, chiefly collected by the officers of the Geological 
Survey, and some by Mr. Morris himself. Previously I possessed but a limited supply 
of these shales ; but the new materials, though too late for illustration in the plates of 
this Monograph, enabled me to determine one additional species, and to add to my 
descriptions of some others. 

The specimens at my command from several of the localities referred to in the 
Monograph represent tolerably well the Entomostracan fauna of the deposits yielding 
them. The following may be considered as more or less fully illustrated, viz. the 
Newbury peat-beds (indifferently), the Cambridgeshire peat-marl, the Copford fresh- 
water deposits (indifferently), the Pleistocene beds at Grays, Clacton (indifferently), and 
Wear Farm, the Crag of Sutton, the Upper Eocene shales of Hempstead Cliff, the 
Middle Eocene beds at Colwell, Barton, and Bracklesham, and the London Clay at 
Copenhagen Fields. 

The distribution of the Tertiary Ostracoda and their proportional occurrence are 
generally indicated in the text ; but the synoptical tables of the distribution and 
relative abundance of the species, given in the Appendix (Tables I, II, III), will, it is 
hoped, materially assist the student and collector in this respect. 

Frequently a deposit has been too imperfectly worked for a sufficiently good result 
for the purposes of comparison to have been obtained, — such as at Edwardstone, 
Alum Bay, East Woodhay, &c. Still the Post-tertiary era and each of the divisions of 
the Tertiary formation are perhaps, as far as the South East of England is concerned, 
fully represented by the combined product of the several localities where the different 
deposits have been met with. 

In indicating the geological series to which the several deposits both in England 
and on the Continent belong, I have chiefly followed the valuable Table at p. 105, of 
Lyell's ' Manual of Elementary Geology,' 5th edition. 



INTRODUCTION. 



is 



M. Bosquet's elaborate Table 1 of the distribution of the French and Belgian species 
refers to the Upper, Middle, and Lower Tertiaries of those countries respectively ; but, 
as the " Lower Tertiaries " therein indicated do not necessarily include the Lower 
Eocene, which is but sparingly exhibited in France, it has been requisite, for the sake 
of comparison, to work out the serial position of the several deposits in which the 
species of Ostracoda found in England occur also on the Continent ; and the result is 
given in Table IV in the Appendix. 

Tables V and VI in the Appendix will assist the reader in remembering the 
relations of the English and the Continental Tertiary deposits. Table VI comprises 
some of the latest corrections introduced by Mr. Prestwich, to whom geologists are 
greatly indebted for important information on the correlation of the Tertiaries of 
England, France, and Belgium. 

I have prefaced the descriptive portion of the Monograph with as complete a 
general notice of the zoological characters of the animals whose carapaces are under 
consideration, as the means and time at my disposal have allowed me to do. I regret 
that the minute anatomical research is almost denied to me now by impaired eyesight : 
nor have I been enabled, for the same reason, to fully examine the " lucid spots " in 
the carapaces, as I once intended. 

In a zoological point of view, the species about to be described offer us some 
interesting peculiarities in the structure of the carapaces and in their hingement and 
ornamentation. Geologically, it is interesting to observe that considerable uniformity 
in the distribution of certain species, and of groups of closely allied species, obtain in 
England and the neighbouring European districts. Several forms belong exclusively 
to the Middle Eocene, and some are confined to the Lower Eocene, or to other strati- 
graphical series. On the contrary, some species belong to several deposits of different 
ages, and of wide geographical range, — such as Cythere {Cytheridea) Mulleri and 
C. [Bairdid) subdeltoidea, which latter is found from the Cretaceous to the recent 
period. 

I sincerely thank Mr. George West for the beautiful illustrations he has produced 
of these remains ; — often obscure and always minute, they have taxed his skill and 
patience ; and I owe him much, too, in the elucidation of many points of structure 
which would have been indifferently noticed had he not, with the eye of a naturalist 
and geologist, worked out obscure characters at the expense of much time and labour. 

In figuring the specimens I have placed the carapaces and single valves with the 
anterior end upwards ; this being the most convenient, when carapace-remains only 
have to be represented. It has therefore to be borne in mind that the upper and 
lower borders of the carapace-valves are right and left in the figures. 



1 'Descript. Entom. Terr. Tert.,' p. 134, &c. 



X 



INTRODUCTION . 



The natural position of the carapace and animal, when alive, is shown in the 
woodcuts 1 and 2, at p. 16. 

M. Reuss's plan of placing the anterior end downwards is rather confusing ; more 
especially since others follow a different plan. 

In the Plates the species are arranged, with some few exceptions, 1 in strati- 
graphical order ; so that the general fades of each geological group is represented with 
tolerable clearness. 

November, 1856. 

1 Especially of the Woolwich Series. 



CONTENTS. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Introduction .... 


VI 1 


/ cit f U'Siigaia • 




Tertiary Entomostraca 


1 
1 


■ — sp/uerulo/tneata 


ou 


Entomostraca 


Q 

o 


Cytiiereis 


1 7 
9/ 


vJslRACODA, 01 Y PKOIDEA 


A 

■ *i 


C, Sendis . • 




CyPRID/E .... 


7 


— Bowerbankiana 


'in 


Cyprin.e .... 


1 U 


— horrescens . 


. . 90 


Cypris, Cypria, Cyprois, Notodromas 


1 1 


— Ceratoptera . . 




Cypris setigera . . 


1 o 


— cor nut a 


. . Oil 


— Browniana 


1 o 


VI J J:J Ji» It I D LA 


Aft 

, . 4U 


— Ovum 




(_/. iHuuevi . 


A 1 
4 1 


— gibbet ... 




— ueutits . 


43 


OAIS DOrs A .... 


1 

1 


— pinguts 




C. rep tans 




— Sorbyana 


A A 
44 


— Forbesii 


10 


— perforata 


/t A 


— Richardsoni 


1 o 

I© 


Cy'tiierideis 


40 


— Candida 




C t> igunalis 


A 7 


— subcequalis 


on 


— tubercidata 




Cyprideis .... 


24 


— unisulcata 


A Q 

4o 


C. torosa 




— unicornis 


4o 


^ 1 1 1 1 J i. K 1 JN 


99 


— Tamarindus . . 


AQ 




93 

4VU 


— Oolwellensis . . 


AQ 
Hit 


C. punctata 




— Bartonetisis 


ou 


— tvtyonulci ■ . a 




— Jiavida 




— tviauyulavjs 


9^» 


— .Re?* 


J 


— ZX ethereltii . . 


9>S 


Bairdia 


^ i 


_ v t~ i' l fl t t\t \1 1 11 f'T ft T ti 
o (/((// (JIHlIt Li U v II . . 


97 


/a v // « //'// f j //// '/ / 




— consobrina * . 


97 
Z/ 


— contracta . 


■ oo 


— attenuata , 


9W 


I VTU PI) l 1 ! T A 




— Kostelensis ? 


28 


C. conipressu 


. 54 


— concinna 


. 29 


— Londinensis 


. 55 


— Woodiana 


. 29 


— Munsteri 


. 56 


— laqueatu 


. 30 


Appendix 


. 57 


— Bictyosigma . 


. 30 


Table I . 


. 57 


— lacunosa 


. 31 


— II 


. 58 


— scabropaptdosa 


. 31 


— Ill 


. 60 


— costellata 


. 32 


— IV 


. 61 


— plica t a 


. 32 


Notes 


. 61 


— scrobicidoplicata 


. 33 


Table V 


. 62 


— Angidatopora 


. 34 


— VI 


. 62 


— Macropora 


. 35 


Bibliograpbical lists 


63, 64 


— Trachypora 


. 36 


Index 


. 66 



b 



ERRATA. 



Page 5, line 2 from bottom, for cleanse read cleansed. 

Page 15, line 3 from top, for 13 — 17 read 13, 14, 17. 

Page 17, line 1G from top, for Candona lucens read Candona Candida. 

Page 30, line 18 from top, for Pleistocene read Pliocene. 

Page 33, line 5 from top, for laticostata read Laticosta. 

Page 47, line 10 from bottom, for Pleistocene read Pliocene. 

Page 49, line 7 from bottom, for Upper Eocene read Middle Eocene. 

Page 50, line 2 from top, and line 10 from bottom, for Upper Eocene read Middle Eocene. 
Page 51, line 3 from top, for Upper Eocene Lands read Middle Eocene Sands. 



Page 58, in the last column but one, and towards the lower 
right-band corner of the table, some lines of letters have 
slipped from their places : their right position is thus — 



M. E. 
Plioc. 
Plioc. 
Plioc. 
Plioc. 


M. E. 
M. E. 




Plioc. 
L. E. 

M. E. 

Plioc. 

M. E. 
L. E. 


rU. E. ? 
l&M. E. 
r U. E. & 
I M. E. 
M. E. 


* 



ADDITIONAL ERRATA. 



In Tables II and III, " Colwell Bay" should be tabulated as Upper Eocene. The numerical results 
given at the foot of Table III will consequently be — 



Upper Eocene 




1 




3 


1 


3 


4 | 




1 


12 


Middle Eocene 








8 


2 


2 


1 J 


2 


2 


17 



At pages 26, 33, 34, and 3!), the Colwell Bay Sands, &c. have been wrongly termed Middle Eocene. 
At page 49, near the bottom of page 50, and at page 51, they are correctly referred to as Upper Eocene. 

Besides the accidental shifting of the letters at the bottom of the ninteenth column in Table II, p. 58, 
the letters in that column opposite to species 18 and 19 have also dropped too low. 



A MONOGRAPH 

OF THE 

TERTIARY ENTOMOSTRACA OF ENGLAND. 



In the introductory portion of my ' Monograph of the Entomostraca of the 
Cretaceous Formation of England/ published by the Palaeontographical Society, 1849, 
and also in my Notes on the Permian Entomostraca, at p. 58 of Professor King's 
Monograph, of the same date, I offered some general remarks on fossil and recent 
Entomostraca, and supplied numerous references to earlier observers who had written 
on the subject. 1 

I need not repeat what is there stated. Since 1849 some highly important works 
on the recent Entomostraca by Baird, Dana, Liljeborg, Zenker, Fischer, &c, have 
appeared ; 2 and numerous valuable papers, illustrative of the fossil forms, have been 
published by foreign Academies and Institutions. Amongst these palseontographical 
works, the two Memoirs by M. J. Bosquet, of Maestricht, on Tertiary and Cretaceous 
Entomostraca, are pre-eminent ; and, at the same time, Dr. A. E. Reuss, of Prague, 
has indefatigably produced several valuable and highly illustrated Memoirs, some of 
considerable extent, on similar fossils. 

I do not propose to enter into a critical examination of the Tertiary species 
described by these and other contemporary authors, for the figures published by 
some of these writers are, either from their indefiniteness or the want of the illustra- 
tion of details, of little use, even with the aid of the descriptions given, in satisfactorily 
determining the differences or the specific identity of specimens ; 3 and I greatly regret 
that I trusted too much to the illustrations of former authors, when I was comparing 

1 See also Bibliographical List, ' Monog. Ent. Cret ,' p. 38. 2 See Bibliographical List, APPENDIX. 

3 Owing to the kindness of M. Bosquet, however, who has furnished me with a series of the Cretaceous 
and Tertiary Entomostraca of Belgium and France, I have been enabled to compare many of the forms 
described in this Monograph with their European congeners. 

1 



2 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



the English with the foreign Cretaceous Entomostraca. With regard to the generic 
arrangements adopted in the palaeontographical works referred to, I shall only observe 
that, for the most part, the fossil carapace-valves have been studied and arranged with 
but an indifferent knowledge of the relations of the carapace and animal. Hence, as 
soon as the misapplication of the generic term " Cypridina " to the Cytlierince was 
corrected, the sub-generic divisions of Bairdia, Cytherella, &c, were erected into 
independent genera on account of difference of carapace-structure ; a reason which does 
not appear to me to be substantial, but requires other accompanying differences of 
organization in the animal to render it good for generic distinctions. As far as we yet 
know, the animal of Bairdia resembles that of Gythere proper, and so does that of 
Cyth&ridea, judging from Dana's figure of Cy there Americana} and Zenker's figure of 
C. viridis? 1 The animals with the other forms of carapace (Cythereis, Cytherella, &c), 
although they exist, have not yet been met with alive. 

If future investigations in the Cytherince by such close observers as Zenker and 
Liljeborg should determine the existence of differences in internal organization (as 
these authors already have in the Cyprincs) among animals which differ but slightly in 
the character and arrangement of the masticatory and locomotive limbs, the division of 
Cythere into genera will become necessary ; but at present, with carapaces only before 
us, however these may differ among themselves, I think we had better keep the genus 
intact, and regard the subordinate forms of carapace (which often pass insensibly from 
one to another) as indicating only sub-genera or artificial divisions, convenient in the 
studies of zoologists and palaeontologists. 

By pointing out, in my former Monograph, how frequently one and the same form 
of carapace among the Ostracoda was represented in different eras — in strata greatly 
differing in age, or in recent seas as well as even sometimes in palaeozoic deposits — 
I have so much astonished some Continental palaeontologists (who have found it 
necessary to point out that I have mixed together what they regard as " incongruities," 
both geological and palaeontological), 3 that I shall abstain from troubling myself with 
enumerating all the close resemblances of form, and limit myself to the most obvious, 
assuring my readers that these incongruities do exist, and that very similar forms of 
carapace, both in the Ostracoda and in other Enlo?uostraca, occur throughout nearly all 
epochs ; although each geologic division of time has nevertheless had its peculiar fades 
as regards the Entomostraca, as it has had of other groups of animal existences. 

1 Dana's 'Crustacea,' pi. 89, fig. 9. 2 'Archiv f. Nat.,' 1854, t. 4, fig. 10, &c. 

3 Pictet 'Traite de Paleontologie,' 2d edit., vol. ii, p. 532 ; Reuss, 'Zeitsch. Deutsch. Geol. Ges.,' 
vol. vii, p. 278. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



3 



Division — En to m o s tr a c a , Mutter. 1 



Animal aquatic, covered with a shell or carapace of a horny consistence, formed of 
one or more pieces ; in some genera resembling a cuirass or buckler, and in others 
a bivalve shell, which completely or in great part envelopes the body and limbs of the 
animal ; in other genera the animal is invested with a multivalve carapace, like jointed 
plate-armour : the branchiae are attached either to the feet or to the organs of masti- 
cation ; the limbs are jointed, and more or less setiferous. The animals, for the most 
part, undergo a regular moulting or change of shell as they grow ; in some cases this 
amounts to a species of transformation. 2 

The following; is Mr. Dana's classification of this division : 



Division — E ntomostraca. 



Order 2. Cormostomata. 
Legion I. Poecilopoda. 
,, II. Arachnopoda. 



Order 1. Gnathostomata. 
Legion I. Lophyropoda. 
Tribe 1. Cyclopoidea. 
„ 2. Daphnioidea. 
,, 3. Cyproidea. 
Legion II. Phyllopoda. 

I have elsewhere observed that, in the case of the fossil Entomostraca, the soft 
parts, including the branchial, maxillary, and locomotive organs, on which the generic, 
and sometimes the specific, distinctions of the recent forms are mainly established, 
have quite disappeared, the hard carapace-valves alone remaining to guide us in the 
recognition of genera and species. It is fortunate, however, that the families, and 
most of the genera even, of the existing bivalved Entomostracans have carapaces 
sufficiently characteristic to enable us to co-ordinate the fossil forms by the analogies 
presented in the form and structure of the valves. When we refer, however, to the 
minute distinctions of form, hinyement, and ornamentation, we find that among the recent 
bivalved Entomostraca some families, and even genera, have carapaces peculiar to 
them {Nebalia, Limnadia, and Cypridina) ; whilst in other families a nearly similar 
carapace belongs to two genera (Cypris and Candona, Daphnia and Lynceus) ; and, on 
the contrary, even two characteristically different carapaces occur among the species 
of one genus {Cythere and its sub-genus Bairdia). 

In the case of two or more genera presenting a similar form of carapace, we 



1 For synonyms see Dr. Baird's 'Nat. Hist. Brit. Entom.,' p. 16. 

2 Zenker observes that there is no casting of the carapace in the Ostracoda. 



1 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



necessarily meet with considerable difficulty in dealing with fossil carapaces referable 
to such genera. Thus we cannot be satisfactorily guided in our determination of fossil 
Cyprides and Candona except by the identification of fossil with known recent forms 
of carapace ; and, were it not that several such identifications are readily made (many 
of the recent species having existed in the pleistocene period), the general term 
" Cypris " might have been conveniently applied (with but little zoological licence, 
owing to the close alliance of Cypris and Candona) to the Cypris-like carapaces from 
fresh-water deposits. Where, however, marked differences of structure occur among 
fossil carapaces of doubtful relationship, we may readily, for the sake of convenience, 
group the several varieties of form under sub-generic appellations, without hazarding a 
decision as to their exact zoological value. 



Tribe — Ostracoda, Latreille} 

Cyproides, Milne Edwards. 
Cypridacea, Dana. 
Cyproidea, Dana. 

Animal enclosed in a bivalved carapace (which presents some modifications of form 
and structure according to the gender of the animal). The two valves of the carapace 
are united along the back by a membrane, with their edges either simply in contact, 
or more or less closely fitting to each other by means of ridges and furrows, or toothed 
hinges : the other marginal edges are either trenchant and provided with internal 
narrow lamelliform plates — in which case, when the valves are closed, the edges of the 
smaller valve lie within those of the other ; or they are thickened, and fit against each 
other with grooved and flanged contact-surfaces. The valves are closed together by 
the transverse muscle of the animal ; the place of the attachment of this muscle 2 is 
indicated on the interior of each valve by a sub-central tubercle (in Cytheretta), — by a 
sub-central shallow pit, — or by a small group of translucent spots, — or a combination 
of spots and pit. The posterior, and sometimes the anterior jaws are branchiferous. 
There are two or three pairs of feet, and two pairs of antennae. Some of the Ostracoda 
have a single (coalesced) eye ; and others have two distinct eyes. 

1 See also 'Nat. Hist. Brit. Entom.,' p. 138 ; and ' Monog. Cret. Entom.,' p. 7. 

2 We are indebted to M. Zenker for a clear exposition of the relation of the transverse muscle of the 
animal to the "lucid spots" on the carapace-valves. See his Memoir in the 'Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte,' 
for 1854 The existence of the muscle and its place of attachment to the interior of the valves in Estheria 
and Cypridina have been pointed out elsewhere, as mentioned in my paper on Leperditia, ' Annals and 
Mag. Nat. Hist.,' Feb. 1856, p. 97. I much regret that I was not acquainted with M. Zenker's paper when 
I wrote on Leperditia. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



5 



The "lucid spots/' or mark of the place of muscular attachment, afford an interest- 
ing subject for examination and comparison. It is generally impossible to see them 
fairly in the living carapace or in the uncleaned dead valves. Some fossil valves 
present them clearly ; but mineralization frequently obscures them. To facilitate the 
examination of the spots, it is necessary to boil the valves, both recent and fossil, in a 
weak solution of potash, 1 after which their structure is much more easily observed. 
The boiling may be carried on in a flask over a spirit- or gas-lamp for ten minutes or 
more, — as long as an hour, if found requisite. My friend Mr. W. K. Parker, who has 
kindly favoured me with some of the finest and cleanest specimens in my collection, 
informs me that the process above mentioned is appropriate and indeed necessary for 
the preparation of Foraminifera and other microzoa for the cabinet. 

Baird, Fischer, Zenker, and Liljeborg have indicated the lucid spots in their 
figures of Cyprides and Cytheres ; but frequently, owing to the partial opacity of the 
valves in the recent state, and the difficulty of defining the spots externally, only 
portions of the groups of spots are given ; and in some of the figures by Fischer and 
Liljeborg the spots appear to have been sketched in without exact reference to their 
position on the valve, since they are in these instances represented parallel with 
the upper and lower borders of the valves, whereas the elongate spots are, as a rule, 
obliquely situated. 

The lucid spots occupy a sub-oval space, or follow a short transverse linear sulcus, 
near'the middle of each valve, and rather towards the ventral border; usually slightly 
in advance of the centre, but sometimes behind it. The sub-oval space is sometimes 
faintly raised externally ; the spots themselves, however, are almost always concave 
externally and convex internally. 

Among the Cyprince three styles or systems of arrangement of the spots obtain. 
These are illustrated by some of the figures in the accompanying Plates, and will serve 
as terms of comparison. 

a. A system of about seven elongate oval spots, arranged in four unequal parallel 
oblique rows ; the two outer (upper and lower) rows are each formed of two long 
spots, frequently coalescent. The obliquity is directed in a line from about the antero- 
dorsal angle, or the anterior hinge, towards the posterior third of the ventral margin. 
(See Plate I, figs. 7 a, 7 b, 7 c, 9 a.) 

b. A system of six sub-oval spots arranged in two transverse (vertical) rows ; 
the front row consisting of four, and the hinder row of two spots ; the hinder spots are 

1 About 1 part of liquor potassce with 19 parts of water (and more of the potash if required, according 
to the coarseness and foulness of the specimens, up to 1 part in 4). 

My friend Mr. Harris, of Charing, also has shown me some of his Cretaceous Entomostraca, &c, 
thoroughly cleanse by the action of water only, in a phial, half-filled with water, lashed to a small barrel 
(externally fitted as a water-wheel, and propelled by a stream), in which he washes bis Chalk-detritus. 



6 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



usually placed behind the lower or most ventral spots of the front rank (See Plate I, 
figs. 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, 5 6, 8 a, 8 e, S /.) 

c. A system of four or five sub-oval spots, arranged in a transverse row, more or 
less curved, and set in a linear sulcus. (See Plate II, figs. 1 a, 1 <?, 1 /; Plate IV, 

fig. 6 d.) 

The lucid spots in the Cytherina are not yet well examined. In some species they 
are very similar to one or other of the systems above described as occurring among 
the Cyprina, — in others the modifications are more distinct, — and, lastly, in Cytherella 
the arrangement of the spots resembles that of some Cypridina. 

The following is Mr. Dana's classification 1 of the Ostracoda {Cypridacea and 
Cyproidea, Dana), founded on the study of the limbs or articulate appendages : 

Tribe — CYPROI DE A vel OSTRACODA. 2 

In the Cyproidea there are two pairs of antenna? and a pair of mandibles, and the 
pairs of appendages posterior to the mandibles — in number four pairs — are divided 
variously between the mouth and the legs, as follows : 

1. One pair of maxillae and three pairs of legs, as in Cythere. 

2. Two pairs of maxillae and two pairs of legs, as in Cypris, Conchacia, and 

Halocypris. 

3. Three pairs of maxillae and one pair of legs, as in Cypridina. 

Fam. I. CypriDjE. Antenna secunda subteretes, 3 — 5 articulates. Mandibular apice 
products et denticulate et lateraliter palpiyera, palpo ad mandibular apicem remote Oculi 
piymento unico minato conjuncti, lenticulis duobus spharicis. Pedes duo vel plures tenuiter 
pediformes. 

Sub-fam. 1. Cyprhsme {Cypridida, Baird). Pedes numero quatuor ; anteriores tenues 
pediformes, posteriores debiles. Abdomen elonyatum stylis duobus confectum. 

Genus 1. Cypris, Miiller. Antenna secundce ad articuli tertii apicem bene setiy era. 
Species natatoria. 

Genus 2. Candona, Baird. Antenna secunda ad articuli tertii apicem vix setiyera. 
Species yressoria. 

1 'Exploring Expedition: Crustacea,' p. 1277, &c. 

2 Dr. Baird's classification of this group is very similar to Dana's, viz. : 

Ostracoda. 



/ > 

Cyprididse, Cytheridse, Cypridinadse. 
In Dr. Baird's work the term "Cypridse" is corrected as an erratum at p. viii. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



7 



Sub-fam. 2. Cytherin^e {Cytheridce, Baird). Pedes numero sex, toti femes, con- 
similes, pediformes. 

Genus 1. Cythere, Miiller. Testa tenuis, lavis. Cauda brevis. 

Genus 2. Cythereis, 1 Jones. \_Sub-yenus, Jones.] Testa rugulis vel luberculis 
ornata. {Animal iynotum. An hujus sedis ?) 

Fam. II. Halocyprid^:. 

Sub-fam. 1. CypridininjE. 

Genus 1. Cypridina. 2 
Sub-fam. 2. Halocyprin^e. 

Genus 1. Conch;ecia. 

Genus 2. Halocypris. 



The minute anatomy of the internal organs supplies some very important charac- 
teristics in addition to those derived from the limbs. Zenker, who has published" 
copious anatomical details of the internal organization of some of the Cyprince and 
Cytherince, and has somewhat modified the generic arrangement of the former group, 
has still other species to examine before a complete classification on his plan can be 
arrived at. This observer finds reason to divide the Cypris of authors into Cypris 
proper, a sub-genus Cypria, and a genus Cyprois. 

The elaborate and highly illustrated work by M. Liljeborg, of Lund, published in 
1853, has added greatly to our knowledge of the anatomical structure of a considerable 
number of species of Cypris, as well as of other genera of Entomostraca ; and, by his 
careful comparison of the Swedish species with published descriptions (as far as the 
figures and descriptions of former authors serve), this author has advanced the 
arrangement of specific forms. 

1 Cythereis was not established by me as a genus, but as a sub-genus. See ' Monog. Entom. Cretac.,' 
p. 14. Its animal was unknown in 1849, and still remains so; and the gradual passage of the carapace of 
Cythereis into that of Cythere proper was too well recognised to allow of the difference of the two forms 
being dwelt upon in any other light than as sub-generic, and as a convenient distinction for the sake of 
palaeontologists. My friend Dr. Baird, from whose beautiful work on the ' British Entomostraca ' (Ray 
Society, 1850) Dana has apparently derived his information on this point, recognising the marked difference 
between some extreme forms of recent Cythereis and that of the common Cythere, figured and described 
some carapaces of the former as generically distinct, and inadvertently omitted, when enumerating the 
synonyms (p. 174), the word "sub-genus " in his reference to my detailed description of the carapace of 
Cythereis. On subsequently seeing a series of the various modifications of the carapace in fossil specimens 
of Cythere and Cythereis, Dr. Baird has expressed himself quite willing to regard the latter as a sub-genus, 
until something at least is known of the animal itself. 

2 M. Liljeborg has also established a cognate genus, Philomedes. (' De Crustaceis,' &c, 1853, p. 1/5.) 

3 'Archiv f. Anat.,' 1850; 'Archiv fur Naturgeschichte,' for 1854. 



8 THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 

Liljeborg divides the Cyprince into three genera, characterised as follows : 



Eye double. 



Eye single 
(coalesced). 



Second pair of maxillae with- 
out branchial appendage. 

Both pairs of maxillee pro- 
vided with branchial ap- 
pendage. 



Lower pair of antennae 
provided with a 
pencil of setae, or 
filamentous plume./ 



f Setae long, reaching^ 
much beyond the 
apex of the terminal 
hook. 

Setae reaching as far 
as or beyond the 
apex of the terminal 
hook. 

Setae short. 1 



Second pair of maxillae with- ( Lower pair of antennae] 
out branchial appendage. ] without a pencil of 

setae. 



) Notodromas. 



Cypris. 



. Candona. 



The researches of Liljeborg and Zenker often coincide in their results ; but these 
authors differ widely in their views as to the synonymy of several forms, owing to the 
often imperfect accounts and figures by earlier naturalists, — to the different extent or 
direction of the zootomical examinations made by these two authors respectively, — 
and to the different appreciation of the value of the form of the carapace entertained 
by them. 

As it is necessary that the anatomy of all the species must be fully and equally well 
examined previously to a complete classification on anatomical grounds being made, 
it is evident that any arrangement is incomplete until each known species has been 
subjected to such a minute examination as that instituted by the crustaceologists 
above referred to. 

In the meantime palaeontologists must be guided in the recognition of specific 
forms by the characters of the carapace-valves, which, however, among the Cyprincs 
do not present satisfactory generic differences of character. The carapaces of Cypris 
proper, Cypria, and Notodromas or Cyprois are similar in general structure and form. 
The carapaces of the Candona, or the group which are destitute of the plume on the 
lower antennse, for the most part resemble those of Cyprides, but are conspicuous for 
their great relative size and oblong shape. A distinct hingement, however, is present 
in a Candona-like species which occurs recent at Gravesend, and fossil in our pleisto- 
cene deposits. This animal resembles Candona in its plumeless lower antennse ; but 
minute anatomical examination is required to determine its exact relations. In the 
meantime, on account of the hinge and the comparative coarseness of the carapace, 
I shall regard this as a sub-generic form, under the appellation of Cyprideis. 

In the 'Munich Transactions,' of 1855, Dr. S. Fischer has given us an additional 
memoir on the Ostracoda, in which he refers to some of Zenker's and his own 

1 These short setae do not form a. plume, and characterise forms which are included in Baird's genus 
Candona. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



1) 



discoveries in the anatomy and habits of these animals, and describes seventeen species 
of Cypris, nearly all of which are new, also three Cytheres (two of them new), and a 
new genus {Paradoxostoma), from the coast of Madeira, differing from Cythere 1 in 
having its masticatory organs blended together in a conical mass. Lastly he notices 
a new species of Aster ope {=Cypridina) . 

Including the new generic divisions established by Liljeborg and Zenker, together 
with the sub-genera proposed for the various fossil and recent forms referable to 
Cythere, the family Cypridce will stand thus : 



Fam. — Cyprid,e, Dana. 



Sub-family CYPRINiE, Dana. 
Genus Cypris, Muller. 
Sub-genus Cypria, Zenker. 

Genus Cyprois, Zenker. "j Probably 

,, Notodromas, Liljeborg . j the same. 
,, Candona, Baird. 

Sub-gen, [(} Cyprideis, 2 Jones. 
,, [?] Cypridea, 3 Bosquet. 



Sub-family CYTHERINiE, Dana. 
Genus Cythere, 1 Midler. 
Sub-genus Cytiiereis, Jones. 

,, Cytheridea, 5 Bosquet. 
,, Cytiierideis, Jones. 
„ Bairdia, 6 M'Coy. 
» [•] Cyttierella," Jones. 
Genus [?] Paradoxostoma, Fischer. 



I may here mention that Cyprella and Cypridella, of M. De Koninck, probably 
belong to a different group of the Entomostraca, — that Bosquet's " Cyprellae " of the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits are true Cypridina, — and that De Koninck's 
" Cypridina " (of the Carboniferous Limestone) is not the Cypridina of Milne Edwards. 
In a courteous reply to an inquiry with which I lately troubled M. Milne Edwards, he 
kindly informed me that the Cypridina described in the 'Hist. Nat. des Crust.' has 
really the antero-ventral notch so characteristic of the genus. 

1 It resembles in carapace C. variabilis of Baird. 

2 Having lately again endeavoured to obtain clearer anatomical characters from the few dried specimens 
I possess of this form, I find that the upper antennae are plumeless, as well as the lower pair (see fig. 2, 
p. 16) ; and the fragmentary posterior limbs appear to be referable to more than two pairs of feet. Under 
these circumstances we have indications of a fresh or brackish water Cythere. (Oct. 1856.) 

3 Proposed by M. Bosquet as a genus for the "Cyprides" of the Wealden and Purbeck deposits 
(' Descript. Entom. Tert.,' p. 48) ; their thick and often tuberculated valves have some analogy with those 
of Cyprideis. 

4 Zenker observes that Cythere is perhaps divisible into two genera at least, by the distinctive charac- 
ters of the spermatozoa; but further anatomical research is required on this point. 

5 Proposed as a genus by M. Bosquet. 6 Proposed as a genus by Mr. M'Coy. 

7 This division is more likely to prove to be a true "genus," when the recent animal is examined, 
than either of the other fossil forms here indicated as sub-genera ; for it presents a wider departure from 
the type of carapace of Cythere than any of the others, and intermediate forms appear to be wanting: in its 
system of " lucid spots " also it differs from Cythere ; approaching Cypridina in this respect. 



10 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



For the purposes of the palaeontologist a succinct table of the characters of the 
carapace of the chief forms of the Ostracoda will be useful : 



Cypris, genus 

Can dona, genus 
Cyprideis, sub-gen. ? 

Cypridea, sub-gen. 1 



Cythere, genus 

Cythereis, sub-gen. 

Cytheiudea, sub-gen. . 

Cytherideis, sub-gen. 
Bairdia, sub-gen. 

Cytherella, sub-gen. ? 



Carapace-valves. 



Thin. 

Thin. 
Thickish. 

Thick. 
Thickish. 

Thick. 

Thickish. 

Thin. 
Thin. 

Thick. 



Shape. 



Ovate. 
Oblong. 



Oblong. 



Triangular or 
ovate-oblong. 

Triangular. 



Ovate or oblong. 



Ovate or oblong. 

Long-ovate or 
oblong. 

j Oblong. | 



Contact- 
margins. 

bd 

p n ~- 
< ~- 

^ o 
o= 3' 



S — s» 

• SB 

p 3 Cj 

° C 

' 



m i— 

ft) <T 
W CO 



J Grooved 
I and 
(furrowed.. 



Larger than Cypris. 

Notched at the 
antero-ventral 
angle. 
Peach-stone-shaped. 
Often showing one 
central and two 
^posterior tubercles. 
The three tubercles 

strongly shown ; 
the postero-ventral 
one developed into a 
long ventral ridge 



Hinge-margins. 



Simple, inclined 
to be sulcate. 

Knurled. 
? 



Hinge consisting of 
bar and furrow, 
with terminal teeth. 



Hinge consisting of 
terminal teeth ; bar 
and furrowobsolete 



Knurled. 

Simple and sulcate, 
as in Cypris. 
Quite simple. 

No special hinge. 



Sub-family — Cy prince, Dana. {Cypridida, Baird.) 

I have alluded to the difficulties in the way of the palaeontologist when comparing 
the Tertiary Cyprince with their existing representatives ; and in the following descrip- 
tions I shall not dwell on the probabilities of the agreement of any of our few fossil 
forms with the carapaces of Cypria, Cyprois, and Notodromas, but arrange them in 
two groups accordingly as the carapaces more or less resemble those of the known 
recent species of the genera Cypris and Candona. 

At the same time it will be advisable to point out the anatomical characteristics of 
all the above-mentioned divisions, that the subject may be fairly presented in its 
zoological aspect. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



11 



Genus — Cypris, Midler. {Monoculus, Auci prior.) 

Animal swimming and creeping ; inhabiting fresh water : eye single (coalesced) : 
both pairs of antennae plumed. Carapace more or less oblong, generally smooth and 
more or less setigerous ; occasionally punctate ; contact-margins thin and trenchant, 
furnished on the anterior, ventral, and posterior borders with an internal lamellar 
plate which projects freely and obliquely into the cavity of the valves, and is broadest 
at the anterior end of the valves ; the edge of the right valve received within that of 
the left : dorsal edge simple ; its central third (and sometimes more) slightly thickened, 
and more or less distinctly defined by an anterior and a posterior angle ; these angles 
in general faintly project, the central portion of the margin between them being 
straight or slightly incurved : the ventral margin of each valve has its central portion 
somewhat incurved. 



[Sub-genus — Cypria, Zenker} 1854. {Cypris, Auct.) 

Animal like Cypris, but having a broader eye, more slender limbs with longer setae 
(hence greater briskness of motion in swimming), a peculiar bag-like prolongation of 
the mucous gland in the male genital apparatus, longer and thinner spermatozoa, and 
a bending downwards of the ovary at first between the valves instead of upwards. 
Carapace like that of Cypris. (This includes, according to Zenker, C. punctata, Jurine, 
C. Joanna, Baird, C. vidua, Midler, C. semilunaris (?), S. Fischer, and C. ovum, Jurine.) 

1 Zenker has studied the anatomy of Cypris and Cy there with great care, and has published the result 
of his researches in considerable detail (' Archiv fur Naturgeschichte,' 1854). Besides pointing out important 
distinctions in the limbs, shell-structure, chitine-skeleton, and eyes of these minute animals (and herein 
adding some valuable information to what has been before observed), he lays great stress on the structure 
of the alimentary and generative organs, and on the form of the spermatozoa, as characteristic of genera 
and species; and, although he has on these points accumulated a great mass of observations, both novel 
and important, yet he rightly intimates that the field is still open to investigators. His sub-genus Cypria 
and new genus Cyprois, mainly founded on peculiarities of internal structure, are introduced here to render 
the treatment of the subject more complete; although, for the purposes of the palaeontologist, as I have 
already noticed, the distinction of these, and even of Candona, from Cypris is scarcely advantageous. 
Indeed, were it not that some of the fossil forms have been recognised in the recent state, and their generic 
characters in consequence definitely known, it would not be always practicable to decide to what divisions 
of the Cyprince the several carapaces really belong. 



12 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



Genus — Cyprois, Zenker. 1854. (Cypris, Auct. ? Notodromas, Liljeb. 1853.) 
* 

Animal like Cypris, excepting that the eye is almost completely divided, and the 
mucus-gland of the male genital apparatus is differently constructed. Carapace like 
that of Cypris. (To this genus Zenker refers C. monacha, Muller, and C. dispar, 
Fischer.) 

Genus — Notodromas, Liljeborg. 1853. (Cypris, Auct. ? Cyprois, Zenker. 1854.) 

Animal like Cypris, excepting that the eye is double, — the second pair of maxillae 
have no branchial appendage, — and the pencil of setee on the lower pair of 
antennae is very long. Carapace resembling that of Cypris. Liljeborg quotes C. 
monacha, Muller, only as belonging to this genus. Probably Zenker's genus Cyprois is 
the same as this ; but some important points of comparison are still required to be 
worked out before, in this as in other instances, the researches of MM. Liljeborg and 
Zenker can be estimated at their full value.] 

No. 1. Cypris setigera, Jones. Plate I, fig. 6 a — 6 d. 

Cypris setigera, Jones. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., vi, p. 25, t. 3, fig. 3 a — c. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Recent? 

Post-tertiary : Berkshire and Cambridgeshire. 

Carapace ovate, somewhat pear-shaped : valves convex ; obliquely curved on the 
dorsal, and nearly straight and somewhat incurved on the ventral border ; narrower 
and tapering anteriorly ; bordered by a narrow rounded marginal rim ; covered with 
fine spines : hinge-line occupying rather more than the central third of the dorsal edge : 
right valve narrower, straighter on the dorsal, and more incurved on the ventral margin, 
than the left valve. Lucid spots six, arranged on two transverse parallel rows. 
(System b, see p. 5.) 

Dorsal aspect acute-oval ; anterior, oval. 

Plentiful 1 in the Peat-deposits of the Kennet Valley 2 at Newbury, and in the Peat- 
marl of Cambridgeshire. 3 

1 Probably this is also a recent species, although it has as yet apparently escaped notice. The some- 
what similar carapaces figured and described by earlier authors are not sufficiently elucidated for exact and 
satisfactory comparison. 

2 For an account of these Peat-deposits, see the Appendix to my Lecture on the Geology of Newbury 
&c, p. 40, 1854. 

3 See 'Quart. Journal Geol. Soc.,' vi, p. 451. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



13 



In this species the dorsal edge is more angular, owing to the greater definition of 
the hinge-line, than in Cypris aurantia, Jurine, sp., to which C. setigera is nearly allied 
in general form. 1 

Its ventral margin, also, is somewhat more inturned. The very spinous surface, so 
well preserved even in the fossil state, is markedly characteristic, in comparison with 
the partial distribution of setse in C. aurantia. Its lucid spots are altogether differently 
arranged from those in the last-mentioned species, in which there are eight, forming a 
set of four, irregular, parallel, oblique lines (System a). And lastly the valves are 
smaller and somewhat less gibbose than those of C. aurantia. 

No. 2. Cypris Browntana, Jones. Plate I, fig. 1 a — 1 d. 

Cynus Browniana, Jones. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., vi, p. 25, t. 3, fig. 1. 

INCH. 

Length, -Jg Pleistocene : Clacton, Essex. 

Carapace short and broad, somewhat square : valves convex, depressed anteriorly, 
smooth, with a few scattered pedicles of setse ; edges of the valves rather thickened ; 
inner marginal plate well developed : hinge-line occupying the central third of the 
dorsal border : left valve sub-quadrangular, obliquely rounded anteriorly, semicircular 
behind ; ventral border and central third of dorsal border almost straight : right valve 
smaller than the left, sub-reniform. Lucid spots six, placed according to System b. 

Dorsal aspect elongate and obtuse ovate ; anterior, broad ovate. 

Plentiful in the fresh- water deposit at Clacton, in Essex. 

For these and other specimens of Entomostraca from Clacton I have to thank 
John Brown, Esq., F.G.S., of Stanway, near Colchester, who has assiduously worked 
out the fossil fauna of the Clacton, Copford, and other Pleistocene and Post-tertiary 
deposits, and after whom the species under notice has been named . 



Var. tumida, Jones. Plate I, fig. 2 a, 2 b. 

Cypris tumida, Jones. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., vi, p. 26, t. 3, fig. 2. 

INCH. 

Length, Pleistocene : Grays, Essex. 

1 Cypris jmbescens, Koch, 'Deutsch. Crust.,' 1837, Heft xi, t. 6 ; C. ovato-conchacea, De Geer, sp., 
'Hist. Insect.,' vii, t. 29. figs. 5 — 7; C. conchacea, Jurine, sp., 'Hist. Monocl.,' t. 17, fig. 7; and C. 
conchacea, Koch, ' Deutsch. Crust.,' 1838, Heft xxi, t. 12 — 14, also more or less resemble the species under 
notice. 



14 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



Carapace tumid, rounded : valves strongly convex, especially on the posterior third ; 
rounded obliquely and subacute anteriorly, semicircular posteriorly ; arched on the 
dorsal, nearly straight on the ventral border : surface finely punctate with pedicles of 

setae. Lucid spots in System b. 

Dorsal aspect sub-oblong ; anterior, broadly ovate. 

This variety differs from C. Browniana, from Clacton, in its smaller size, greater 
rotundity, more acute anterior extremity, and more frequent setation. It is of rare 
occurrence, and found as yet only in the fresh-water clayey sand of Grays in Essex. 1 

For these and other specimens from Grays and Copford I am indebted to John 
Pickering, Esq. 



No. 3. Cypris Ovum, Jurine, sp. Plate I, fig. 4 a, 4 b. 

Monoculus Ovum, Jurine. 1820. Hist, des Monocles, &c, p. 1/9, t. 19, figs. 18, 19. 
Cypris vulgaris, Zadduch. 1844. Synop. Crust. Pruss. Prodomus, p. 35. 

— minuta, Baird. 1850. Nat. Hist. Brit. Entom., p. 155, t. 18, figs. 7, 8. 

— — Jones. 1850. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., vi, p. 28. 

— pantherina, S. Fischer. 1851. Ueber das Genus Cypris, &c, p. 163, t. 11, 

figs. G— 8. 

— Ovum, Liljeborg. 1853. De Crustaceis, &c, p. 113, t. 10, figs. 13 — 15. 

— (Cypria) Ovum, Zenker. 1854. Monographic der Ostracoden, &c, p. 79, t. 3, B. 

INCH. 

Length, J ff Recent : England ; Europe- 

Post-tertiary : Cambridgeshire. 

Carapace small, tumid, egg-shaped : valves highly convex, triangularly oval ; dorsal 
margin arched and almost angular, ventral straight ; ends rounded, posterior extremity 
broadest: surface finely punctate. In the recent state the valves are beset all round 
towards the margins with short hairs ; and they are of a light-brown colour, with a 
tinge of green (Baird). 

Dorsal aspect broadly ovate; anterior, nearly round. 

Common in ponds and stream. Abundant in the marl of the Peat-deposits of 
Cambridgeshire described by Mr. Hamilton in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vi, 
p. 451. 

1 For the geological conditions of the Pleistocene and Post-tertiary deposits in Essex, see (Grays) 
Loudon's 'Mag. Nat. Hist.,' 1836, ix, p. 261 ; 'Mag. Nat. Hist.,' n. s., 1838, ii, p. 546 ; (Clacton) 'Mag. 
Nat. Hist.,* n. s., 1838, ii, p. 163, and 1840, iv, p. 197; ' Proc. Geol. Soc.,' 1845, iv, p. 523, and ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc.,' i, p. 341; {Copford) Loudon's 'Mag. Nat. Hist.,' 1834, vii, p. 436, and 1836, ix, 
p. 429 ; 'Proc. Geol. Soc.,' 18 13, iv, p. 164; 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' 1852, viii, p. 184. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



15 



No. 4. Cypris gibba, Bamdohr. Plate I, fig. 2>a—f; and Woodcut, fig. 1, p. 16. 

Cyphis gibba, Ramdohr. Magaz. d. Gesellsch. Naturforsch. Freunde zu Berlin, 1808, ii, 

p. 91, t. 3, figs. 13—17. 
Monoculus bistrigatus, Jurine. Hist, des Monocles, p. 1/7, t. 19, figs. 12, 13. 
Cypris biplicata, Koch. Deutschlauds Crustac, &c, Heft 21, t. 1G. 

— — S. Fischer. Mem. Sav. Etrang. Petersburg, vii, p. 150, t. 5, figs. 5 — 8. 

— sinuata, Id. Mem. Sav. Etrang. Petersburg, vi, p. 193, t. 10, fig. 4. 

— bistrigata, Liljeborg. De Crustaceis, &c., p. 121, t. 11, figs. 17, 18. 

— gibba, Jones. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., vi, p. 26, t. 3, fig. 4. 

INCH. 

Length, -fa Recent : England ; Europe. 

Post-tertiary : Cambridgeshire. 
Pleistocene : Kent ; Essex. 

Carapace oblong, compressed : valves larger anteriorly than posteriorly ; rounded 
obliquely in front ; rounded behind ; straight on the dorsal, incurved at the middle of 
the ventral border ; marked across the middle by two unequal parallel furrows, 
situated side by side, and strongest towards the dorsal border; these two sulci (the 
foremost of which often becomes obsolete) form an irregular impression which divides 
the surface into two nearly equal, slightly gibbose portions, each of which in old speci- 
mens is sometimes surmounted with a tubercle (Plate I, fig. 3 a). In young individuals 
the impression is scarcely perceptible (fig. 3 e). Surface of the valves impressed with 
closely set circular punctations (fig. 3/), which are either irregular in their disposition, 
or follow wavy lines, rather concentric as to the two halves (anterior and posterior) 
of the valves. Irregular pits and knobs are frequent near the middle of the adult 
valve. 

The hinge is well seen on the smaller (right) valve, and consists of a straight, 
simple, smooth ridge, extending nearly the whole length of the dorsal border, and 
slightly modified at its posterior portion, where it becomes somewhat broader and 
sulcated. The inner marginal plates of the valves are rather feebly developed. 

The recent individuals have usually a dull yellowish colour, and, like the fossil 
forms, vary considerably both as to the extent to which the ventral border is incurved, 
and as to the development of the vertical median sulci and their attendant pits and 
varices, and other irregularities of the surface. 

Dorsal aspect elongate-oval or lanceolate ; anterior, ovate. 

This is a very common species in our fresh-water ponds and rivers ; but, as 
Ramdohr has remarked {loc. cit.). it has the habit of remaining on or in the mud rather 



16 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 




than swimming in the water and crawling on the weeds. Hence it has escaped 

observation to some extent, and is not noticed in Dr. 
Baird's ' History of the British Entomostraca.' In its 
love of the mud and habit of crawling, it so much 
resembles the Candona that I have been anxious to 
verify Dr. Ramdohr's description of the species ; and 
I find that it truly possesses the pencilled tufts charac- 
teristic of the genus Cypris. See Woodcut, fig. 1- 
(See also the figures by Fischer, Koch, &c.) 

Cypris gibba occurs fossil in the Peat-marl of Cam- 
bridgeshire before referred to (where, however, only 
young specimens were met with) ; in a Pleistocene deposit at Wear Farm, near the 
Reculvers, described by Mr. Prestwich in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xi, p. 112; 
and plentifully in the fluviatile deposits of Grays and Clacton, in Essex. 

From the association of a few marine or estuarine fossils {Balanus and Globulind) 
with C. gibba in the Pleistocene sands near the Reculvers, it appears that this species 
can inhabit brackish water. 



1. Cypris gibba. 

2. Cyprideis torosa 

aa. Upper pair of antenna?. 

bb. Lower or pediform antennae. 

c. First pair of feet. 



Genus — Candona, Baird. {Cypris, Auctorum.) 

Animal creeping ; (inhabiting fresh water and found on or in the mud ; generally 
larger than Cypris;) eye single (coalesced); the upper pair of antenna? plumed; the 
lower pair plumeless, merely setiferous and hooked. 1 Carapace like that of Cypris. 



No. 1. Candona reptans, Baird. Plate I, figs, la — 7 e. 

Candona reptans, 2 Baird. Hist. Brit. Entom., p. 1G0, t. 19, fig. 3. 

— — Jones. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., vi, p. 27, t. 3, fig. 7. 

Cypris reptans, Liljeborg. De Crustaceis, &c, p. 123, t. xi, figs. 21 — 23; t. xii, figs. 7 — 9. 

INCH. 

Length, \ Recent : Britain ; Europe. 

Post-tertiary : Berkshire ; Cambridgeshire ; Lincolnshire ; Essex. 
Pleistocene : Essex. 



1 According to Liljeborg, in the species which he refers to Candona the second pair of maxillae arc 
without branchial appendages. 

2 Leach's Cypris viridis ('Edinb. Encycl.,' t. 221, fig. 2), and C. nephroides (' Encycl. Brit. Suppl.,' 
20, figs. 1, 2), somewhat resemble Candona reptans (as pointed out to me by Dr. Baird) ; but it is 

impossible to come to a satisfactory determination from Leach's figures and notes. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



17 



Carapace large, oblong, almost cylindrical, smooth, shining, beset with scattered 
setae (of a greenish colour, with variations of tint in patches, and hairy at the margins, 
in the recent state) ; anterior portion compressed, obliquely rounded, and tapering 
forwards and downwards ; posterior rather less compressed than the anterior extremity, 
almost squared, but with the angles well rounded ; dorsal margin straight along the 
middle, suddenly rounded posteriorly, and gently curving anteriorly towards the antero- 
ventral margin ; ventral margin slightly incurved. 

Hingement simple. Lucid spots large, elongate, 6 — 8, arranged in four irregular, 
parallel, oblique rows (System a) ; in the outside pairs the spots coalescing one with 
another. 

Dorsal profile lanceolate ; end view broadly and acutely ovate. 

Fig. 7 a represents a variety, from Clacton, which was much more setiferous (as 
evidenced by the remaining pedicles of setae), and usually of smaller size, and marked 
with proportionally larger lucid spots. I have met with this variety in a recent state 
in beach-sand from Pegwell Bay, with which my friend Mr. Pickering has favoured 
me, where it was associated with Candona lucens and Cytherideis trigonalis ; but of the 
exact habitat of these specimens I have no precise information. 1 

Candona reptans is referred by Liljeborg to his section of Cyprides with very short 
setae on the pediform antennae. I cannot find on our specimens even the six setae 
mentioned by this author. The one large and three small setae at the third joint of 
the second pair of antennae poorly represent the filamentous brush of the Cypris. The 
character of the second pair of maxillae, referred to by Liljeborg, is an important 
peculiarity ; possibly the two animals are distinct. I prefer following Baird in the 
allocation of the species under notice, which is characteristically a Candona in its make 
and habits. 

Candona repians is one of the largest of the bivalve Entomostracans met with in our 
fresh waters, and is of frequent occurrence. It is plentiful in a fossil state in the 
peat-cleposits of Berkshire, at Newbury, and in the fresh-water marl in the fens of 
Cambridgeshire, described by Mr. Hamilton ; 2 it occurred also in the fresh-water 
deposit met with in the Casewick railway-cutting, in Lincolnshire, and described by 
Mr. Morris, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' ix, p. 321, and at Edwardstone ; 3 and it is not 
rare in the pleistocene sands and clays of Clacton and Grays, in Essex. The speci- 
mens from Clacton, as already mentioned, are comparatively small ; those from Grays 
are often very large. 

1 They were probably brought down by the river Stour. 

2 Loc. cit. 

3 About thirteen miles from Stanway, Essex. Mr. J. Brown kindly communicated some fine specimens 
obtained from the post-tertiary deposits at this place. 



3 



18 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



No. 2. Candona Forbesii, Jones. Plate IV, figs. 8, 9, 11 «, 11 b. 

Candona Forbesii, Jones. Memoirs Geol. Survey, p. 157, t. 7, fig. 22. 

INCH. 

Length, Upper Eocene : Isle of Wight and Hampshire. 

Valves oblong, rounded at the extremities, narrowest and most depressed anteriorly, 
most convex at the posterior third ; hinder border margined with a slightly raised 
rim ; dorsal border arched, ventral slightly incurved ; surface smooth ; fine punctations 
are visible in transparent specimens under the microscope with transmitted light. 
Lucid spots according to System a. 

This species much resembles the recent Candona reptans and C. Richardsoni (Jones) 
of the Woolwich Beds ; but certain modifications of shape and proportional size 
separate all these forms. 

Candona Forbesii occurs in great numbers, and in different stages of growth, chiefly 
as single valves, compressed between the laminae of the shales of the Upper, Middle, 
and Lower Hempstead Series at Hempstead Cliff, Isle of Wight ; and in a better state 
of preservation in the pyritous bands occurring in that series. It is met with also 
compressed in the Shales of the Osborne Series at Cliff End, Colwell Bay ; and is 
found also at Hordwell (Mr. F. Edwards's collection). 

I have dedicated this abundant and characteristic species to Edward Forbes, 
whose name is so intimately associated with the Hempstead deposits and their fossils. 



No. 3. Candona Richardsoni, Jones. Plate IV, figs. 12 a, 12 b. 

Candona Richardsoni, Jones. Quart. Journal Geol. Soc., x, p. 162, t. 3, fig. 13. 

INCH. 

Length, Lower Eocene : Woolwich. 

Valves oblong, smooth, rounded at the extremities, depressed anteriorly, most 
convex just posterior to the centre ; ventral border straight, dorsal border very slightly 
curved. 

This species approaches in shape to the recent Candona reptans ; but it is more 
oblong, and in size it is much inferior. It also resembles C. Forbesii of the Isle of 
Wight. 

Candona Richardsoni was found by Mr. W. H. Baily, in the thin band with 
Hi/drobia, Planorbis, and Cyrena, in the Woolwich sand-pit. The individuals are 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



19 



numerous, compressed between the laminae of the clay. Casts of valves possibly 
referable to the same species were collected by the late Rev. H. M. de la Condamine. 
f.g.s., of Blackheath, in the Planorbis-bed at Counter Hill, near Lewisham. 



No. 4. Candona Candida. 1 Mutter. Plate I, figs. 8 a — 8 /, 5 a, 5 b. 

Cypris Candida, Milller. Entom., p. 62, t. 6, figs. 7 — 9. 

Monoculus candidus, Jurine. Hist, des Monocles, p. 176, t. 19, figs. 7, 8. 

Cypris lucens, Baird. Trans. Berwick Nat. Club, i, p. 100, t. 3, fig. 15. 

— Candida, lb. Mag. Zool. Bot., ii, p. 134, t. 5, fig. 3. 

— — Zaddach. Synops. Crust. Pruss. Prodomus, p. 38. 
Candona Candida, Baird. Trans. Berwick Nat. Club, ii, p. 153. 
Cypris pellucida, Koch. Deutschland's Crust., &c, xi Heft, t. 5. 

— lucida (?), Ib. Deutschland's Crust., &c, xxi Heft, t. 18. 

Candona lucens, Baird. Hist. Brit. Entom., p. 160, t. 19, fig. 1. [Adult female.] 

— — Jones. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, p. 26, t. 3, fig. 8. 
Cypris pellucida, S. Fischer. Ueber das Gen. Cypris, &c, p. 148, t. 5, figs. 1 — 4. 

[Female.] 

Candona Candida, Liljeborg. De Crustaceis, &c, p. 127, t. 11, figs. 19, 20; t. 25, 

figs. 13—15. 

INCH. 

Length, Recent : England ; Europe. 

Post-tertiary: Forfarshire; Berkshire; Cambridgeshire; and Essex. 
Pleistocene : Essex. 

Carapace rather large, long kidney-shaped, somewhat cylindrical, smooth, shining 
(pearly white in the recent state ; often milky white when fossil) ; beset with scattered 
pedicles of setse (and fringed with hairs, when recent) ; posterior portion larger than 
the anterior, in the adult female curving boldly backwards and downwards, and termi- 
nating in a blunt point (injured in the lithograph, fig. 8 a) ; dorsal margin arched, 
especially behind ; ventral margin more or less incurved. Lucid spots six in a group, 
forming a transverse, curved, front row of four, with two other spots behind the lowest 
two of the front row (System b), figs. 8 e, 8 f ; this arrangement is subject to a varia- 
tion, by which the lower five spots in the two rows lose their linear regularity (fig. 5 b), 
and sometimes become so obliquely arranged as to converge into a radiate figure, 
forming a star or rosette, accompanied by the upper isolated sixth spot, as seen in the 
fragment of a valve, fig. 5 a. 

1 Zenker (1854), op. cit. p. 76, refers to this species as a Cypris, with the following synonyms : 

Cypris Candida, Mailer; C. compressa, Koch; C. pellucida, lb.; C. pubescens, lb.; 
C. pellucida, <S. Fischer; C. pigra, lb.; C. compressa, lb. 



20 THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 

Dorsal profile lanceolate, or elongate-oval, with the ends acute and nearly equal ; 
anterior, broadly ovate. 

Candona Candida is very common in the mud of ponds and rivers ; and occurs 
equally abundantly in the peat-deposits of Berkshire (at Newbury), and Cambridge- 
shire ; in the shell-marl of the Forfarshire lakes, described by Sir C. Lyell, 1 Geol. 
Trans./ 2d ser., vol. ii, p. 73 ; in the fresh-water beds at Copford ; and in the pleisto- 
cene beds of Clacton and Grays, in Essex. 



No. 5. Candona (?) sub-zequalis, spec. nov. Plate I, fig. 9 a — 9 c. 

Recent ? 

Post-tertiary : Essex. 

Carapace rather large, very convex, reniform ; anterior and posterior extremities 
nearly equal ; dorsal margin arched, the curve being nearly uniform throughout its 
length ; ventral margin incurved. Surface thickly studded with fine pimples, or 
pedicles of setae. Lucid spots 7 — 8, forming four irregular oblique rows (System a). 

This species differs from C. Candida in its shape, setation, and lucid spots ; but 
resembles it in general character. It much resembles in outline Cypris lutraria, Koch 
('Deutsch. Crust./ xxi Heft, t. 15), and C. elliptica, Baird ('Hist. Brit. Entom./ 
p. 158, t. 19, fig. 12) ; but the means of comparison at command are unsatisfactory. 

Candona (?) subcequalis occurs not uncommonly in the post-tertiary fresh-water 
deposit at Copford, near Colchester. 



Sub-genus (?) — Cyprideis, nov. 

[At page 9 (in a note added while these sheets were in the press,) I have mentioned 
my reasons for expecting that, on further examination, this form will prove to be a 
Cy there. As I have not had any opportunity of getting living specimens, I leave the 
description of this interesting and peculiar form in the place it occupied in my MS., 
and under the same provisional subgeneric heading. (November, 1856.)] 

Animal 1 having the pediform antennae hooked, not plumous, and the superior 
antennae apparently simply setiferous. Carapace oblong ; marginal edges thickened, 

1 Not yet examined in a fresh state. 



INCH. 

Length, ^ 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



21 



inner plates obsolete ; contact-margin of the left valve grooved or rabbeted for the 
reception of the slightly flanged edge of the opposite valve, and the dorsal edge pro- 
vided with hinge-teeth, consisting of a longitudinal series of numerous minute tuber- 
cles, with corresponding pits ; on the right valve the dorsal edge is tubercled or 
toothed along its anterior and posterior thirds, and pitted in the central portion ; whilst 
the left valve has fine teeth on the middle part, and pits on the rest of its dorsal edge : 
surface of the valves punctated. In its hingement, Cyprideis closely resembles the 
marine form Cytheridea. 

No. I. Cyprideis torosa, Jones. Plate II, figs. 1 a — I i; and Woodcut, fig. 2 

p. 16. 

Candona. torosa, Jones. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., vi, p. 27, t. 3, fig. fi. 

INCH. 

Length, Recent: Gravesend. 

Pleistocene : Essex and Kent. 

Carapace oblong, varying in its proportions according to age. Valves convex ; 
bearing for the most part a slightly raised marginal rim on all edges except the dorsal ; 
rounded before and behind ; straight on the ventral, and more or less arched on the 
dorsal border; right valve less oblong, smaller, and narrower posteriorly than the left 
valve. The surface of the valves is marked with closely set angular pittings (fig. 1 i), 
coarse in the older specimens, and is raised in adult specimens into 5 — 7 tubercles. 
Young individuals in general have the surface almost even, or marked by a slight 
transverse sulcus near the centre and just posterior to the lucid spots, which indicate 
the position of the first-developed tubercle ; 3 — 4 tubercles on the posterior moiety of 
the valve, and 1 — 3 smaller tubercles anteriorly, become apparent afterwards. 
Occasionally well-developed tubercles are present in small, and even in young speci- 
mens ; and, on the other hand, individuals reach a large size without being marked 
with more than one (anterior) tubercle. 

The hinge is considerably developed (figs. 1 g, 1 It); the hinge-margin of the right 
valve bearing anterior and posterior sets of " knurlings," which are received into 
corresponding pittings on the hinge-margin of the opposite valve ; whilst the central 
portion of the hinge has a smaller set of similar pits and teeth, but inversely arranged. 

Lucid spots small, four, arranged in a single transverse, or vertical, row immediately 
behind the chief, or anterior, tubercle (System c). 

Dorsal aspect irregular-acute-oval ; anterior, somewhat hexagonal. 

This well-marked species occurs abundantly in the pleistocene sands of Grays, 
Essex, and was found in equal profusion in deposits of similar age at Wear Farm, 



22 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



near the Reculvers, 1 Kent, by Mr. Prestwich, and at Chislet, between Wear Farm and 
the Grove Ferry Station, by Mr. J. Brown, of Stan way ; to both of whom I am 
indebted for a liberal supply of specimens. At the two last-mentioned localities the 
carapaces are not so strongly tubercled as they are at Grays. 

Cyprideis torosa is also a recent species, living in the Gravesend ditches, where 
Mr. Pickering (who kindly favoured me w T ith my recent specimens of this species) 
found it in great numbers, attached to the cases of Caddis- worms, " in a ditch which 
runs on the land-side of the Thames Bank, between Gravesend Town and Coal House 
Point, near an old mill : the water flowing into and not from the Thames, except at 
high tides." 



Sub-family — Cytherin^e, Dana. (Cylherida, Baird.) 

In this second sub-family of the Cypridce (Dana) we meet with similar difficulties in 
the allocation of the fossil carapaces to generic forms as among the Cyprince ; for, 
although the carapaces are readily arranged into natural groups according to their 
peculiarities of structure, yet these peculiarities do not necessarily indicate generic 
differences among the animals to which they belonged ; and, in fact, in this branch of 
palaeontology, as in others, we have still to wait for an intimate knowledge of living 
animals before we can confidently speak of the exact relations of the fossil remains of 
earlier creatures, which they more or less closely represent. Cytherella, Bairdia, 
Cytherideis, Cytheridea, and Cythereis exist in the present seas, as well as Cythere proper; 
and favorable opportunities will, it is hoped, occur for their minute examination in a 
fresh state. 

The Cytheres of the Baltic have been carefully examined by Liljeborg and Zenker^ 
but the result of their examinations does not much assist the palaeontologist in the 
comparison of the recent and fossil forms. The views of these two authors on the 
synonymy of some of the best known of the recent species are at variance ; 2 nor do 

1 Where it seems to have inhabited brackish water ; ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' xi, p. 112. 

2 According to Liljeborg, the Swedish species which he examined are three, viz. : 

Cythere gibbera, Miiller. 

— viridis, lb. Syn. C. lutea, Midler ; C. albomaculata, Baird ; and 

C. alba, Baird (young). 

— nitjda, Liljeborg. 

Zenker arranges his species from the Cattegat and the Baltic thus — 

Cythere lutea, Miiller. Syn. C. reniformis, Baird. 

— gibba, lb. Syn. C. yibbera, Miiller. (Male and Female.) 

FLAVIDA, lb. 

— viiudis, lb. Syn. C. variabilis, Baird. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



23 



they even recognise the same forms for Muller's species, except in the case of C. gibba 
and C. gibbera. Liljeborg figures as C. viridis of Miiller what Zenker figures as 
Miiller's C. flavida ; and Zenker figures as C. viridis a form that approximates to 
Liljeborg's C. nitida. Liljeborg's view of C. viridis appears to me to be correct: 
Zenker's C. flavida should be referred to the same species; Miiller's C. flavida being a 
different form. 

S. Fischer has lately ('Munich Transactions,' 1855) further illustrated one of 
of Miiller's species, and two new forms. 



Genus — Cythere, 1 Mutter. 

Animal creeping; chiefly marine. 2 Eye single, the coalescence of which is more or 
less imperfect : upper antennae setiferous, but not presenting a filamentous plume ; 
lower antennas hooked and furnished with a single, long, jointed filament ; feet three 
pairs. The car rip wee-valves are usually ornamented on their anterior and posterior' 
borders with a marginal series of fine spines or denticulations, which are coarsest in 
the sub-genus Cythereis and finest in Bairdia. 



Cythere proper. 

Carapace often very convex, especially on the ventral portion ; sometimes smooth 
and setigerous, generally pitted, and occasionally reticulated ; varying in outline from 
an acute-oval to an irregular oblong ; in the first case it often resembles a peach-stone 
in miniature ; in the latter case a central and two posterior tubercles sometimes give a 
character to the valves ; 3 and in each case the anterior, and sometimes the posterior, 
hinge forms an indistinct angle on the dorsal edge ; the hinge-line of each valve 
occupies about the middle third of the dorsal margin, and presents a ridge or bar and 
a furrow, the bar on one valve corresponding to the furrow on the other ; the bar is 
sometimes blended with the edge of the valve, and is occasionally finely crenulated ; 

1 For synonyms, see ' Monog. Entom. Cret., 1849, p. 8. 

2 Cythere inopinata, Baird, and another species referred to by Say, are the exceptional species in this 
respect. According to Zenker, one species, at least, of marine Cytheres can live for several days in fresh 
water ; and, on the other hand, S. Fischer describes a Cypris from saltish water at the mouth of the Neva, 
and another from the sea-water of the harbour at Alexandria. 

3 The central tubercle is internally a shallow pit, associated with lucid spots and marking the place of 
muscular attachment. 



24 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



it is more or less developed at its extremities into cardinal processes or teeth, which, 
with still stronger, but isolated, teeth at the ends of the furrow on the opposite valve 
form the anterior and posterior hinges of the carapace : the ventral margin of each 
valve is more or less incurved near the middle, where its edge is frequently produced 
(as also occasionally in Ci/pris) into a thin projecting laminar curvilinear plate. The 
posterior border being always depressed and contracted, and frequently notched at its 
dorsal angle, forms a low subacute marginal rim or " posterior lobe," of varying 
breadth. 



[Oval forms o/* Cythere proper.] 
No. 1. Cythere punctata, Miinster. Plate II, figs. 5 a — 5 h. 

Cythere punctata, Miinster. Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1830, p. 62. 

Cytherina punctata, Roemer. Neues Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1838, p. 515, t. 6, fig. 2. 

Cypridina punctata, Eeuss. Haidinger's Abhandl., iii, p. 68, t. 9, fig. 24. 

— punctatella, lb. Haidinger's Abhandl., iii, p. 65, t. 9, fig. 15. (Young of 

C. punctata ?) 

Cythere punctatella, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 75, t. 3, fig. 12. 

(Young of C. punctata ?) 

INCH. 

Length, Recent : Britain ; Europe. 

Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Upper and Middle Tertiary : Europe. 
Middle Tertiary : Maryland ? 

Carapace broadly sub-ovate, resembling a peach-stone in miniature, most convex 
towards the middle of the ventral portion ; right valve (fig. 5 b) narrower than the 
left, and its hinge-line more oblique : surface of the valves coarsely pitted with sub- 
hexagonal serial punctations (fig. 5 It), and in the old specimen 1 (fig. 5 a), marked on 
the anterior portion with concentric raised lines, or faint ridges, near the margin ; the 
pittings and the marginal concentric lines (which latter rarely occur) are both subject 
to variation in their relative size and distinctness, according to the age of the indi- 
viduals. In young specimens (fig. 5 e), both the shape and the punctation resemble 
that of C. punctatella, Reuss. 

This species occurs plentifully in the Crag of Suffolk, together with C. Woodiana, &c. 
It has been found also in the Austro-Hungarian Tertiaries by Reuss ; and at Palermo 
and Castell' Arquato by Miinster. I have it from the Bordeaux sand, and a scarcely 
distinguishable variety from Maryland, United States. C. punctatella occurs also in 
the Austro-Hungarian Tertiaries, and at Castell' Arquato, Bordeaux, and Perpignan. 

1 This specimen is not quite perfect, the posterior lobe having been broken away. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



25 



The following localities yield varieties apparently indistinguishable from C. punctata, 
— Southend (near the mouth of the Thames), Poole Bay (Dorset), Devonshire Coast, 
Tenby, and Arran ; also Australia. 

Numerous allied forms of this punctated peach-stone-like group of Cytheres, 
generally of small size, are common in the Oolitic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary deposits, 
and in the present seas. 



No. 2. Cythere trigonula, spec. nov. Plate III, figs. I, a — \,k. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Carapace ovately subtriangular, depressed on the anterior, dorsal, and posterior 
borders, and strongly convex ventrally, where the valves are, as it were, pinched up 
into an obtuse ventral ridge, surmounted by a slight longitudinal fold ; the surface of 
each valve gradually rises outwards from the dorsal edge to the ventral border, and is 
then suddenly bent inwards, so that the ventral surface of the closed carapace is flat, 
and that of the dorsal culminate ; the transverse section of the carapace being 
triangular : surface finely punctate, with small round pits (fig. 1 h) : hinges strongly 
developed. 

Dorsal aspect lanceolate ; end view triangular. 

Cythere trigonula is plentiful, and accompanies C. punctata, in the Crag of Suffolk. 
Its triangular shape and larger size well distinguish it from its companion ; and the 
pits of its punctation are relatively smaller. 



No. 3. Cythere triangularis, Reuss. Plate VII, figs. 5 a — 5g. 

Cythere triangularis, Reuss. Zeitsch. Deutsch. Geol. Gesell., vii, p. 279, t. 10, fig. 3. 

INCH. 

Length, -^y Lower Eocene: London. 

Cretaceous : Basdorf, Mecklenburg. 

Carapace gibbose, ovato-triangular ; dorsal margin straight ; extremities obliquely 
rounded and toothed ; hinder end narrowest ; ventral portion of each valve strongly 
convex, surmounted by a narrow, well-defined, spinous, longitudinal, slightly curved 
ridge or fold, and turned suddenly inwards, so as to form a fiat ventral face to the 
closed carapace : valves thin, smooth, shining, and beset with scattered setae : hinge 

4 



26 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA. OF 



long, delicate, and well-defined, the median bar and furrow elongate and simple, but 
the anterior and posterior isolated teeth on the right valve are knurled or crenulated, 
their surfaces presenting 4 — 5 minute rounded knobs or denticles, which fit crenulate 
furrows on the other valve. 

Dorsal aspect irregularly ovate, with the ends produced ; end-view triangular, with 
the lateral lines slightly curved. 

The specimens which I here refer to C. triangularis, Reuss, — agreeing with that 
species in all essential particulars, — occurred not unfrequently in the London Clay, 
from the excavations made for the Great Northern Railway in the Copenhagen Fields, 
north of London, and were obtained by Mr. J. Purdue, to whom I am indebted for the 
majority of my specimens from the London Clay. Reuss describes his specimens as 
occurring in the Cretaceous deposits at Basdorf, near Kropelin, in Mecklenburg; 
several of the microzoa of these beds, as Reuss well remarks, have a tertiary aspect. 



No. 4. Cythere Wetherellii, Jones. Plate IV, fig. 15; PI. VI, figs. 16 a — 16 d. 
Cythere Wetherelli, Jones. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, x, p. 161, t. 3, fig. 9. 

INCH. 

Length, Middle Eocene : Isle of Wight. 

Carapace irregularly ovate ; contracted posteriorly ; convex and somewhat flattened 
towards the ventral portion; suddenly inturned and flattened along the ventral border; 
bearing a subtriangular impression at about the middle of the dorsal portion of each 
valve ; surface of the valves ornamented by a delicate reticulation, the meshes of which 
are formed by slightly raised anastomosing borders ; reticulation fading away towards 
the dorsal margin : hinge delicate, presenting a modification of the hind and front teeth 
of the right valve, which are finely knurled, and connected by a continued fine knurling 
of the edge of the valve, whilst the median bar and furrow are obsolete. 

Dorsal aspect narrow-oblong, with the ends angular and produced ; end-view almost 
quadrangular, somewhat pentagonal. 

Cythere Wetherellii is not uncommon in the Middle Eocene Sands of Colwell Bay, 
Isle of Wight, and also in an Oyster-band 1 of this series at the same locality. One 

1 Some years since a handful of this clay with remains of oysters was given to me as having been 
brought from Woolwich ; and the species of Entomostraca which I had obtained from it (viz., C. Wetherellii, 
C. plicata, and C. angulatopora) were in consequence enumerated in the ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. x. 
p. 160, as belonging to the Woolwich series. Since then I have satisfied myself of the incorrectness of the 
stated locality of this clay. The above-mentioned species must therefore be regarded as belonging to the 
Middle, and not the Lower, Eocene. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 27 

specimen was also received from Mr. F. Edwards among his specimens of Entomostraca 
from Barton. 



No. 5. Cythere striatopunctata, Roemer, sp. Plate V, figs. 6, 7 a — 7 c, 10. 

Cytherina striatopunctata, Roemer. Neues Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1838, p. 515, t. 6, fig. 2. 
Cythere striatopunctata, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 62, t. 3, fig. 1. 

INCH. 

Length, J ff Middle Eocene : England and Europe. 

Carapace ovate, very convex, subcylindrical, somewhat resembling a walnut in 
miniature; right valve (pi. 5, figs. 6, 10) less uniformly ovate than the left valve 
(pi. 5, figs. 7 a), narrower, and more angular on the dorsal border ; anterior and 
posterior margins of the valves usually denticulate : surface ornamented with deep 
concentric furrows, curving round the anterior part of the valve, converging posteriorly, 
and becoming more or less straight and parallel at the centre ; the furrows are crossed 
at short intervals by slight ridges, connecting the stronger concentric ridges which 
define the furrows, and forming unequal reticulation, each mesh of which is, for the 
most part, pierced at its centre by a well-marked pit. 

M. Bosquet has examined the specimen on which C. pertusa, Roemer, he. cit. t. 6, 
f. 2, was founded as a species, and he regards it as the young of C. striatopunctata. 

Cythere striatopunctata is very abundant in the Barton Clay of the Hampshire Coast 
(Middle Eocene), and is plentiful in equivalent deposits at High Cliff, on the same 
coast. It occurs also at Bracklesham, and in a bed of sandy clay with green grains 
(silicate of iron) at Alum Bay, Isle of Wight (numbered 29 in Mr. Prestwich's section, 
' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' ii. p. 257, t. 9), containing a small, depressed, undescribed 
Nummulite, 1 and belonging to the Barton series (Middle Eocene). 

M. Bosquet has found it in the " Sables moyens," the " Calcaire grossier," and the 
"Sables inferieurs" of France, and in the "Sable a gres calcifere" and the Lower 
Tongrian beds of Belgium. Roemer described it from the Paris Tertiaries. 



No. 6. Cythere consobrina, spec. nov. 

INCH. 

Length, -fa Middle Eocene : Barton, Hants. 

Carapace elongate-oval, subcylindrical ; obliquely rounded in front ; contracted 
1 See also 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' viii, p. 334, note. 



28 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



behind j posterior lobe narrow, depressed, and rounded ; dorsal border slightly arched ; 
ventral border nearly straight : valves gibbous, smooth, faintly punctate, most convex 
posteriorly and ventrally. 

Dorsal aspect elongate-ovate ; end-view orbicular. 

The species here described [which was found after the plates were finished] is very 
near to Cythere Favrodiana, Bosquet ('Mem. Commiss. Carte geol. Neerl.,' p. 80, t. 8, 
f. 7 ; and ' Mem. Soc. Roy. Liege/ iv., p. 361, t. 1, f. 5) ; its outline, however, is more 
oval ; its posterior lobe is not so acute ; and its surface is more uniformly convex, and 
is punctate. It has other allies in C. fusiform is, Bosquet, and C. attenuata, presently 
to be described. 

Cythere consobrina occurs rarely in the Barton Clay, Hampshire. [Mr. F. Edward's 
Collection.] 

No. 7. Cythere attenuata, spec. nov. Plate Y, fig. 11. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Middle Eocene : Isle of Wight. 

Carapace elongate-ovate, subcylindrical, rounded and slightly tapering anteriorly ; 
obliquely acuminate posteriorly ; dorsal border slightly oblique, and forming 
an angle with the posterior border ; ventral border curved ; valves somewhat 
depressed in front, and produced behind into an angular, suddenly flattened posterior 
lobe : surface smooth, convex, and marked on the middle of the ventral portion with a 
slight triangular impression [not well shown in the figure] . 

Cythere attenuata approaches C. inornata, Bosquet (Entom. Tert , p. 71, t. 3, f. 7), 
but is narrower, and more tapering and acute. 

One specimen from the Clay with green sand (No. 29, of Mr. Prestwich's section') 
at Alum Bay, Isle of Wight, represents this species. 

[B. Oblong forms of Cythere, proper.] 
No. 8. Cythere Kostelensis (?), Beuss sp. Plate VI, figs. 14 a, 14 

Cypridina Kostelensis, Reuss. Haidinger's Abhandl., iii, p. 68, t. 9, fig. 22. 
Cythere Kostelensis, Jones. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., x, p. 161, t. 3, fig. 10. 

INCH. 

Length, -r 1 ^ Middle Tertiary : Austria, &c. 

Lower Eocene : Woolwich, Kent. 



1 See above, p. 27. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



29 



Carapace small, oblong, depressed, flattest anteriorly ; obliquely rounded in front, 
semicircular behind ; upper and lower margins slightly incurved ; extremities bearing 
slightly raised marginal rims : surface roughened with irregular punctations. 

Dorsal aspect elongate-acute-ovate ; end-view suboval. 

Two specimens of this minute species (which agrees with Reuss's C. Kostelensis, 
except in the condition of the posterior margin) were found by Mr. Rosser in the 
Woolwich beds (Lower Eocene). C. Kostelensis occurs in the Leitha-Kalk of Moravia 
and Austria, in clay-beds near Vienna, in the salt-rock of Galicia, and in Tertiary beds 
of Upper Silesia. 



No. 9. Cythere concinna, spec. nov. Plate IV, figs, la — 7 /. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Pleistocene : Bridlington, Yorkshire. 

Carapace triangular-oblong ; rounded in front, obliquely truncate behind ; straight 
on the ventral, and obtusely angular on the dorsal border, the anterior hinge forming 
a low blunt angle : surface of valves depressed ; marked by three low tubercles (one 
central and two posterior), minutely punctated, and perforated at points as wide apart 
as the distance of 3 — 4 of the superficial pits (fig. If) ; the valves have also a slightly 
elevated anterior margin, and are sometimes beset with obscure scattered tubercles, 
forming an irregular rugosity of the surface. 

Dorsal aspect narrow-oblong with rounded ends ; end-view narrow-ovate. 

Cythere concinna was found in some numbers — together with Cythere (Cytheridea) 
Sorbyana — by Mr. H. C. Sorby in the Bridlington Crag, at Bridlington, Yorkshire. 



No. 10. Cythere Woodiana, spec. nov. Plate III, figs. 2 a — 2y. 

INCH. 

Length, J ff Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Carapace oblong, rounded obliquely at the extremities, upper and lower borders 
nearly straight; valves depressed anteriorly, most convex just behind the centre and 
towards the ventral border ; right valve markedly narrower than the left ; its hinge- 
line outstanding, being notched fore and aft : surface ornamented with small well- 
marked sub-hexagonal or circular pits, arranged in longitudinal lines, except on the 
anterior portion of the valves, where the pitting affects transverse and concentric lines . 



30 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



punctation very fine, and lying in depressed lines or striae in young individuals ; 
coarser and less distinctly linear, and somewhat transverse, in old specimens. A 
variety, white and smooth, almost destitute of punctations, or rather with exceedingly 
minute linear pittings, is common ; and some individuals are partially punctated. The 
hinge is strongly developed. 

Dorsal aspect elongate-acute-ovate ; end-view suborbicular. 

This species appears to belong to the same type as C. Jurinei, Minister, and its 
varieties, figured and described by Bosquet (' Descript. Entom. Tert.,' p. 56. t. 2, 
figs. 9, 10), C. Meyni, Reuss ('Zeitsch. Deut. geol. Ges.,' viii, p. 279, t. 10, fig. 5), 
and Bairdia (?) semipunctata, Bornemann (Jbid., vii, p. 359, t. 21, fig. 1). I have met 
with a very similar form in Tertiary sand from Bordeaux. 

Cy there Woodiana occurs very plentifully, in different stages of growth, and with 
several variations as to intensity of punctation, in the Crag of Suffolk, — and bears the 
name of Mr. Searles N. Wood, who has for many years, and with great success, col- 
lected, studied, and elucidated the fossils of the Crag. To Mr. Wood I am indebted 
for the majority of the specimens from the Crag described in this Monograph. 



No. 11. Cythere laqueata, spec. nov. Plate III, figs. 3 a — 3 h. 

INCH. 

Length, T ' ¥ Pleistocene : Red Crag, Essex. 

Pliocene : Crag, Suffolk. 

Carapace broad-ovate-oblong, rounded somewhat obliquely in front, contracted and 
rounded behind ; extremities denticulate, depressed ; dorsal margin slightly arched : 
ventral margin somewhat sinuous : valves nearly equal ; surface coarsely punctate with 
large subquadrate pits : hinges very strong. 

Dorsal profile broadly acute-ovate ; end-view subovate. 

In a translucent young valve the surface is smooth, but a distinct coarse reticula- 
tion is seen by the opacity of the parietes of its meshes in the tissue of the valve : 
these meshes appear to be subsequently represented by the superficial pittings. 

Cythere laqueata is rather rare in the Crag of Sutton, &c, in Suffolk, where it 
occurs with C. Woodiana, C. Macropora, &c. It occurs also in the Upper or Red Crag 
at Walton-on-Naze, Essex. 



No. 12. Cythere Dictyosigma, spec. nov. 



INCH. 

Length, A Pliocene : Suffolk. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



31 



Carapace oblong ; extremities obliquely rounded : valves thick, somewhat depressed, 
showing more or less distinctly the central and two posterior tubercles ; surface finely 
reticulated, the meshes small, angular, and deep, the parietcs of the meshes thick, 
squared, and strong ; on the ventral slopes the longitudinal parietes of the reticulation 
are the most distinct (as is usual in reticulated carapaces), on the rest of the surface 
the reticulation is irregular or labyrinthine. 

Dorsal aspect narrow-obtuse-ovate ; end-view subovate. 

Cythere Dictyosiyma somewhat resembles C. bidentata, Bosquet (' Entom. Tert.,' 
p. 72, t. 3, fig. 9), from Dax. It is not uncommon in the Crag of Suffolk; but the 
specimens were overlooked when the plates were being prepared. 



No. 13. Cythere lacunosa, spec. nov. Plate III, figs. 5 a, 5 b. 

INCH. 

Length, Recent : Norway. 

Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Carapace oblong, slightly tapering backwards ; rounded obliquely at the extremi- 
ties ; posterior lobe narrow and thickened ; dorsal and ventral edges nearly straight ; 
valves somewhat depressed, with the centre sunken and occupied by a large tubercle ; 
margins depressed and thickened : surface of valves marked by 3 — 4 concentric riblets 
towards the anterior margin, one of which is continued along the dorsal part of the 
valve ; parallel with and inside this slight dorsal ridge is a row of coarse, quadrangu- 
lar, shallow pits ; an obscure punctation and scattered pimples occupy the middle part 
of the valves, especially around the great central tubercle. 

Dorsal aspect irregular-narrow-oblong. 

This species occurs in the Crag of Suffolk, where it is rather rare. It is plentiful 
in the deeply dredged shell- and sponge-sand from the Norway coast, with which I 
have been favoured by Messrs. Mac Andrew and Barrett. 



No. 14. Cythere scabropapulosa, spec. nov. Plate V, fig. 16. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Middle Eocene : Bracklesham. 

Carapace sub-oblong ; tapering backwards, and ending in a flattened, angular, 
denticulate, posterior lobe ; anterior extremity obliquely rounded, bordered by a thick- 
ened and raised margin : surface of valves thickly beset with low and rounded tubercles; 
anterior hinge marked by a strong tubercle. 



.'32 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



Dorsal aspect elongate-subovate. 

This species closely resembles C. scabra, Minister, figured and described by Bosquet, 
' Descrip. Entom. Tert.,' p. 103, t. 5, fig. 7 ; but, instead of smooth tubercles, the latter 
has ragged lamellar tubercles. Such exogenous growths as tubercles and spines are 
subject to great variations of development, and must be used with caution for specific 
characters ; still I prefer to regard the form under notice as distinct from C. scabra. 

Cythere scabropapulosa occurs at Bracklesham, and is rare. C. scabra, according to 
Bosquet, belongs to the Subapennine deposits of the South of France, and the Miocene 
beds of Dax ; Roemer derived it from the North-west of Germany (Osnabruck), and 
from Bordeaux. 



No. 15. Cythere costellata, Roemer, sp. Plate V, fig. 11. 

Cythebina costellata, Roemer. Neues Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1838, p. 517, t. 6, fig. 24. 
Cythere costellata, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 58, t. 2, fig. 11. 

INCH. 

Length, Middle Eocene : England and France. 

Carapace ovato-oblong ; rounded before, narrow behind ; dorsal border straight, 
ventral slightly convex : valves most convex posterior to the centre, depressed ante- 
riorly ; front and hind margins more or less denticulate ; surface covered by several 
narrow, rounded, longitudinal, slightly sinuous ribs, placed side by side (10 or 1 1 in my 
specimens, 7 or 8 in M. Bosquet's, and "about six" in M. Roemer's). 

Dorsal aspect elongate-acute- ovate ; end-view ovate. 

A slight difference in the number of the superficial riblets exists amongst the 
specimens figured and described, — as above noticed ; and there also appears to be a 
somewhat greater convexity in Roemer's 6-ribbed form than in Bosquet's 7- or 8- 
ribbed specimens, and in the latter than in my 10-ribbed specimens. 

Bosquet enumerates several localities for C. costellata in the " Sables moyens," the 
" Calcaire grossier," and in the " Sables inferieurs " of France. Roemer's specimens 
also came from the Paris Tertiaries. In England I have only met with this species in 
the sandy blue clay at Bracklesham, where a single specimen (perfect carapace) was 
obtained. 



No. 16. Cythere plicata, Munster. Plate IV, fig. 16; PI. V, figs. 8 a— 8 d; 

PI. V, fig. 17. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



33 



Cythere plicata, Miinster. Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1830, p. G3 ; and Neues Jahrb., &c. 

1835, p. 446. 

Cytherina plicata, Roemer. Neues Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1838, p. 518, t. 6, fig. 26. 
Cypridina plicata, Reuss. Haidinger's Abhandl., iii, p. 43, t. 10, fig. 21. 

— laticost ata, lb. Haidinger's Abhandl., iii, p. 8", t. 1 1, fig. 13. [C. plicata, var.] 
Cythere plicata, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 60, t. 2, fig. 13. 

— (Cythereis) plicata, Jones. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, x, p. 162, t. 2, fig. 13. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Middle Eocene : Isle of Wight, and Hampshire. 

Upper and Middle Eocene : Europe. 

Carapace ovato-oblong ; anteriorly oblique, with the antero-ventral angle rounded ; 
posteriorly narrower and obliquely rounded ; dorsal margin straight ; ventral margin 
convex or somewhat sinuate : valves most convex at the posterior third ; bearing three 
raised longitudinal ridges, — one on either side of, and parallel with, the median line of 
the valve (the ventral one the most convex and gently curving downwards, the other 
weaker and sinuous), and another (the third) ridge occupying the dorsal part of the 
valve, shorter than the others and curved, its most convex central portion more or less 
projecting over the dorsal edge ; the ventral portion of the valve suddenly slopes 
inwards and downwards from the summit of the ventral ridge, so as to form a blunt 
keel to the closed carapace ; front and hind margins more or less denticulate : surface 
of the valves usually ornamented with faint longitudinal wrinkles and obscure pittings 
and reticulations on and between the ridges. 

Dorsal profile elongate-subovate, with angular ends; end-view broad-irregular-ovate, 
modified by the lateral ridges. 

This species, like C. triplicata of the Chalk, is one of the passage-forms between 
Cythere proper and Cythereis. 

Var. laticosta (Reuss, Loc. cit.), from the Barton Clay of Hampshire, is decidedly 
identical with the form (from the same deposit) figured at pi. 5, fig. 8 ; and is merely a 
more ovate, shorter, plumper, and more strongly ribbed variety of C. plicata. 

This species has been found in the Miocene deposits of Dax, and in the Eocene of 
France, Belgium, North-western Germany, Bohemia, Austria, and Moravia. It occurs 
abundantly in the white Tertiary sands and in an Oyster-band at Colwell Bay, Isle of 
Wight ; also in the clays at Barton, Highcliff, and Bracklesham, in Hampshire. 

The specimens from Colwell are opaque, white, and fragile ; those from the Hamp- 
shire clays are brown, tough, and somewhat translucent. 



No. 17. Cythere scrobiculoplicata, spec. nov. Plate VI, figs. 4, G« — 6 d. 

INCH. 

Length, J~ Lower Eocene : London. 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



Carapace ovato-oblong ; extremities obliquely rounded ; posterior end narrowest 
and most oblique ; ventral margin curved from its centre towards the posterior 
extremity ; dorsal margin straight : surface of the valves raised into three obscure 
longitudinal ridges, holding the same relative position as the ridges on C. plicata ; 
valves covered with a coarse reticulation of sub-quadrangular pits, arranged some- 
what concentrically. 

Dorsal aspect acute-ovate ; end-view sub-ovate. 

This species differs from C. scrobiculata, Minister, in the ridged character of the 
valves, in being more oblong, in having the longitudinal parietes of the pits on the 
central part of the valves more developed than the transverse, and in the absence of 
the faint semicircular riblets which traverse the anterior portion of C. scrobiculata. 

The latter occurs in the Eocene deposits of France and Belgium, and in Tertiary 
deposits of the North-west of Germany ; also at Dax in France, and near Parma in 
Italy. 

Cythere scrobiculoplicata is not rare in the London Clay of Copenhagen Fields, 
London ; and Mr. Wetherell has favoured me with a fine specimen from the London 
Clay of Finchley, near London. 

Var. recta, nov. Plate VI, fig. 9. 

INCH. 

Length, T V Middle Eocene : East Woodhay, Hampshire. 

Carapace smaller than that of C. scrobiculoplicata, triangularly ovate, obliquely 
rounded in front, and tapering symmetrically towards the rounded posterior extremity ; 
the anterior portion of the valves not reticulated, but obscurely punctate, and bordered 
by a narrow, raised, marginal rim ; the rest of the surface is ridged and reticulated on 
the plan of C. scrobiculoplicata. 

A single valve occurred in some blue clay, from East Woodhay, Hampshire, proba- 
bly belonging to the Bagshot and Bracklesham series. 

No. 18. Cythere Angulatopora, Beuss, sp. Plate IV, figs. 17, 18 a, 18 b ; and 

PI. VI, fig. 18. 

Cypridina Angulatopora, Reuss. Haidinger's Abhandl., iii, p. 86, t. 10, fig. 32. 
Cythere Angulatopora, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. G8, t. 3, fig. 5. 
— (Cythereis) Angulatopora, Jones. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, p. 162, t. 3, 

fig. 12. 



INCH. 

Length, ^ 3 to Vtj 



Middle Eocene : England; Fiance; Belgium. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



35 



Carapace oblong ; obliquely rounded in front, rounded behind ; dorsal and ventral 
edges nearly straight : surface of valves ornamented with a bold reticulation of large 
square meshes, the longitudinal parietes being strongly developed ; a somewhat con- 
centric arrangement of the meshes occurs at the central tubercle or place of the lucid 
spots. [The markings of the surface are not drawn sufficiently distinct in fig. 17.] 

Dorsal aspect elongate-ovate, with the ends produced and truncate ; end-view 
broadly sub-ovate. 

When some of the longitudinal parietes of the reticulation are more strongly 
developed than the others, this form approaches C.plicatula and C. Gracilicosta, Reuss. 

Cythere Angulatopora is not uncommon in the Tertiary sands and Oyster-band of 
Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight. 

M. Bosquet has obtained this species from the " Calcaire grossier" and "Sable 
moyens " of France ; and Dr. Reuss's specimens came from the " Calcaire grossier " of 
Epernay. I have found it also in a Middle Eocene deposit from Ghent, Belgium. 



No. 19. Cythere Macropora, Bosquet. Plate III, figs. 9 a — 9 e. 

Cythere Macropora, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 97, t. 5, fig. 2. 

INCH. 

Length, Pliocene: Suffolk. 

Middle Eocene : France. 

Carapace oblong ; slightly tapering and rounded behind ; obliquely rounded in 
front ; somewhat incurved on the upper and lower borders : valves thick, denticulate at 
the extremities, most convex posteriorly, anterior portion raised by the great central 
tubercle ; ventral and dorsal portions sloping suddenly inwards, leaving an oblong 
superficial plateau, the posterior angles of which are defined by the two posterior 
tubercles : surface covered by a coarse reticulation of large quadrangular pits, sepa- 
rated by strong squared parietes ; the pits on the dorsal portion of the plateau forming- 
two curved longitudinal series, those on the ventral portion arranged in three or four 
obliquely transverse rows ; the ventral and dorsal slopes also coarsely reticulated. 

Dorsal aspect irregular oblong, with produced ends ; end-view sub-quadrangular. 

The very young form (fig. 9 e) exhibits the three tubercles (central and two 
posterior) very distinctly. 

Cythere Macropora is rather rare in the Crag of Sutton and elsewhere in Suffolk. 
According to M. Bosquet, this species occurs very sparingly in the " Gres de Fontaine- 
bleau " and the " Sables moyens" of France. 



36 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



No. 20. Cythere Trachypora, spec. nov. Plate III, figs. 9/ — 9 i. 

INCH. 

Length, Recent : Norway. 

Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Carapace sub- quadrangular ; somewhat tapering posteriorly; rounded obliquely in 
front ; contracted behind : valves showing the three tubercles, the two posterior of 
which are prolonged forwards as faint ridges : surface roughly reticulato-punctate. 

Dorsal aspect compressed-subovate, with produced ends. 

Cythere Trachyopora differs from C. Macropora (with which at first I associated it 
as a dwarfed variety) in being smaller, with a more depressed and uneven surface, on 
which the posterior tubercles are more apparent ; also in being less angular, and in 
having its ornamentation less distinctly sculptured. It appears to stand between 
C. Macropora and C. Hebertiana, Bosquet. 

This species is frequent in the Crag of Suffolk. It occurs also recent on the coast 
of Norway, where it was dredged by MM. MacAndrew and Barrett. I believe that I 
also have had it from the Red Crag of Walton, Essex. 



No. 21. Cythere retifastigata, spec. nov. Plate III, fig. 7. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Carapace-valve oblong, tapering backwards, rounded at the ends ; raised by three 
obscure, longitudinal, parallel ridges into an oblong raised plateau, with sudden slopes 
towards the margins : surface marked with a strong punctation ; the pits circular and 
regular in their arrangement, coarsest anteriorly. 

A few specimens only of the valves of this species have as yet occurred in my 
examination of the Suffolk Crag. 

No. 22. Cythere sph^erulolineata, spec. nov. Plate III, fig. 6. 

INCH. 

Length,-^ Pliocene: Suffolk. 

Carapace-valve oblong ; obliquely rounded in front, almost truncate behind ; most 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 37 

convex posteriorly and ventrally ; sloping suddenly towards the borders, slope steepest 
on the ventral border: surface ornamented with a large central tubercle and two thin' 
longitudinal, parallel, beaded ridges ; one of which is placed at the edge of the dorsal, 
the other at that of the ventral slope ; and both are connected by a similar, short, 
transverse ridge along the edge of the posterior slope ; the area between and outside 
the ridges is faintly punctate. 

Dorsal aspect elongate-acute-ovate, nearly cuneiform ; end-view sub-ovate. 

I have met with only three specimens in the Crag of Suffolk. 



Sub-genus — Cythereis, 1 Jones. 

Animal probably a Cythere. Carapace oblong ; variously ornamented with reticu- 
lations, tubercles, spines, and ridges : the bar and furrow of the hinge are nearly or 
quite obsolete ; but the anterior and posterior hinges are well defined, and isolated, 
marking definite angles in the outline of the carapace-valves : the central and posterior 
tubercles on the surface of each valve are strongly marked, passing into more or less 
developed longitudinal ridges, the ventral one of which is always raised, and often 
greatly produced, giving a flat ventral surface and a somewhat triangular end-view to 
the closed carapace. 



No. 1. Cythereis senilis, spec. nov. Plate III, figs. 8 a, 8 b. 

INCH. 

Length, -Jg Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Carapace-valve oblong, rounded in front, truncate and denticulate behind ; 
margins thickened ; surface bearing three disconnected, squared ridges ; the one 
towards the ventral border running the length of the raised plateau of the surface and 
curving round its anterior portion ; the central ridge shorter and nearly straight ; the 
dorsal one shortest and oblique ; exposed edge of the ridges beaded, or rather marked 
with lozenge-shaped spots, which possibly indicate that the ridges were once higher 
and perforate, as in Cythereis Jistulosa, C. runcinata, and C prava, Baird, — the lozenge- 
markings being perhaps the bases of the minute interstitial pillars of the raised perfo- 
rate edges of the ridges. 

1 For synonyms and greater detail of description, see 'Monog. Entom. Cret.,' 1849, p. 14. Since 
1849, Cythereis has been in some cases erected into a genus, in others merged into Cythere proper, and 
rarely accepted as a sub-genus. See Note above, p. /. 



38 THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 

Cythere {Cythereis) senilis is very nearly allied to C. fistulosa and C. runcinata, 
Baird : x it is represented by one specimen only from the Crag of Suffolk. 



No. 2. Cythereis Bowerbankiana, spec. nov. Plate VI, figs. 7, 8. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Eocene : London. 

Carapace-valves oblong, obliquely rounded in front, contracted behind, most convex 
posteriorly and ventrally ; margins of the extremities depressed, more or less coarsely 
denticulate ; ventral portion strongly ridged and coarsely spined : surface of valves 
coarsely and irregularly reticulate ; bearing coarse irregular spines along the dorsal 
portion, and scattered short spines or tubercles about the central portion ; both spines 
and reticulations variable in their development. 

Dorsal profile sagittate with jagged outline; end-view triangular. 

A few specimens of single valves of this species occurred in the London Clay of 
the Copenhagen Fields at the Great Northern Railway cutting ; and Mr. W. K. Parker 
has lately favoured me with two fine perfect carapaces from the London Clay of 
Wimbledon Common. 

I associate with this characteristic and remarkably fine species the name of one of 
the most successful and distinguished of the geologists who have studied the natural 
history of the London Clay, and of the British fossiliferous deposits generally. 



No. 3. Cythereis horrescens, Bosquet. Plate V, figs. 9, 17 a, \7 b. 

Cythebe horuescens, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 116, t. 6, fig. 5. 
? — latidentata, Bomemann. Zeitsch. Deutsch. geol. Ges., vii, p. 366, t. 21, fig. 6. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Recent : Norway. 

Eocene : England ; France. 

Carapace-valves oblong, rounded at the ends, which are more or less coarsely denti- 
culate ; ventral ridge coarsely spined: surface beset with scattered blunt spines 2 and 

1 ' Proceed. Zool. Soc. London,' 1850, p. 256: Annulosa, t. 18, figs. 1 — 3, 7 — 9. Possibly these are 
varieties of one species. 

2 In fig. 9 tlie dorsal portion of the valve ought to bear blunt spines, not tubercles. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



39 



tubercles, varying (like the spines of the ventral ridge and the extremities) in their 
development in different individuals. 

Dor ml profile sagittate and jagged ; end-view triangular. 

Cythere {Cythereis) horrescens occurs both at Barton and Bracklesham, in the 
Tertiary clays. According to M. Bosquet, this species and its varieties are found in 
the " Sables moyens," the " Calcaire grossier," and the " Sables glauconiferes " of 
France. 

I have found two specimens of this fine species in the sand dredged by Messrs. 
MacAndrew and Barrett on the Norway Coast. 



No. 4. Cythereis Ceratoptera, Bosquet. Plate IV, fig. 1. 

Cythere Ceratoptera, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 114, t. 5, fig. 2. 

INCH. 

Length, T L Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Upper and Middle Eocene : Belgium and France. 

Carapace sub-oblong, tapering posteriorly ; smooth ; strongly and coarsely spined 
on the anterior, dorsal, and posterior margins, and along the ventral ridge, which is 
very much produced. 

Dorsal aspect sagittate, with the edges jagged ; end-view triangular. 

From the Crag of Sutton, Suffolk, where it appears to be rare. Bosquet obtained 
it in Belgium from the Basele Clay near Rupelmonde, and from the Nucula-bed at 
Berg, near Klein-Spawen ; and in France from Tertiary sands near Etampes. 



No. 5. Cythereis cornuta, Hoemer, sp. Plate IV, fig. 19 ; PI. V, figs. 15 a, \bb. 

Cytherina cornuta, Roemer. Neues Jahrb. f. Min., &c, p. 518, t. 6, fig. 31. 

— — Reuss. Verstein. Bohm. Kreid., p. 105, t. 24, fig. 20. 

Cythere cornuta, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 117, t. 6, fig. 4. 

— — Reuss. Zeitsch. Deutsch. geol. Ges., vii, p. 282, t. 10, fig. 10. 

— (Cythereis) alata (?), Bosq., Jones, Monog. Entom. Cret., p. 21, t. 5, fig. 14. 

iNcn. 

Length, Middle Eocene : England and Europe. 

Cretaceous : England and Europe. 

Carapace sub-oblong ; oblique and somewhat rounded in front ; posterior lobe 
sub-angular ; extremities denticulate ; surface smooth, occasionally marked with one or 



40 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



more obscure tubercles near the centre, and with one, and sometimes two slight semi- 
lunar ridges near the dorsal margin ; ventral ridge strongly produced, narrow, and 
smooth. 

Dorsal aspect sagittate ; end-view triangular. 

Cythere ( Cythereis) cornida has many near allies. M. Bosquet has separated (under 
the name of C. calcarata) the form figured by Reuss (' Haid. Abh./ iii, t. 10, fig. 18) as 
C. cornuta [and subsequently referred by him — fig. 18<5 to C. ceratoptera, Bosquet, and 
fig. 18 a to C. coronata, Roemer], because it is spiny on the dorsal and ventral borders, 
though Roemer's figure of C. cornuta appears to indicate a tendency to spinosity on 
the ventral ridges. C. ceratoptera is of the same typical form, but presenting spines or 
serrations at every margin. Nor is there much to distinguish C. serrulata, Bosquet, 
from C. cornuta; and the cretaceous form from the English Chalk which I referred to 
Bosquet's C. alata has, I believe, no distinction from the C. cornuta of Colwell and 
Bracklesham (pi. 4, fig. 19, and pi. 5, fig. 15), except in its somewhat greater 
squareness and convexity, and the possession of a few more spines. 

The specimens of C. cornuta here figured and described are from the Tertiary 
sands of Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight, and from the Tertiary blue clay of Bracklesham 
Bay, Hampshire. 

No. 6. Cythereis, sp. indeterm. Plate VI, fig. 17. 

Lower Eocene : Thanet Sands, Kent. 

This fragment from the antero-dorsal angle of the left valve of a Cythereis, indicating 
a ridged valve, possibly resembling C. quadrilatera of the Chalk, occurred in some of 
the Thanet Sand from Pegwell Bay, near Ramsgate. 

As, from the nature of the deposit, calcareous organisms of any kind are rare, 1 and 
as this is the only indication of an Entomostracon met with, though I have examined 
several specimens of the Thanet Sands from Mr. Prestwich's cabinet, I have figured 
the fragment in this place, as at least an interesting, if not an instructive specimen. 

Sub-genus — Cytheridea, Bosquet? genus. Cytherina et Cylheres, Auctorum. 

Animal a Cythere. Carapace somewhat triangular, or triangularly ovate, the widest 
part (vertically) being at the anterior third, beneath the anterior hinge ; surface usually 
pitted, occasionally reticulated : hinge-margin of one valve (right) marked by a series 

1 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. viii, p. 245. 2 ' Descript. Entom. foss. Terr. Tert.,' p. 37. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



41 



of small tubercles, forming a knurling or fine crenulation on this edge, somewhat like 
the hinge-teeth of Nucula, the other valve having corresponding pits on its dorsal 
margin : these rows of small hinge-teeth are either continuous along the hinge-margin 
(as in Dana's figure of Cythere Americana), or are discontinued (to a greater or less 
extent) in the central part and form isolated groups at the anterior and posterior 
angles of the dorsal margin ; whilst the intermediate portion of the margin has still 
smaller tubercles on the left, and corresponding pittings on the right valve 1 (this is 
also the case in Cyprideis \ Cythere ?~\ torosa) : ventral margins somewhat incurved. 



No. 1. Cytheridea Mulleri, Miinster, sp. Plate V, figs. 4 a — 4 c, and 5; PI. VI, 

figs. 10 a, [Ob, and 11 — 13. 

Cythere Mulleri, Minister. Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1830, p. 02; and Neues Jahrb., &c, 

1835, p. 446. 

Cytherina Mulleri, Roemer. Ibid., 1838, p. 516, t. 6, fig. 6. 

— — Reuss. Haidinger's Abhandl., iii, p. 55, t. 8, fig. 21. 

— intermedia, Reuss. Ibid., p. 86, t. 11, fig. 12. [C. Mulleri, var.] 
Cytheridea Mulleri, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 39, t. 2, fig. 4. 

— — Jones. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, x, p. 160, t. 3, fig. 7; and Mem. 

Geol. Survey, 1856, p. 158, t. 7, fig. 28. 

INCH. 

Length, Recent : Holland ; Australia. 

Tertiary : England ; Europe ; Australia 1 

Carapace ovately triangular, rounded anteriorly, obliquely pointed behind; dorsal 
margin arched ; ventral margin straight or slightly incurved ; anterior margin spinous : 
surface coarsely punctate ; the pits generally associated with semicircular furrows on 
the fore part of the valves, and with longitudinal furrows on the ventral part ; on the 
posterior half of the valve the pittings follow transverse sunken lines, parallel with the 
transverse sulcus which is more or less apparent on the centre of each valve, at the 
place of the lucid spots. 

Anterior to this median furrow frequently occurs a tubercle (pi. 6, fig. 11), or at 
least a marked elevation of the surface (pi. 6, fig. 10 a). In some specimens from the 
Barton Clay, however, the furrow and tubercle are absent (pi. 5, fig. 4 a). 

Lucid spots small, four, arranged in a transverse row (System c, see page 6). 

Dorsal profile narrow oblong, very slightly incurved at the sides, and obtusely 
angular at the ends ; end-view ovate. 



1 This form of hingement is also apparent in Zenker's figure of the hinge-line of the species which he 
has described as Cythere viridis, ' Archiv f. Natur. ,' loc. cit. t. 4, fig. 10. 





[•2 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



Generally the English specimens slightly differ from M. Bosquet's figures in almost 
wholly wanting the longitudinal parallel furrows on the ventral surface, which are 
continued transversely and concentrically across the anterior half of the valve ; faint 
traces only of the concentric furrows being occasionally seen, though irregular 
transverse furrows, full of pittings, are conspicuous in old specimens. One such 
transverse furrow, immediately posterior to the lucid spots, near the centre of the 
valve, is nearly always present, even in young specimens. I have not met with 
individuals retaining the setae of the surface. 

Ci/t/iere {Cj/tkeridea) Mulleri occurs throughout the Tertiary formations of Europe ; 
being found in Austria, Bohemia, Hesse, Westphalia, France, Belgium, and the 
Netherlands, in the Eocene; in Touraine {Miocene); and in the Netherlands 
{Pliocene). In England it occurs abundantly in many of the shales of the 
Hempstead series, at Hempstead Cliff, Isle of Wight ; and one specimen was met 
with in a green shale of the Osborne series, at Cliff End, Isle of Wight ; it is not rare 
(as the var. intermedia) in the Barton Clay of Hampshire ; and the clay with oysters 
from Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight, yielded three or four specimens ; these deposits are 
of the Upper Eocene group : and in the Woolwich and Reading series (Lower 
Eocene) it has been found at Clay Hill, 1 near Newbury, Berks, and is abundant at 
Woolwich, Kent. This species also occurs in a tertiary blue clay, given to me as 
having been brought from Australia ; and I have a small recent specimen from the 
Australian seas. M. Bosquet also records this species as living in the Zuyderzee, 
Holland. 

M. Reuss has figured under the name of Cytherina intermedia a form which he 
derived from the Barton Clay of Hampshire : this is evidently identical with the 
unfurrowed variety (pi. 5, fig. 4) from the same deposit. M. Reuss regards it as 
intermediate between C. Mulleri, Minister, and C. seminulum, Reuss {loc. cit., p. 59, 
t. 9, figs. 5 — 8), which latter in all its varieties appears to me to belong to Von 
Minister's species. 

Var. torosa, Jones. Plate VI, fig. 12. 

Cythere (Cytheiudea) Mulleri, var. torosa, Jones. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc.,x, p. 161, 
t. 3, fig. 8 ; and Memoirs Geol. Survey, 1856", p. 158, t. 7, fig. 27. 

INCII. 

Length, ■ 3 > ff Upper Eocene : Hempstead Cliff. 

Lower Eocene : Woolwich. 

This variety differs from the typical C. Mulleri in being generally smaller (although 
sometimes as long, though not so nigh as the type), and in having the surface of the 

1 In the sandy clay-heils with Ostrcea Bellovucina. 



THE TERTIARY EORMATION. 



43 



valves raised up into irregular lumps or bosses. Of these knobs, which are often but 
ill defined, sometimes seven can be counted on one valve. The spots most usually 
occupied, when the bosses are but few, are the posterior part of the valve and 
especially the central part immediately in advance of the sulcus and the place of the 
lucid spots. Tn its general form C. torosa resembles that variety of C. Mutteri in 
which the posterior extremity is contracted and acuminate (var. acuminata, 
Bosquet). 

This torose variety was found plentifully by Mr. Rosser in the same beds of the 
Woolwich series as yielded the typical C. Mutteri. It occurs also abundantly in some 
of the shales of the Hempstead series, in Hempstead Cliff, Isle of Wight. 



No. 2. Cytheridea debtlts, spec. nov. Plate V, fig. 5 ; PI. VI, fig. 13. 

INCH. 

Length, J ? Recent : Norway. 

Upper Eocene : Isle of Wight. 

This is a small form, nearly resembling C. Mutteri in outline, but much smaller, 
and more obtuse ; not so acute posteriorly as C. Mutteri, var. torosa ; often destitute of 
the median impression, and bearing a weakly marked punctation. It is sometimes, 
however, larger than usual, and more strongly punctate. 

Cythere [Cytheridea) debilis occurs with the typical C. Mutteri in numbers in an 
Oyster-band, a Nucula-bed, 1 and other deposits, of the Upper Eocene series at 
Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight. A similar form occurs recent on the coast of Norway. 



No. 3. Cytheridea pinguis, spec. nov. Plate II, figs. 4 a — Ah. 

INCH. 

Length, J$ Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Carapace thick, ovate-triangular; sub-cylindrical when young; lowest behind; 
highest at the anterior third, where it is also somewhat compressed ; dorsal border 
more or less arched ; ventral border straight, with its edge somewhat inturned : 
surface of valves in the young state finely punctate and beset with scattered papilla) 
(fig. 4 g), in older individuals coarsely punctate (fig. 4 h) : hinge well developed. 

Dorsal aspect sub-oblong ; end-view sub-orbicular. 

Cythere {Cytheridea) pinguis is nearly related to C. Mutteri on one side and 
1 The specimens from this bed were kindly communicated to me by my friend Mr. Harris, of Charing. 



44 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



C. papittosa, Bosquet, on the other ; and there are several allied forms figured by Reuss 
(Haidinger's Abhandl., hi, pi. 8), but they do not appear to be specifically identical. 
The species also figured and described by M. Bosquet as Bairdia punctatella (Descript. 
Entom. Tert. p. 75, tab. 1, fig. 10) is not unlike C. pinguis, although smaller; and, 
like several other species figured on the same plate, is decidedly not a Bairdia. 

No. 4. Cy the ride a Sorbyana, spec. nov. Plate IV, figs. 6 a — 6 e. 

INCH. 

Length, ^3 Pleistocene: Bridlington. 

Carapace irregularly triangular and approaching a pentagonal form, — of which 
the ventral border makes a long straight side, the dorsal two shorter straight sides, 
oblique to each other and to the remaining sides, whilst lastly the anterior and posterior 
extremities complete the pentagon, — the former with an obliquely rounded, and the 
latter with an oblique straight border ; the junction of the ventral and posterior borders 
forms an angle very slightly rounded ; the anterior border is strongly spined : surface 
of the valves marked towards the margins with concentric ridges, following the outline 
of the valve, and connected by short oblique ridges or wrinkles, which are continued 
over the middle of the valve, where the long ridges become nearly obsolete, forming 
with the others a strong angular reticulation, sometimes closing up and becoming 
granular in the centre of the surface ; the long ridges are marked at short 
regular intervals with trumpet-shaped perforations 1 (fig. 6e). Lucid spots four in 
one row (System c). 

Dorsal aspect lanceolate ; anterior, acute-oval. 

Found by Mr. H. C. Sorby, f.g.s. (to whom, as an ardent and distinguished 
geologist, I have much pleasure in dedicating'this peculiar species), in the Pleistocene 
deposit known as the Bridlington Crag, at Bridlington, Yorkshire. 

No. 5. Cytheridea perforata, Boemer, sp. Plate IV, figs. 14 a — I4e. 

Cytherina perforata, Roemer. Neues Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1838, p. 516, t. 6, fig. 11. 
Cythere Hilseana, 2 Jones (non Roemer). Monog. Entom. Cret., p. 10, t. 1, fig. 1. 



1 Seen under the microscope by reflected light, these perforations, being visible in the translucent 
substance of the valve, appear on that side of the convex valve which is away from the direct rays of light 
like out-standing blunt spines. This phenomenon occurs also in the punctated and perforated valves of 
other species, when their substance is translucent 

2 M. Bosquet, having had the opportunity of examining both Roemer's C. Hilseana and my specimens 
which I referred to that species, has determined that they belong to distinct species. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



45 



Cytheridea Jonesiana, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 38 ; and Mem. 

Comm. Carte Geol. Neerl., ii, p. 64, t. 8, fig. 5. 
— — Reuss. Denksch. Akad. Wiss. Wien., vii, p. 141. 

Bairdia perforata, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 24, t. 1, fig. 8. 

INCH. 

Length, fa Tertiary: England; Europe. 

Cretaceous : England ; Europe. 

Carapace sub-triangular or triangular-ovate; most convex at or just behind the 
centre of the ventral portion ; ventral border straight, or faintly convex ; dorsal border 
strongly arched and somewhat angular at the anterior hinge ; anterior end broad and 
obliquely rounded ; posterior tapering and obtuse ; right valve much narrower than the 

■ 

left, its hinge-line oblique and terminating at the anterior hinge with a distinct angle ; 
surface of the valves finely punctate and perforate, the perforations, obliquely seen in 
the translucent substance of the carapace, often appearing as projecting spines or 
hairs (see Note, p. 44). 

Dorsal aspect more or less lanceolate ; end-view nearly ovate. 

The series of Tertiary and Cretaceous Entomostraca, from France and Belgium, 
with which M. Bosquet has kindly favoured me, comprises a specimen of C. perforata, 
Roemer ; and hence I am enabled to point out that there are no essential differences 
between the forms enumerated above in the list of the Synonyms of this species. The 
greater relative size and ovateness of the left valve, — the apparent presence of setse, 
arising from optical appearances under the microscope, in some specimens, — -slight 
variations in the convexity of the surface and the coarseness of the punctations, and 
the occasional presence of marginal spines— constitute the differences among specimens 
from different localities. 

Cytheridea incrassata, Bosquet (' Entom. Tert.,' p. 44, t. 3, f. 11), is evidently a 
closely allied form ; and so also are Bairdia sub-trigona, Bornemann (' Zeitsch. Deut. 
geol. Ges.,' vii, p. 357, t. 20, f. 4), and Cytheridea punclatella, Bornemann (ibid., p. 360, 
t. 21, f. 2). 

Cythere {Cytheridea) perforata occurs in the Upper Eocene Clays at Barton, on 
the Hampshire coast, and in the sands of the same age at Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight ; 
(and two varieties in the London Clay, near London). M. Bosquet found it 
(B. perforata) in the " Sables moyens," Tancrou (Seine-et-Marne), and the "Calcaire 
grossier," Damery (Marne) and Montmirail (Aisne). Roemer derived his specimens 
from the Paris Tertiaries. I have it also from the " Calcaire grossier superieur." 

As a Cretaceous form, it occurs in the Maestricht Chalk at Kunraede (Bosquet), in 
the Chalk of Balsberg, in Sweden, and of Kent (rare), in the Chalk-marl of Charing 
and Dover, in the Gault of Kent, and the Greensand (so-called) of Blackdown. 



46 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



Var. insignis, nov. Plate VI, figs. 3 a — 3 c. 

INCH. 

Length, J T Lower Eocene: London. 

Right carapace-valve sub-triangular, depressed towards each end ; anterior border 
with a slightly raised marginal rim : surface thickly punctate, pittings coarser towards 
the middle, where they follow short sunken transverse lines. 

Dorsal aspect of carapace sub-fusiform. 

From the London Clay of the Copenhagen Fields, near London ; obtained with 
others by Mr. J. Purdue during the cutting of the Great Northern Railway. 



Var. glabra, nov. Plate V, figs. 24 a, 24 b. 

INCH. 

Length, Lower Eocene ; London. 

Rigid carapace-valve sub-triangular, depressed anteriorly ; similar in outline to the 
right valve of C. perforata, but rather more angular before and behind ; the two 
extremities bordered by a slightly raised, smooth, marginal rim : surface smooth, not 
punctate. 

Dorsal aspect of carapace acute-lanceolate. 

From the London Clay of the Copenhagen Fields, London. 



Sub-genus — Cytherideis, nov. Cythere, Auctorum. 

Animal a Cy there ? Carapace more or less triangular ; surface smooth, pitted, or 
tuberculate : hinge-margin simple, except that, the central portion of the dorsal 
margin of the left valve being somewhat incurved under that of the right valve (when 
they are closed), the anterior and posterior angles of the dorsal margin of the left valve 
remain somewhat projecting, and present internal shallow furrows for the reception of 
the corresponding angles of the opposite valve : ventral margin partially incurved. 

This is a more distinct form of the hingement that generally obtains in Cypris. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



47 



No. 1. Cytherideis trigonalis, Jones. Plate II, figs. 2 a — 2h. 

Cythere trigonalis, Jones. Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., vi, p. 28, t. 3, fig. 5. 

INCH. 

Length, T ' T Recent : Peg well Bay, Rent. 

Pleistocene : Essex. 

Carapace obtusely triangular, convex, finely punctated with angular pittings (fig, 
2 h) ; extremities obliquely rounded ; anterior portion much broader and somewhat 
more depressed than the posterior ; ventral border nearly straight, dorsal angular ; 
hinge-margin oblique and faintly developed, anterior hinge accompanied by slight 
marginal teeth. Lucid spots (fig. 2 g) of the System b, page 5. 

Dorsal aspect acute-oval. 

The outline-form of this species is not uncommon in the genera Cypris and Cythere, 
and especially in the sub-genus Cytheridea. 

A unique specimen of this interesting form was obtained from the Pleistocene or 
Post-pliocene formation at Clacton, and is identical with a recent form from the sand 
of Pegwell Bay 1 (for which I am indebted to Mr. Pickering), except that the latter has 
denticles, or short blunt spines, on the anterior and posterior margins, as is usual with 
the genus Cythere. 

A smooth form, Var. l^vis, which occurs plentifully in the pleistocene sand at 
Grays, differs from the Clacton specimen merely in the want of pittings. 



No. 2. Cytherideis tuberculata, spec. nov. Plate II, figs. 3 a — 3/. 

INCH. 

Length, Pleistocene : Red Crag, Essex. 

Pliocene : Crag, Suffolk. 

Carapace convex, sub-triangular, depressed anteriorly ; extremities rounded , 
posterior end contracted ; ventral border slightly incurved ; dorsal border strongly 
angular ; hinge-line occupying the posterior two thirds of the dorsal edge : surface of 
valves ornamented with tubercles arranged loosely in about eight longitudinal rows, 
with about twelve in the longest row. 

Dorsal aspect acute-oval ; end-view sub-ovate. 

Cythere {Cytherideis) tuberculata occurs in the Crag of Suffolk, and in the Red Crag 
at Walton, Essex ; but appears to be rare. 

1 Probably this, like the specimens of Candona reptans and C. Candida, mentioned at p. 17, was not of 
marine origin, but derived from the Stour River, which empties itself into the Bay. 



48 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



No. 3. Cytherideis unisulcata, Jones. Plate TV, fig. 10. 

Cytherideis unisulcata, Jones. Memoirs Geol. Survey, 1856, p. 157, t. 7, fig. 23. 

INCH. 

Length, Upper Eocene : Isle of Wight. 

Valve triangular, broadest anteriorly, convex, impressed across the middle by a 
transverse furrow. 

The only specimen that 1 have met with is very small and not well preserved : its 
characters, however, are sufficiently distinct for notice. 

It occurs with Candona Forbcsii in the green shales of the Osborne series, at Cliff 
End, Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight. 



No. 4. Cytherideis unicornis, Jones. 

Cytherideis unicornis, Jones. Memoirs Geol. Survey, 185G, p. 158 t. 7, fig. 24 — 26. 

INCH. 

Length, Upper Eocene : Isle of Wight. 

Valves thick, sub-triangular in the young state, almost oblong when adult, broadest 
and most depressed anteriorly. Young individuals are impressed on the middle of the 
dorsal portion of each valve with two more or less distinct transverse furrows, the 
posterior of which is the largest and most constant. The anterior furrow is shorter 
and more oblique than the other, and often runs into it, forming a Y-like impression. The 
furrows are associated with several irregular tubercles, of slight elevatiou, one of which, 
placed behind the chief furrow, is persistent, and increases in size, whilst the others 
disappear as the animal grows older and the carapace enlarges. The furrows also 
gradually disappear with the advanced growth of the animal, until a single, slightly 
recurved spine, or pointed tubercle, remains on the postero-dorsal third of each valve- 
The surface of the valves is faintly and irregularly punctate. 

Dorsal aspect narrow-acute-oval, modified by the lateral spines. 

This interesting species has much of the general character of the oblong and tuber- 
cled Cyprideis (page 21) ; but it wants the knurled hinge-teeth of the latter sub-genus. 

Cythere {Cytherideis) unicornis is very plentiful in a crushed state between the 
laminae of a dark-grey marl of the Hempstead series, at Hempstead Cliff, Isle of 
Wight. The specimens were submitted to me, and have been described for the 
Geological Survey, whilst this Monograph was in progress, and since the plates were 
finished. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



49 



No. 5. Cytherideis (?), spec. Plate VI, fig. 15. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Lower Eocene : Kent. 

Casts of oblon go-triangular convex valves of a species probably referable to this 
sub-genus were found by the late Rev. H. M. De la Condamine in a black clay, belong- 
ing to the Woolwich Series, at New Cross. They somewhat resemble the more obtuse 
forms of Cytherideis trigonalis ; but I hesitate to determine their specific relations. 



No. 6. Cytherideis Tamarindus, spec. nov. Plate III, figs. 4 a, 4 b. 

INCH. 

Length, -Jy Pliocene: Suffolk. 

Carapace obliquely sub-oblong, or sub-rhomboidal, somewhat resembling a tama- 
rind-stone in shape ; extremities obliquely rounded ; anterior extremity sloping towards 
the dorsal, and posterior border sloping towards the ventral margin ; dorsal border 
straight, ventral somewhat sinuous : valves depressed, most convex backwards, thick- 
ened at the extremities, and bordered posteriorly by a narrow flattened rim ; surface 
ornamented with a few faint concentric ridges towards the anterior and ventral 
margins, and marked all over with a faint reticulate punctation [not shown in the 
drawing, fig. 4]. 

Dorsal aspect elongate-compressed-ovate ; end-view narrow-subovate. 
Cythere {Cytherideis) Tamarindus is rare in the Crag of Suffolk. 



No. 7. Cytherideis Colwellensis, spec. nov. Plate IV, figs. 13 a, — 13 c, 

20 a— 20 c. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Upper Eocene : Isle of Wight. 

Carapace oblong, most convex posteriorly ; extremities rounded, the anterior end 
more or less obliquely ; dorsal border gently arched ; ventral nearly straight : surface 
smooth or faintly punctate. 

Dorsal aspect narrow-acute-ovate ; end-view blunt-oval. 

Cythere {Cytherideis) Colwellensis occurs at Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight, in the 
Nucula-bed {Nucula deltoidea) and other deposits ; but is not abundant. 

7 



50 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



No. 8. Cytherideis Barton ensis, spec. nov. Plate V, figs. 2 a, 2 b, 3 a, 3 b. 

INCH. 

Length, Upper Eocene : Barton, Hants. 

Carapace oblong ; rounded in front ; rounded obliquely behind ; dorsal and ventral 
borders straight, the surface of the valve suddenly sloping inwards at the latter border ; 
most convex rather behind the centre ; surface smooth. 

Dorsal aspect elongate-sub-oval ; end-vieio sub-ovate. 

This species appears to be related to Bairdia [?] lavissima, Bornemann (' Zeitsch. 
Deut. geol. Ges./ vii, p. 358, t. 20, fig. 6), and Cytheridea [r] papillosa, Bosquet 
('Entom. Tert.,' p. 42, t. 2. fig. 5). 

I have found Cyihere {Cytherideis) Bartonensis only in the Barton Clay, where it is 
apparently rare. 

No. 9. Cytherideis flavida, Mailer, sp. Plate IV, figs. A a — 4 c. 

Cythere flavida, Midler. Entomostraca, p. 66, t. 7, figs. 5, 6. 
— Latreille. Hist. Nat. Crust., iv, p. 253. 

— — Desmarest. Consid. Crust., p. 388. 

_ _ Bosc. Man. d'Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 284. 

— — Baird. Mag. Zool. Bot., ii, p. 184 ; Trans. Berw. Nat. Club, ii, p. 153 ; 

Brit. Entom., p. 168, t. 21, fig. 12. 
Monoculus flavidus, Gmelin. Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 3001, No. 33. 

— — Fabricius. Ent. Syst., ii, p. 494. 

— — Manuel. Enc. Meth., vii, p. 725, t. 266, figs. 10, 11. 

— — Rees. Cyclopsed., art. Monoculus. 

INCH. 

Length, -^ 5 - Recent : Britain ; Europe. 

Pliocene : Suffolk. 

Upper Eocene : Isle of Wight. 

Carapace elongate, cylindrical, tapering in front, arched on the back, straight or 
gently incurved on the ventral border, rounded at the extremities, most convex 
and obtuse posteriorly ; surface smooth or slightly papillate. [The specimen figured 
illustrates the narrower and more curved variety of this form.] 

Dorsal aspect elongate-narrow-ovate ; end-view sub-orbicular. 

This species is near to Cythere arcuata, Miinster, and some of its varieties (see 
Bosquet, ' Crust, foss. Limbourg,' p. 59) ; but its extreme convexity and the obtuse- 
ness of the hinder end sufficiently distinguish it. Among its many other allies, it also 
approaches Bairdia [?] mytiloides, Bosquet, in outline ; but wants its ornamentation. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



51 



Cythere (Cytherideis) Jlavida 1 abounds in the recent state along the coasts of Britain, 2 
and in the Baltic. It is abundant in the Crag of Suffolk ; and occurs also, but much 
less frequently, in the Upper Eocene Lands of Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight. 

No. 10. Cytherideis Ren, spec. nov. Plate IV, figs, ha, 5 h. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ V Pliocene: Suffolk. 

Carapace quadrangularly reniform ; extremities obliquely rounded, curving up to 
meet the short straight hinge-line occupying the central third of the dorsal border ; 
anterior extremity smaller and more oblique than the posterior ; ventral border sinuous, 
strongly incurved at the middle : surface rather depressed, smooth, with the exception 
of some obscure papillae and pittings, partially distributed. Lucid spots eight, long- 
oval, arranged in two oblique transverse rows in the middle of the valve and rather 
ventrally. 

Dorsal aspect narrow-oblong, slightly tapering, and with rounded ends ; end-vieiv 
sub-oval. 

Cythere {Cytherideis) Ren is perhaps related to C. pilosella, Reuss. 
This species is from the Crag of Suffolk, and is rare. 

Sub-yenus — Bairdia, 3 31' Coy, yen. 

Animal a Cythere. Carapace varying from a broadly triangular to a narrow elon- 
gate sub-triangular form, with extremities more or less acute ; surface smooth and 
setiferous or finely punctate ; no central tubercle ; lucid spots well marked : maryins 
thin and trenchant ; when closed, the edges of the right valve lie within those of the 
left : interior of the marginal borders (except on the dorsal edge) cased with a narrow 
lamelliform plate (as in Cypris) : except that a slight fold or notch is frequently appa- 
rent at the angles of the hinge-line, the dorsal edge of the right valve is quite simple, 
and, in the closed carapace, underlies the dorsal edge of the left valve, which is larger 
and overlapping : ventral margin incurved. 

Among the species which I assigned to Bairdia, in 1849, some appear to me to 
be sufficiently distinct, especially in their hingement, to be divided off and arranged 

1 Zenker has well remarked that colour is a bad characteristic for specific determinations of these 
Entomostraca ; the colour often varying with different food and other circumstances. With regard to the 
species referred by Zenker to C.jiavida, Midler, I have already remarked (see p. 23). 

2 I have procured it from Southend, Margate, Poole Bay, Tenby, and Scarborough ; and Dr. Baird 
quotes it from Torquay and Berwickshire. 

3 See 'Monog. Entom. Cret.,' 1845), p. 22. 



52 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



in a new sub-genus, Cytherideis (see p. 46) ; for instance, C. angusta, ' Monog. Cret. 
Entom.' pi. 6, fig. 18. 

Amongst the " Bairdise" of Bosquet, Reuss, and Bornemann, there are, I believe, 
included several species both of Cytheridea and Cytherideis. 



No. 1. Bairdia subdeltoidea, Miinster, sp. Plate IV, figs. 2 a, 2 b, 3; PI. VI, 

figs. 1 a, 1 b, 2. 

Cythere subdeltoidea, Miinster. Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1830, p. 64; Neues Jahrb. f. 

Min., &c, 1835, p. 446. 
Cytherina subdeltoidea, F. A. Roemer. Ibid., 1838, p. 517, t. 6, fig. 16. 

— — Hauer. Ibid., 1839, p. 429. 

— — F. A. Roemer. Verstein. Nordd. Kreid., p. 105, t. 16, fig. 22. 

— — Geinitz. Charact. Sachs. -Bohm. Kreid., 3 Abth., p. 64. 

— — lb. Grund. Verstein., p. 244, t. 8, fig. 21. 

— — Reuss. Verstein. Bohm. Kreid., 1 Abth., p. 16, t. 5, fig. 38 ; 

and 2 Abth., p. 104. 

— — lb. Haidinger's Abhandl., iii, p. 49, t. 8, fig. 1. 

— — lb. Ibid., iv, p. 47. 

— — lb. Apud Geinitz, Quadersandst. oder Kreid. Deutsch , p. 98, 

No. 10. 

— — Eichwald. Lethaea Rossica, t. 11, fig. 23. 

— — Naumann. Lehrb. Geogn., 2. Halfte, t. 60, fig. 24. 

— trigona, Bosquet. Mem. Soc. Roy. Liege, iv, p. 358, t. 1, fig. 3. 
Bairdia subdeltoidea, lb. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 29, t. 1, fig. 13. 
Cythere (Bairdia) subdeltoidea, Jones. Monog. Entom. Cret., p. 23, t. 5, fig. 15. 

Reuss. Denkschrift. d. Akad. Wiss. Wien., vii, pp. 41, 
139. 

Recent : Britain ; West Indies ; Mauritius ; Manilla ; Australia. 
Tertiary : Britain ; Europe ; Virginia. 
Cretaceous : Britain ; Europe. 

Carapace triangular, gibbous, acute at the extremities, smooth or setiferous and 
sometimes finely punctate ; right valve smaller and more angular than the left. [For 
a fuller description of the valves, see ' Monog. Entom. Cret. Form.,' p. 23.J 

Cythere {Bairdia) subdeltoidea is a common form in the Tertiary deposits throughout 
Europe ; it is plentiful in the Tropical Seas, 1 and occurs also on the British coasts. 2 

1 The B. subdeltoidea of Australia is punctate, and has the rosette-like lucid spots of the Chalk form 
of this species ; that of Turk's Island, Bahamas, more resembles the Crag form both in its globosity and in 
the less compactness of the spots. 

- The B. subdeltoidea of Arran, here referred to, is evidently a variety, being narrow and presenting a 
difference in the arrangement of its lucid spots. 



INCH. 

Length, J T ? V t V 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



53 



It is abundant in the Chalk of England and Europe, and occurs also in the Upper 
Greensand, but not in the Gault. I have it also from the Miocene of Virginia, U.S. 
It has near allies in the Magnesian and Carboniferous Limestones of Britain, and in 
the Carboniferous Shales and " Bituminous Limestone " of Southern Australia. 

With this extensive distribution of the species in question, there is, of course, much 
variation in comparatively unessential characters, especially in the superficial papilla 
(bases of setse) and punctation, and the setation of the surface and extremities ; the 
relative size of the carapace and its angularity also vary considerably ; and I believe 
that the lucid spots will be found on careful examination of transparent valves to 
present some differences of form (a character probably of more importance than any 
afforded by spines or pittings). 

In the specimens from the Crag of Sutton and elsewhere in Suffolk, the carapace is 
larger, has a somewhat more rounded outline (fig. 2 a), and is more globose than the 
Chalk form ; and the lucid spots, though arranged in a similar rosette-like pattern 
(fig. 2 b), are further apart, and, not being compressed one against the other, have 
more oval outlines. The surface of the valves, from the presence of papillae, appears 
to have been setous. The very small individual (fig. 3) occurred in the Red Crag 
of Walton, Essex ; and one specimen of a narrow variety was met with in the Suffolk 
Crag. 

The London Clay of Copenhagen Fields, near London, has yielded some handsome 
specimens (pi. 6. figs. 1, 2), covered with a close punctation, and finely denticulated at 
the extremities, — conditions not unfrequently met with in recent specimens. 



No. 2. Bairdia contracta, spec. nov. Plate V, figs. 1 a — 1 c. 

INCH. 

Length, ^\ Middle Eocene : Barton, Hampshire. 

Carapace elongate-triangular, sub-cylindrical ; most convex at the middle of the 
ventral portion ; rounded in front ; obliquely acute behind ; sinuate on the ventral, 
and arched, with an obscure three-sided outline, on the dorsal border; hinge-line 
occupying the middle third of the dorsal edge : surface smooth. 

Dorsal aspect narrow-acute-oval ; end-view sub-ovate. 

This species approaches Bairdia cyiindracea, Bornemann (' Zeitsch. Deutsch. geol. 
Ges.,' vii, p. 359, t. 20, fig. 5), from the Septarian Clay of Hermsdorf, near Berlin. 

Cythere {Bairdia) contracta was found by Mr. F. Edwards in the Barton Clay, 
Hampshire : it is rare. 



54 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



Sub-genus — Cytherella, 1 Jones. 

Animal unknown. Carapace oblong, compressed ; smooth or pitted ; no terminal 
denticulations : contact-margins of the right (larger) valve grooved or rabbeted on its 
inner edge for the reception of a flange presented by the contact-margin of the left 
(smaller) valve ; both groove and flange stronger at the posterior, than at the anterior 
portion of the valves. 

The lucid spots (see p. 56) resemble those in Cypridina rather than those of Cy there 
and its sub-genera. 

No. 1. Cytherella compressa, Miinster, sp. Plate V, figs. 21, 23. 

Cythere compressa, Miinster. Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1830, p. 64 ; Neues Jahrb., &c, 1835, 

p. 445. 

Cytherina compressa, Roemer. Neues Jahrb., &c, 1838, p. 517, t. 6, fig. 14. 

— acicxjlata, lb. Ibid., t. 6, fig. 21. [According to M. Bosquet.] 

— compressa, Reuss. Haidinger's Abbandl., iii, p. 54, t. 8, fig. 15. 

— — Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 11, t. 1, fig. 1. 

? Cytherella fabacea, Bornemann. Zeitsch. Deutsch. geol. Ges., vii, p. 355, t. 20, fig. 2. 

inch. 

Length, ^ to -^s Recent : Australia (?) ; Norway. 

Tertiary : England ; Europe. 

Carapace ovate-oblong or oblong ; rounded at the ends ; more or less arched on 
the dorsal, nearly straight on the ventral border : valves smooth, sometimes faintly 
punctate, depressed, most convex posteriorly and rather ventrally, broadest anteriorly, 
with the anterior border sometimes raised into a slight marginal rim (fig. 23). 

Dorsal profile narrow-acute-ovate or subcuneiform ; end-view sub-ovate. 

The blue clay of Bracklesham and the London Clay of the Copenhagen Fields, 
London, both yield this species ; which has also been found at Castell' Arqauto and at 
Osnabriick, and in the Belgian and the Austro-Hungarian Tertiaries. 

Cytherella compressa seems to replace in the Tertiary deposits the C. ovata of the 
Chalk, — to which it is nearly allied. 

It occurs also as a finely punctate form on the Coast of Norway (from Messrs. 
M'Andrew and Barrett's dredgings) ; and I have a nearly related form from 
Australia. 



1 For synonyms see ' Monog. Entom. Cret.,' 1849, p. 28 ; where further details are also given of the 
form and character of the valves. Since the publication of the Monograph alluded to, Cytherella, like the 
other sub-genera there established has been referred to as a genus, — and perhaps on better grounds tbau in 
the other instances. 



THE TERTIARY FORMATION. 



55 



Var. 1. Plate V, fig. 18. 

1 Cytherella Beyrichi, Bornemann. [? Cytherina Beyrichi, Reuss.] Zeitsch. Deutsch. geol. 

Ges., vii, p. 354, t. 20, fig. 1. 

INCH. 

Length, ^ Lower Eocene : London. 

Carapace sub-quadrangular ; extremities rounded and more or less denticulate : 
valves depressed anteriorly, convex behind ; marked with a strong uniform punctation. 
Dorsal profile narrow-acute-ovate ; end-view sub-oval. 
From the London Clay of the Copenhagen Fields, near London. 



Var. 2. Plate V, fig. 19. 

? Cytiierella intermedia, Bornemann. Zeitsch. Deutsch. geol. Ges., vii, p. 355, t. 20, fig. 3. 



INCH. 



Length, Lower Eocene : London. 

In this variety the valves are narrower and less square than in Var. 1 (fig. 18), and the 
punctation is obscure and partial ; the convexity of the valves is more uniform, the 
anterior portion not being so much depressed as either in Var. 1, or in the typical form. 

From the London Clay of Copenhagen Fields. 



No. 2. Cytherella Londinensis, spec, not: Plate V, figs. 20, 22. 

INCH. 

Length, ^\ Lower Eocene : London. 

Carapace nearly oblong, rounded at the ends, dorsal border slightly curved, sloping 
more rapidly towards the posterior than towards the anterior margin ; ventral margin 
slightly incurved at the middle; left valve much narrower than the right; valves 
smooth, depressed, marked by an irregular triangular impression, sub-central and 
towards the dorsal edge [not well shown in the figures], and bearing slightly raised 
narrow marginal rims, variable in development ; convexity nearly uniform, slightly 
stronger on the anterior than on the posterior moiety of the valves. 

Dorsal profile narrow sub-oblong, slightly produced at the ends ; end-view sub- 
oval. 

Cytherella Londinensis is from the London Clay of the Copenhagen Fields, near 



56 



THE ENTOMOSTRACA OF 



London, and is well distinguished from C. compressa by its marginal rims, central 
impression, and very different dorsal profile, arising from the more uniform convexity 
of the valves. 



No. 3. Cytherella Munsteri, Roemer, sp. Plate V, figs. 12 a, 12 b, 13. 

Cytherina Munsteri, Roemer. Neues Jahrb. f. Min., &c, 1838, p. 516, t. 6, fig. 13. 

— parallela, Reuss. Verstein. Bohm. Kreid., 1 Abth., p. 16, t. 5, fig. 33; and 

Haidinger's Abhandl., iv, p. 48, t. 6, fig. 1. 
Cythere truncata, Bosquet. Mem. Soc. Roy. Liege, iv, p. 357, t. 1, fig. 2. 

— (Cytherella) truncata, Jones. Monog. Entom. Cret., p. 30, t. 7, fig. 35. 
Cytherella Munsteui, Bosquet. Mem. Couron. Acad. Belg., xxiv, p. 13, t. 1, fig. 2. 

— — lb. Mem. Commiss. Carte geol. Neerl., ii, p. 58, t. 8, fig. 2. 

INCH. 

Length, Recent: Australia; Norway. 

Tertiary : England ; Europe ; North America. 
Cretaceous : England ; Europe. 

Carapace oblong ; extremities rounded ; dorsal margin somewhat curved : valves 
depressed anteriorly, convex posteriorly, smooth, punctate with pits in linear arrange- 
ment, punctation sometimes strong (fig. 12), sometimes obsolete (fig. 13). [See 
' Monog. Entom. Cret./ p. 30, for fuller details.] 

The lucid spots are numerous, small, and closely packed together ; they occupy 
a sub-triangular space near the centre of the valve and rather ventrally, and are 
arranged in two parallel, slightly curved rows, the largest spots at the ventral end and 
the smaller ones gradually tapering upwards, so that the spots form a short broad 
feather-like patch. 

Dorsal aspect elongate wedge-shaped ; end-view sub-oval. 

Cytherella Munsteri is very closely related to C. compressa and C. ovata. 

Specimens of C. Munsteri occur at Colwell, Barton, Bracklesham, and in the 
London Clay of Copenhagen Fields and of Wimbledon Common, near London. 

This species is also found in the Tertiary and the Cretaceous beds of Belgium 
and the Netherlands ; the Cretaceous beds of Bohemia, Gallicia, and Sweden ; and in 
the White Chalk, Chalk-marl, and Gault of England. I have also found it in a 
Tertiary sand from Alabama. Coarsely punctate valves of C. Munsteri occur in the 
dredged sand from the Norway Coast, with which Messrs. M'Andrew and Barrett 
have favoured me ; and I have a delicate smooth variety from Australia (where also a 
Cytherella of the C. Williamsoniana type occurs recent). 



APPENDIX. 



Table I. — Showing the Distribution of Cypris, Candona, and Cyprideis in the 

Tertiary and Post-tertiary deposits of England. 



SPECIES. 



Cypkis (genus). 

1. setigera, Jones 

2. Browniana, Jones 

— var. tumida, Jones 

3. Ovum, J urine . 

4. gibba, Ramdohr 

Candona (genus). 

1. reptans, Baird . 

2. Forbesii, Jones . 

3. Richardsoni, Jones 

4. Candida, Miiller 

5. subsequalis, Jones 

Cyprideis (sub-genus 1). 
I. torosa, Jones 

10 



Post-tertiary. 



Pleistocene. 




58 



APPENDIX. 



Table II. — Showing the relative abundance of the species of Cythkre and its sub-genera 
at the several localities in England, and their Distribution in the Tertiary Series of 
England and Europe. 

[Note. The numbers in the columns are proportional to the numbers of individuals collected. The asterisks indicate 

merely the occurrence of the species, the relative abundance not being specially indicated.] 

Abbreviations. — Pleist., Pleistocene ; Plioc, Pliocene; Mioc, Miocene; U. E., Upper Eocene; M. E., Middle Eocene ; 
L. E., Lower Eocene. 



Species. 



Cytheke (Oval forms) — 

1 . punctata, Munst. 

2. trigonula, Jones 

3. triangularis, Renss. 

4. Wetherellii, Jones . 

5. striato-punctata, Roem. 

6. consobrina, Jones . 

7. attenuata, Jones 

(Oblong forms.) 

8. Kostelensis? Reuss. 

9. concinna, Jones 

10. Woodiana, Jones . 

11. laqueata, Jones 

12. Dictyosigma, Jones 

13. lacunosa, Jones 

14. scabropapulosa, Jones 

15. costellata, Roem. . 

16. plicata, Miinst. 

17- serobiculoplicata, Jones 
var. recta, Jones 

18. Angulatopora, Reuss. 

19. Macropora, Bosq. . 

20. Tracbypora, Jones 

21. spbserulolineata, Jones 

22. retif'astigata, Jones 

Cythereis — 

1 . senilis, Jones 

2. Bowerbankiana, Jones 

3. borrescens, Bosq. . 

4. Ceratoptera, Bosq. 

5. cornuta, Roem. 

6. spec, indeterm. 



Eocene. 



Upper. 



Middle. 



Lower. 



280 



20 



10 



1 

300 

9 



.",(1 



12 



o C 

a. o 

5' 4 
m -■ 



Tertiary. 



England. Europe 



Plioc. 

Plioc. 
L E. 
M. E. 
M. E. 
M. E. 
M. E. 



Plioc 
L. E. 

M. E. 

Plioc. 

M. E. 
L. E. 



England 

and 
Europe. 



Plioc. 
. & Mioc 



M. E. 



L. E. 


Mioc. 


Pleist. 




Plioc. 




Plioc. 




Plioc. 




Plioc 




M. E. 




M. E. 


M. E. 




r Mioc, 


M. E. 


\ U. E., 




C&M.E. 


L. E. 




M. E. 




M. E. 




Plioc. 


' M E. 


Plioc. 


M. E. 


Plioc. 




Plioc. 





U. E. ? 
&M.E 
U. E.& 
. M.E 
M. E. 



Creta- 
ceous. 



APPENDIX. 

Table II {continued). 



59 



Species. 



Cytheridea — 
I. Mulleri, Miinst. 



var. torosa, Jones 

2. debilis, Jones 

3. pinguis, Jones 

4. Sorbyana, Jones 

5. perforata, Roem. . 

var. insigms, Jones 
var. glabra, Jones 

Cytherideis — 

1 . trigonalis, Jones 

2. tuberculata, Jones 

3. unisulcata, Jones . 

4. unicornis, Jones 

5. spec, indeterm. 

6. Tamarindus, Jones 

7. Colwellensis, Jones 

8. Bartonensis, Jones 

9. fiavida, Mailer 
10. Ren, Jones 

Bairdia — 

1. subdeltoidea, Miinst. 

2. contracta, Jones 

Cytherella — 

1. compressa, Miinst. 

var. 1 
var. 2 

2. Londinensis, Jones 

3. Munsteri, Roem. . 

48 



B B 
m » 



Upper. 



Eocene. 



Middle. 



o ■ td 

O I p 

I o 

i 2 



35 



15 



Lower. 



» o 



Tertiary. 



✓ 

England. 



U. E., 
M. E., 
& L. E. 

-U. E. & 
. L. E. 

M. E. 

Plioc. 

Pleist. 

M. E. 

L. E. 

L. E. 



Pleist. 
Plioc. 
U. E. 
U. E. 
L. E. 
Plioc. 
M. E. 
M. E. 
Plioc. & 

M. E 
Plioc. 



Plioc, 
M.E., 
& L. E. 

M. E. 



M. E.& 
L. E. 

L. E. 
L. E. 
L. E. 
M. E. 
& L. E. 



Europe. 



Creta- 
ceous. 



■ Plioc, 
Mioc, 
U.E..& 

• M. E 



M. E. 



England 

and 
Eubope. 



• Plioc, 
Mioc, 
U.E..& 
. M. E 



" Plioc, 
Mioc, 
.& U. E 



M. E. 



60 



APPENDIX. 



Table III. — Showing the Distribution of species of the Tertiary and Post-tertiary 

Entomostraca of England. 









o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


ta 


o 










ti 


► 




►< 
H 


H 


5i 

H 


H 


> 


«! 

H 


ST" ? 

a> b c 








so 


z 
a 
o 


U 

3 


w 

B 


ts 

B 


H 

B 


Ht 

B 


d 


P3 
K 


»> £ B 

3 £ =f 






LOCALITIES 


VI 


> 


w 

09 


re proper. 


REIS. 


RIDEA. 


RIDEIS. 


> 


p3 
B 
t< 

> 


ir of Species 
crated from 
eral localities. 






Newbury 


2 


2 
















4 






Cambridgeshire 
Lincolnshire 


3 


2 
















5 


Post-tertiary. 




1 
















1 


Loch Bakie . 




1 
















1 






Edwardstone 




1 
















1 






V Copford 




2 
















2 






Grays 


2 


2 


1 














5 






Clacton 


2 


2 


1 














5 


Pleistocene. ^ 


Chislet 






1 














1 






Wear Farm . 


1 




1 














2 






^ Bridlington . 








1 




1 








2 


Pliocene. ; 


r Walton 

Sutton, &c . 








1 

10 




1 


1 

4 


1 
1 




3 
18 






' Hempstead Cliff 




1 








1 


1 






3 






Hordwell Cliff 




1 
















1 






^ Cliff End 




1 








1 


1 






3 






( Colwell Bay 








3 


1 


3 


2 




1 


10 




<o 


Barton Cliff 








4 


1 


2 


1 




1 


11 




-3 


High Cliff . 








2 












2 


Eocene. , 


-a 

s 


Bracklesham Bay 
Alum Bay . 
East Woodhay 








4 
2 
1 


2 








2 


8 
2 
1 






f London (Copenhagen Fields) 








2 


1 


1 






2 


7 




&s 

o 


Woolwich 








1 




1 


1 






4 




Clay Hill, Shaw 












1 








1 




h3 


L Pegwell Bay 










1 










1 



\ 



!► 
5S 
B 
O 

► 



n 



Number of Species 
in the 



Post-tertiary 
Pleistocene 
Pliocene 
Upper Eocene 
Middle Eocene 
Lower Eocene 



1 
11 

9 
3 



G 
7 
20 
4 
21 
13 



Number of Species described in this Monograph 



4 ! 5 



22 



10 



58 



APPENDIX. 



61 



Table IV. — Showing the Distribution of the European Tertiary Entomostraca that have 

been recognised as occurring in England. 





Upper 
Tertiary. 


Middle Tertiary. 








Species. 


. Palermo. 


Castell' Arquato. 


Perpignan. 


1 Antwerp Crag. 


» 
>< 


| Bordeaux. 


Touraine. 


' Austro-Hungarian Ter- 
tiaries. 


\ Mavence Tertiaries. 


[ Upper Silesia. 


/ N.-W. Germany. 


Septarian Clay of Berlin 
(Upper Eocene). 


Upper Eocene, Belgium. 


Upper Eocene, France. 


Cythere punctata, Munst. . 

— striato-punctata, Roem. . . . . 


* 


* 


* 






* 




* 














— K.ostelensis, Reuss. . . . . 






























— costellata, Roem. . 






























— plicata, Munst. . . . . . 

— Angulatopora, Reuss. . 


























* 












* 






* 






* 






— Macropora, Bosq. . 
Cythereis horrescens, Bosq. . 
— Ceratoptera, Bosq. - 




















































? 






























* 




— cornuta, Roem. 




























Cytheridea Mulleri, Munst. ... 








* 








* 






* 




* 




— perforata, Roem. 












* 


* 




* 


Bairdia subdeltoidea, Miinst. . 


















:!: 


* 


* 






* 


Cytberella conipressa, Miinst. . 

— — var. 1 . . , 


* 


* 








* 
? 






? 
















* 








? 


* 




— — var. 2 
























? 






— Munsteri, Roem.. 





























































Note. — The Nucula-bed (N. deltoidea) at Colwell Bay (mentioned at page 49 and elsewhere) contains Cythere 
Colwellensis, C. debilis, C. angulatopora, C. cornuta, and C. plicata ; the last-mentioned species presenting the most numerous 
individuals. 



Note. — I have not been able to recognise among the London Clay specimens the species figured as Cytherina barbata, 
by Mr. Sowerby, in the ' Geological Transactions,' 2d series, vol. v, pi. 9, fig. 1. The specimen itself has been lost. It is 
possibly referable to Cytheridea perforata. 



62 



APPENDIX. 



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APPENDIX. 



63 



LIST OF WORKS RELATING TO RECENT OSTRACODA PUBLISHED 
BEFORE 1848, AND NOT REFERRED TO IN THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 
LIST IN 'MONOG. CRET. ENTOM.,' p. 38. 

Bosc, L. A. G. Histoire naturelle des Crustaces, &c. 2 vols., 12mo, Paris (An. x.), 1802. (Faisant 

suite a l'Edition de Buflbn public par Deterville.) 
Desmarest, A. G. Considerations generales sur la Classe des Crustaces, 1825. 
Dumeril. Zoologie analytique, 1806. 
Fabricius, 0. Entomologise Systema, 1775. 

Entomologia Systematica. 8vo, 1792; and Suppl., 1798. 

Ferussac, Daudebart de. Sur deux nouvelles Especes d'Entomostraces, &c. Annales du Museum, 

vol. vii, p. 212, &c, 1806. 
Jurine, L. Histoire des Monocles qui se trouvent aux Environs de Geneve, 1820. 4to, Geneva. 
Koch, C. L. Deutschland's Crustaceen, Myriapoden und Arachniden. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Fauna. 

Herausgegeben von Dr. Schaffer. H. 1 — 40, 1836-41. 8vo, Regensburg. 
Lamarck. Histoire naturelle des Animaux vertebres. l me edit., 1815. 2 de edit., par MM. Milne Edwards 

et G. P. Deshayes, 1835-45. 
Linnaeus, C. Fauna Suecica, 1761. 

Systema Naturae, edit, var., 1735-1766. 

Ibid. edit. Gmelin, 1788. 

Manuel and Olivier. Encyclop. Method. Hist. Nat. Insectes, vol. vii, 1792. 

MiiLLER, 0. F. Observations on some Bivalve Insects found in Common Water. Trans. Phil. Soc. London, 
vol. lxi, 1771, p. 230. 

Zoologise Danicse Prodomus, &c. bvo, Havniae, 1776, 1788, and 1806. 

Ramdohr, F. A. Beytr'age zur Naturgeschichte einiger deutschen Monoculus-Arten. 8vo, Halle, 1805. 
Beitrage zur Entomologie. 4to. 

Ueber die Gattung Cypris Mull, und drei zu derselben gehorige neue Arten. Der 

Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin. Zweiter Jahrgang, 1808, p. 83, &c, t. 3. 

Strauss-Druckheim, H. E. Memoire sur les Cypris, de la Classe des Crustace's. Mem. du Museum 
d'Hist. Nat., vol. vii, 1821, p. 33, &c, t. 1. 

Zaddach, E. G. Synopseos Crustaceorum Prussicorum Prodomus, Dissertatio Zoologica, 1844. 



G4 



APPENDIX. 



LIST OF WORKS RELATING TO RECENT, TERTIARY, AND CRETACEOUS 
OSTRACODA, PUBLISHED SINCE 1S48. 

Baird, W. The Natural History of the British Entomostraca. 8vo, London, 1850. Plates. (Published 

by the Ray Society.) 

Description of several new species of Entomostraca. Proceed. Zoolog. Soc, 1850, p. 254. 

(Annulosa, pi. 18.) 
— Description of a new species of Cypris. Ibid., 1854, p. 6. 

Bornemann. Die mikroskopische Fauna des Septarienthones von Hermsdorf bei Berlin. Zeitsch. Deutsch. 

geol. Gesellsch., 1855, vol. vii, p. 352, pi. 20 and 21. 
Bosquet, J. Description des Entomostraces fossiles des terrains tertiaires de la Prance et de la Belgique. 

Memoires Couronnes Acad. Roy. de Belgique, 1850, vol. xxiv. G plates. 
Monographic des Crustaces fossiles du terrain cretace' du Duche de Limbourg. Memoires de 

la Commission pour la description de la carte geologique de la Neerlande, vol. ii, p. 14, pi. 4 — 10. 
Cornuel, J. Description de nouveaux fossiles microscopiques du terrain cretace inferieur du Departement 

de la Haute-Marne. Mem. de la Soc. Geol. de Prance, 2 me serie, 1848, vol. hi, p. 241, &c, pi. 3. 
Dana, J. D. Conspectus Crustaceorum quae lexit et descripsit J. D. Dana, &c. Proceed. American Acad. 

Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, U.S., 1847-49. 
— United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838-42, part 2 (4to, Philadelphia, 

1853), vol. xiv, Crustacea (p. 1277). Plates. 
Fischer, Seb. Abhandlung iiber das genus Cypris und dessen in der Umgebung von St. Petersburg und 

von Fall bei Reval vorkommenden Arten. Mem. pres. a l'Ac. Imp. Sc. St. Petersbourg par Sav. 

Etr., vol. vii, p. 129, &c, 1851. Plates. 

Ueber die in der Umgebung von St. Petersburg vorkommenden Crustaceen aus der Ordnung 

der Branchiopoden und Entomostraceen. Bulletin de la Classe Phys.-Math. de l'Acad. Imp. Sc. 

de St. Petersbourg, vol. vii, 1849, p. 36 and 97. Memoires pre'sentes a F Academic Imperiale des 

Sciences de St. Petersbourg par divers Savants Etrangers, vol. vi, p. 159, &c. ; vol. vii, p. 1, &c, 

1851. Plates. 

Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Ostracoden ; Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Class, k. bayerisch. Akad. d. 

Wissenschaften, vol. vii, part 3 (Munich, 1855), pp. 637 — 666, plates xix, xx. 
Jones, T. Rupert. Description of the Entomostraca of the Pleistocene Beds of Newbury, Copford, 
Clacton, and Grays. Annals and Mag. of Natural History, ser. 2, 1850, vol. vi, p. 25, pi. 3. 

Notes on the Entomostraca of the Headon and Osborne Series. Memoirs Geolog. 

Survey; Tertiary fluvio-marine formation of the Isle of Wight, 1856, p. 157, pi. 7. 

— ■ Notes on the Entomostraca of the Woolwich and Reading Series. Quart. Journal 

Geol. Soc, 1854, vol. x, p. 160, pi. 3, 
Kim;, 1 R. L. On Australian Entomostracans. Proceed. Royal Soc. Van Diemen's Land, vol. iii, part I, 
1855, p. 56, pi. 9 and 10. 

' I have only just now seen this interesting Memoir [Nov. 1856]. Besides supplying us with the representative forms which 
Australia furnishes for comparison with the British species of Ostracoda, Mr. King figures and descrihes a highly interesting new 
generic form {Newnharnia), differing from Ci/pris chiefly in having two eyes, and in peculiarities of the carapace, which has an hori- 
zontal ventral plate, a tuherculose surface, and two projecting, transparent (?), ocular tuhercles (one for each eye). This is the 
oidy instance, except among palxozoic forms, of hivalved Entomostraca having ocular tuhercles. The probable affinity, however, of 



APPENDIX. 



05 



Liljeborg, W. De Crustaceis ex Ordinibus tribus, Cladocera, Ostracoda, et Copepoda in Scania occur- 

rentibus. 8vo, Lund., 1853. Plates. 
Reuss, A. E. Beitriige zur Cliarakteristik der Kroideschichten in den Ostalpen. Donkscriften d. k. 
Akad. d. Wissenschaft. zu Wien, 1854, vol. vii (p. 138), pi. 26 and 27. 

Beitriige 1 zur Charakteristik der Tertiarschichten des nbrdlichen und mittleren Deutschlands. 
Sitzungsberichte d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Wien, 1856, vol. xviii, p. 253, pi. 9 and 10. 

Bescbreibung der fossilen Ostracoden und Mollusken der tertiiiren SUswasserschichten des 
nbrdlichen Bohmens. 1849. Palseontographica, vol. ii, p. 16, figs. 

Die Crustaceen des Beckens von Rein in Steienuark. Berichte k. Akad. Wissen. zu Wien, 
vol. xiii, 1854, figs. 1, 2, 3, pp. 189, 190. 

Die Foraminiferen und Entomostraceen des Kreidemergels von Lemberg. Naturw. Abbandl. 

Haidinger, 1851, vol. iv, part 1, p. 46, pi. 6. 

Die Fossilen Entomostraceen des osterreichischen Tertiarbeckens. Natunvissenschaftliche 
A bhandlungen, herausgegeben von W. Haidinger, 1850, vol. iii, p. 40, plates 8 — 11. 

Ein Beitrag zur genaueren Kenntniss der Kreidegebilde Meklenburgs. Zeitsch. d. Dent. geol. 

Ges., 1855, vol. vii, p. 277, plates 10 and 11. 

Ein Beitrag zur Palaontologie der Tertiarschichten Oberscblesiens. Zeitschrift der Deutschen 

geologischen Gesellschaft, 1851, vol iii, p. 176. 

Ueber die fossilen Foraminiferen und Entomostraceen der Septarieuthone der Umgegend von 
Berlin. Zeitschrift der Deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft, 1851, vol. iii, p. 89, figs. 
White, A. List of the Specimens of British Animals in the Collection of the British Museum. Part IV, 

Crustacea, 1850, p. 100, &c. 
Zknkek, W. Monographic der Ostracoden. Arehiv fur Naturgeschichte, 1 854. Erstes Heft. (Plates 1 — 6). 

Ueber die Geschlechtsverhaltnisse der Gattung Cypris. Arehiv fiir Auatomie, Phys., &c, 

1850, p. 193, &c, pi. 5. 

these old genera to the Phyllopoda, rather than to the Lophyropoda, is not invalidated by this discovery (as Mr. King seems 
inclined to think, loc. cit., p. 61, note); since other and more important structural differences exist between the palaeozoic 
bivalved Entomostraca and this eye-tubercled Cypris of Australia. See ' Annals Nat. Hist.,' 2d ser., 1856, vol. xvii, p. 97. 

Mr. King places my Cythereis (as described and figured by Dr. Baird) in relation with his new genus Newnhamia {loc. cit., 
p. 60), and thinks that they are " closely connected " by each having " two eyes and a very tuberculose shell." Cythereis, being 
probably a Cy there, may be supposed to have two eyes, but they are not evidenced externally ; the little crystalline tubercles seen 
at the antero-dorsal angle of its valves, being related to the anterior hinge and to nothing else. The carapaces of Newnhamia 
and Cythereis differ widely also in all other characteristics, not excepting their style of tuberculation. 

1 This Memoir, treating of the Foraminifera and Entomostraca of the Oligocene deposits (Upper Eocene in Table VI, p. 62 ; 
Lower Miocene according to some authors) of Northern and Central Germany, has come to hand whilst this sheet is in the press 
[Nov. 1856]. 



INDEX. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Arachnopoda . 


. 3 


Cypridella 


9 


Asterope 


9 


Cyprididce . . 


6, 10 


Bairdia . . 2, 9, 10, 


22, 51 


Cypridina 


. 4 note, 6, 7, 9 


CONTRACTA 


. 53 


Cypridinadce . 


. 6 


cylindracea 


. 53 


Cypridininee 


7 


? laevissinia 


. 50 


Cyprinae 


5 6 Q 10 


? mytiloides 


. 50 


Cypris 


4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 


? punctatella 


. 44 


aurantia 


. 13 


? semipunctata 


. 30 


bistrigata 


. 15 


SUBDELTOIDEA . 


. 52 


Browniana, and var. 


TUMIDA . 13 


1 subtrigona 


. 45 


compressa 


19 note 


trigona 


. 52 


conchacea 


13 note 


Candona . . 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 16 


dispar 


. 12 


Candida, and varieties 


. 19 


elliptica 


. 20 


Forbesii 


. 18 


GIBBA 


. 15 


lucens 


. 19 


Joanna 


. 11 


REPTANS 


. 16 


lutraria 


. 20 


RlCHARDSONl 


. 18 


minuta 


. 14 


SUBjEUUALIS 


. 20 


monacha 


. 12 


Cleaning carapace-valves, the method of 


. 5 


nephroides 


16 note 


Conchsecia 


. 6, 7 


ovato-conchacea . 


13 note 


Cormostomata 


. 3 


Ovum 


11, 14 


Cyclopoidea 


. 3 


Pantherina 


■ if 


Cyprella 


. 9 


pellucida 


. 19 


Cypria 


9, 11 


pigra 


19 note 


Cypridacece 


. 4 


pubescens 


13 note, 19 note 


Cypriote 


. 6,9 


punctata 


. 11 


Cypridea 


9, 10 


seminularis 


. 11 


Cyprideis . . .9, 


10, 20 


SETIGERA 


. 12 


TOROSA . .16, 


21, 41 


sinuata 


. 15 



INDEX. 



67 



Cyprois 
Cythere 







PAGE 




PAGE 


dua 




. 11 


Cythere punctatella 


. 24 


ridis 


16 note, 41 note 


reniformis , 


22 note 


if n ft vis 




. 14 


RETIFASTIGATA 


36 


EA 




3, 4, 6 


runcinata 


38 


S 




. 4 


scabra 


. 32 






9, 12 


SCABROPAPULOSA 


. 31 




6, 


7, 9, 10, 23 


scrobiculoplicata, and var 


. recta 33 


alba 




22 note 


semiuulum 


42 


albomaculata 




22 note 


serrulata 


40 


Americana 




2, 41 


SPHiERULOLINEATA 




ANGXJLATOPORA 




. 34 


STRIATOPUNCTATA 


27 


arcuata 




. 50 


Tracjiypora 


36 


ATTENUATA 




. 28 


TRIANGULARIS . 


. 25 


barbata 




61 note 


TR1GONULA 


25 


biflpntata 




. 31 


variabilis 


29 nnfp 


calcarata 




. 40 


viridis . . 5 


' ^2 note 23 


CONCINNA 




. 29 


Wetiierelli 


26 


CONSOBR1NA 




. 27 


WoODTANA 


9Q 


COSTELLATA 




. 32 


Cythereis . . 7, 


<) 10 22 37 


DlCTYOSIGMA 




. 30 


alata 




Favrodiana 




. 28 


BOWERBANKIAN A 


38 


fistulosa 




. 38 


Ceratoptera 


3Q 


flavida 




22 note, 23 


r.OHNTTTA 


3Q 


fusiformis 




. 28 


HORRESCENS . 


38 


sribba 




22 note, 23 


SENILIS . 


37 


gibbera 




22 note, 23 


spec, indet. . . 


40 


Gracilicosta 




. 35 


Cytherella . . 4j 6, 


9 10 22 54 


Hebertiana 




. 36 


cieiculdtci . . 


54 


Hilseana 




. 44 


Beyriehi 


55 


mopiiiata 




23 note 


compressa, and varieties 


54 


Jurinei 




. 30 


fabacea 


54 


KOSTELENSIS 




. 28 


intermedia . 


55 


LACUNOSA 




. 31 


Londinensis 


. 55 


LAQUEATA 




. 30 


MUNSTERI . 


. 56 


latidentata 




. 38 


ovata 


54, 56 


lutea 




22 note 


paraUela 


. 56 


Macropora 




. 35 


truncata 


. 56 


Meyni 




. 30 


Williamsoniana 


. 56 


inornata 




. 28 


Cyt her idee 


6, 22 


nitida 




22 note, 23 


Cytheridea . . 2, 


9, 10, 22, 40 


papillosa 




. 44 


DEBILIS 


. 43 


pertiisa 




. 27 


incrassata 


. 45 


pilosella 




. 51 


Jonesiana 


. 45 


plicata, and var. Laticosta 


. 32 


Mulleri, and vars. intermedia 


plicatula 




. 35 


and torosa 


. 41 


PUNCTATA 




. 24 


? papillosa . 


. 50 



68 



INDEX. 





PAGE 


Cytheridea perforata, and 


vars. insignis 


and GLABRA 


. 44 


PINGUIS 


. 43 


punctatella . 


. 45 


SORBYAN A . 


. 44 


Cytherideis . 


. 9, 10, 22, 46 


augusta 


. 52 


Bartonensis 


. 50 


Colwellensis 


. 49 


FLAVIDA . 


. 50 


Ren 


. 51 


spec, indet. 


. 49 


Tamarindus 


. 49 


trigonalis and 


var. LyEvis . 47 


TUBERCULATA 


. 47 


UNICORNIS 


. 48 


UNISULCATA 


. 48 


CYTHERINiE 


7, 9, 22 


Dana's classification 


. 3, 6 



PAGE 

Daphnioidea . . . .3 

Entomostraca . . . 1, 3 

Estheria ... 4 note 

Gnathostomata . . .3 

Halocyprid/e . . ./ 

Haloeypris . . . . 6, 7 

Liljeborg's division of Cyprinse . . 7, 8 

Lepeiditia ... 4 note 

Lophyropoda . . . .3 

Lucid spots . . . . 4, 5 

Monoculus . . . ".11 

Notod ROMAS . . . 8, 9, 12 

Nucula-bed at Col well Bay . 61 note 

Ostracoda . . . . 4, 6 

Paradoxostomsi . . .9 

Philomedes ... 7 note 

Phyllopoda . . . .3 

Pcecilopoda . . . .3 

Zenker's division of Cyprinse . . 7 



PLATE I. 



Fig. 

1. Cypris Browniana, p. 13. 

a. Left valve, outside 

b. Right valve, inside 

c. Perfect carapace, dorsal aspect 

d. Perfect carapace, anterior aspect . 

e. Part of the surface of right valve, with the lucid spots 

2. Cypris Browniana, var. tumida, p. 13. 

a. Perfect, left valve upwards 

b. Perfect, dorsal aspect .... 

3. Cypris gibba, p. 15. 

a. Ri°;ht valve, outside "| , . . , , 
, * '. \ Old individual. 

0. Right valve, inside J 

c. Perfect, dorsal aspect . 

d. Perfect, anterior aspect 

e. Right valve, outside. Young individual 
/. Part of the surface of a valve 

4. Cypris Ovum, p. 14. 

a. Right valve, outside .... 

b. Perfect, ventral aspect .... 

it. Candona Candida (variety with rosette-like lucid spots), p. 20. 
Right valve, inside (broken) 



X 25 
x 25 
X 25 
x 25 
xl50 ) 



Clacton. 



X 25 
x 



25 ! 

25 J yS 



X 25 



\ Grays. 



x 

X 

x 25 
x 150 



25 I 
25 J 



x 25 
x 25 



Clacton . 

Cambridgeshire. 
Grays. 



Cambridgeshire. 



X 25 Copford. 



5 b. Candona Candida (variety with lucid spots in a radiating form), p. 20. 

Part of inside of left valve, showing the lucid spots . . X 150 Copford. 



6. Cypris setigera, p. 12. 



a. Left valve, outside 


X 


25 


b. Left valve, inside 


X 


25 


c. Perfect, dorsal aspect . 


X 


25 


d. Perfect, posterior aspect 


X 


25 



Newbury. 



7. Candona repfans, p. 16. 
a. Left valve, outside 
6. Right valve, inside 

c. Perfect, dorsal aspect . 

d. Perfect, anterior aspect 

e. Part of inside of right valve, showing the lucid spots 



x 12 
X 12 



Clacton. 
Grays. 



x 12-i 

.„ ^Recent: Annerley. 

x 30 Grays. 



PLATE I {continued). 



Fig. 

8. Candona Candida, p. IS). 

a. Left valve, outside .... 
[Imperfect at the posterior angle.] 

b. Perfect, ventral aspect . . . x 

c. Perfect, anterior aspect . . x 

d. Inside of the closed ventral edges of the carapace, showing the inner 

marginal plates . . . x 25 



x 25 



25 
9' 



e. Part of the inside of the right valve, ~| 
/. Part of the surface of the left valve, J 



showing the lucid spots 



x 150 
x 150 



> Copford. 



Candona subcequalis, p. 20. 

a. Perfect, right valve upwards 

b. Perfect, dorsal aspect . 

c. Perfect, posterior aspect 



x 25 
X 25 /Copford. 
x 25 



Tertiary Entomostraca, PI I 




PLATE II. 



1. Cyprideis torosa, p. 21. 

a. Left valve, outside. 

b. Right valve, outside. 

c. Perfect, dorsal aspect. 

d. Perfect, posterior aspect. 

e. Left valve, outside 

f. Right valve, outside . 
y. Right valve, hinge-line 
h. Left valve, hinge-line . 
t. Part of surface 

2. Cytherideis trigonalis, p. 47. 

a. Perfect, left valve upwards . 

b. Left valve, dorsal view 

c. Right valve, inside 

d. Left valve, anterior hinge 

e. Left valve, posterior hinge . 

f. Left valve, inside 

y. Part of inside of right valve, showing lucid spots 
h. Part of surface of valve 

3. Cytherideis tubercidata, p. 47. 

a. Left valve, inside (broken) . 

b. Left valve, hinge-line 

c. Left valve, dorsal view 

d. Perfect, dorsal view 

e. Left valve, outside 

f. Left valve, inside 

4. Cytheridea pinyuis, p. 4 3. 

a. Perfect, right valve upwards 

b. Perfect, posterior aspect 

c. Perfect, dorsal aspect (young or male) 

d. Perfect, dorsal aspect (old or female) 

e. Right valve, inside 

f. Left valve, inside 

y. Portion of surface of 4 c, with papillae and fine pits 

h. Portion of surface of 4 b, with pits 

5. Cythere punctata, p. 24. 

a. Left valve, outside (broken at posterior end, old) 

b. Right valve, outside 

c. Perfect, dorsal aspect 

d. Perfect, anterior aspect 

e. Left valve, inside (young) 

f. Left valve, inside 
y. Right valve, inside 

h. Part of surface of valve 



Old 



Tertiary En.tomostra.ca PI 1 1 




■ " ' " Tori & West Imp. 

Geo . West Idk 



PLATE III. 



Fig. 



Cy there trigonula, p. 25. 

a. Perfect, right valve upwards 

b. Perfect, dorsal view 

c. Perfect, anterior view 

d. Right valve, dorsal view 

e. Right valve, inside 

f. Left valve, inside 

g. Left valve, dorsal view 

h. Portion of surface of valve 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
X 150 



Crag. 



2. Cythere Woodiana (old individuals), p. 29. 

a. Left valve, outside 

b. Right valve, outside 

c. Perfect, dorsal view 

d. Perfect, anterior view 

e. Left valve, hinge-line 

f. Right valve 

g. Portion of surface of valve . 



X 25 

x 25 

X 25 

X 25 ) Crag, 

x 25 

x 25 
X 150 



Cythere laqueata, p. 30 

a. Right valve, outside 

b. Perfect, dorsal view 

c. Perfect, anterior view 

d. Left valve, dorsal view 

e. Left valve, hinge-line 

f. Right valve, hinge-line 

g. Right valve, dorsal view 

h. Portion of surface of valve 



x 25 

X 25 

x 25 

x 25 

x 25 

x 25 

x 25 

X 150 



: Crag. 



Cytherideis Tamarindus, p. 49. 

a. Perfect, left valve upwards . . . x 25 
[The faint reticulate punctation is not shown in the figure.] 

b. Perfect, dorsal aspect . . . . x 25 



Crag. 



5. Cythere lacunosa, p. 31. 

a. Right valve, outside . . , x 25 1 

b. Perfect, ventral aspect . . . . x 25 j ^ ra S" 

6. Cythere sphceruJolineata, p. 36. 

Right valve, outside . . . . x 25 Crag. 

7. Cythere retifastigata, p. 36. 

Left valve, outside (old individual) . . x 25 Crag. 



PLATE III (continued). 



Fig. 

8. Cythereis senilis, p. 37. 

a. Right valve, outside . . . . X 25 1 

h. Right valve, ventral aspect . . . . X 25 J 



9 a — e. Cythere Macropora, p. 35. 

a. Right valve, outside . . . x 25 N 

b. Perfect, ventral aspect . . . x 25 

c. Perfect, dorsal aspect . . . . x 25 Crag. 

d. Perfect, anterior aspect . . . x 25 

e. Left valve, outside (young) . . . X 25 ^ 

9/ — i. Cythere Traehypora, p. 36. 

f. Left valve, dorsal aspect . . . X 25 

g. Left valve, inside . . . . X 25 

h. Right valve, inside . . . . x 25 Cra §- 

i. Left valve, dorsal aspect . . . . . X 25 > 



PLATE IV. 



Fig. 

1. Cythereis Ceratoptera, p. 39. 
Left valve, outside 



X 25 Crag. 



2, 3. Bairdia subdeltoidea, p. 52. 

2 a. Left valve, outside . . . x 12 

2 b. Portion of surface, showing the lucid spots and fine papillae x 75 
3. Right valve, inside (small individual) 



Cvat 



x /o I Or 
x 12 1 



Cytherideis Jiavida, p. 50. 

a. Right valve, outside (narrow var.) 

b. Perfect, dorsal aspect 

c. Perfect, end view 



X 25 
X 25 \ Crag. 

x 25 ' 



5. Cytherideis Ren, p. 51. 

a. Left valve, outside 

b. Left valve, dorsal view 



25 
25 



Crag. 



6. Cytheridea Sorbyana, p. 44. 

a. Right valve, outside 

b. Right valve, ventral view 

c. Right valve, anterior view 

d. Left valve, hinge-line 

e. Part of surface, showing reticulations and perforations 



X 25 
x 25 

X 25 K ( Bridlington. 
X 55 
X 150 



7. Cythere concinna, p. 29. 

a. Right valve, outside 

b. Right valve, ventral view 

c. Right valve, anterior view 

d. Right valve, hinge-line 

e. Left valve, hinge-line 
/. Part of surface, showing pittings and perforations 



X 25 
x 25 
X 25 
x 25 
x 25 
x 150 



Bridlington. 



8, 9, 11. Candona Forbesii,\). 18. 

8. Right valve, outside (somewhat distorted) 

9. Left valve, outside 
11a. Right valve, outside 

18 6. Right valve, ventral view 



X 12 I 
x 12 f C 
x 12 



x 12 



Hordwell. 



10. Cytherideis unisulcata, p. 48. 
Cast of right valve 



x 16 Cliff End. 



12. Candona Richardsoni, p. 18. 

a. Left valve, outside 

b. Left valve, ventral view 



X I Woolwich, 
x 25 J 



PLATE IV {continued). 

Fig. 

13, 20. Cytherideis Colwellensis, p. 49 



13 a. Right valve, outside 


X 


25 >, 


13 b. Perfect, dorsal aspect 


X 


25 


13 c. Perfect, posterior aspect 


X 


25 


20 a. Left valve, outside 


X 


25 


20 b. Left valve, dorsal aspect 


X 


25 


20 c. Left valve, hinge-line 


X 


25 - 



/ Younc 



14. Cyther idea perforata, p. 44. 

a. Left valve, outside 

b. Left valve, dorsal view 

c. Right valve, hinge-line 

d. Left valve, outside 

e. Perfect, dorsal aspect 

15. Cy there W ether ellii, p. 26. 

Right valve, outside 

16'. Cythere plicata, p. 32. 

Left valve, outside 



17, 18. Cythere angulaiopora, p. 34. 
17. Left valve, outside 

[The ornamentation is not drawn strong enough.] 
18 a. Perfect, dorsal aspect 
18 b. Perfect, anterior aspect 

19. Cythereis cornuta, p. 39. 
Left valve, outside 



Large individuals 



X 


25 


X 


25 


X 


25 


X 


25 


X 


25 



X 25 Col well Bay. 
X 25 Colwell Bay. 



Colwell Bay. 



x 25 

. x 25 
X 25 



X 25 Colwell Bay. 




6a- 



V! 

6b 






lb 




v > x • 



7/" 







[ 

12b 






/ ! 



IXa. 






GeoWes-LLith 



PLATE V. 



Fig. 

1. Bairdia contracta, p. 53. 

a. Right valve, inside 

b. Perfect, dorsal aspect 

c. Perfect, right valve upwards 

2, 3. Cytherideis Bartonensis, p. 50. 

2 a. Right valve, outside 

2 b. Right valve, dorsal aspect . 

3 a. Right valve, outside 

3 b. Perfect, dorsal aspect 

4, 5. Cytheridea Mulleri, var. intermedia, p. 42. 

a. Perfect, right valve upwards 

b. Perfect, dorsal aspect 

c. Perfect, posterior aspect 

5. Right valve, outside : young (crushed) 



x 25 > 

x 25 f Barton Clifl. 
x 25 J 



Barton Cliff. 



X 


25 


X 


25 


X 


25 


X 


25 



x 25 

x 25 

x 25 

x 25 



Barton Cliff. 



6, 7, 10. Cy there striatopunctata, p. 27. 

6. Right valve, outside : young 

7 a. Perfect, left valve upwards . 

7 b. Perfect, dorsal view 

7 c. Perfect, anterior view 

10. Right valve, outside 



X 


25 


X 


25 


X 


25 


X 


25 


X 


25 



Barton Cliff. 



8. Cythere plicata, var. Laticosta, p. 33. 



a. Left valve, outside 


X 


25 


b. Right valve, inside 


X 


25 


c. Perfect, dorsal aspect 


. X 


25 


d. Perfect, anterior aspect 


X 


25 



Barton Cliff. 



9, 17. Cythereis horrescens, p. 38. 

9. Left valve, outside . . . X 25 Barton Cliff. 



[The ornament on the surface should have been figured as blunt 
spines, not tubercles.] 

1 7 a. Left valve, outside : broken . . x 25 

17 6. Left valve, dorsal aspect . . . x 25 



} Braeklesham Bay. 



1 1. Cythere attenuate!, p. 28. 

Left valve, outside : broken at the antero-dorsal hinge . x 25 Alum Bay (Bed No. 
[The subcentral impression towards the dorsal border is not shown in 
this figure.] 

12, 13. Cytherella Munsteri, p. 56. 

12 a. Left valve, outside . . . X 25 ] 

12 6. Left valve, dorsal aspect . . . . X 25 I 

[The posterior extremity is too acute in this figure] / Bracldcsllnm Bi, . v - 

13. Left valve, outside . * . . X 25 / 



PLATE V {continued). 



Pig. 



14. Cy there costellata, p. 32. 

Left valve, outside . . . . . X 25 Bracklesham Bay. 



15. 


Cythereis cornuta, p. 39. 










a. Right valve, outside 




X 


25 ■ 




b. Right valve, dorsal aspect . 




X 




16. 


Cy there scabropapulosa, p. 31. 










Right valve, outside . 




X 


25 


18, 


19, 21, 23. Cytherella compressa, p. .' 


)4. 








18. Left valve, outside. (Var. 1, p 


. 55.) . 


X 


25 




19. Left valve, outside. (Var. 2, p, 


.55.) . 


X 


25 




21. Right valve, outside. (Large individual.) 


X 


25 




23. Right valve, outside 




X 


25 


20, 


22. Cytherella Londinensis, p. 55. 










20. Left valve, outside 




X 


25 




22. Right valve, outside 




. X 


25 




[The central depression is not 


sufficiently well marked in 


either of 




these figures.] 








24. 


Cytheridea perforata, var. glabra, p. 


46. 








a. Right valve, outside 




X 


25 




b. Right valve, dorsal view 




X 


25 



Bracklesham Bay. 



Copenhagen Fields, 
London. 



London. 



London. 



PLATE VI. 



Fig. 

1, 2, Bairdia subdeltoidea, p. 52. 

1 a. Perfect, right valve upwards 
1 b. Perfect, dorsal aspect 
2. Perfect, right valve upwards. 

anterior and posterior margins.) 

3. Cytheridea perforata, var. insignis, p. 46. 



. x 25 

. x 25 

(Showing denticulations at the 

. X 25 



a. Right valve, outside : imperfect 


X 


25 1 


h. Ri»-ht valve, posterior aspect 


X 


25 


c. Right valve, dorsal aspect 


. X 


25 J 


1, fi. Cythere scrobiculoplicata, p. 33. 






4. Left valve, outside 




25 


(j a. Left valve, outside 


X 


25 


6 b. Left valve, hinge-line 


X 


25 


6 c. Right valve, hinge-line 


X 


25 


6 d. Perfect, dorsal aspect 


X 


25 , 


5. Cythere triangularis, p. 25. 






a. Left valve, outside • 




25 ^ 


b. Left valve, dorsal view 


X 


25 


c. Left valve, hinge-line 


. X 


25 


d. Perfect, anterior aspect 


. X 


25 


p T?io*rif vfilve nmo'A-lirip 




- • > 


f. Right valve, dorsal aspect 


X 


25 


g. Right valve, outside 


X 


25^ 


7, 8. Cythereis Bowerbankiana, p. 38. 






7. Left valve, outside 


X 


25 "I 


8. Left valve, outside 


X 


25 J 


9. Cythere scrobieidoplicata, var. recta, p. 34. 






Left valve, outside . . . . 


. X 


25 


10, 11. Cytheridea Mulleri, p. 41. 






10 a. Left valve, outside 


. X 


25-| 


10 b. Perfect, dorsal aspect 


X 


25 J 


11. Left valve, outside 


X 


25 


12. Cytheridea Mulleri, var. torosa, p. 42. 






Right valve, outside . 


X 


25 



Copenhagen Fields, 
London. 



Copenhagen Fields, 
London. 



Copenhagen Fields, 
London. 



Copenhagen Fields, 
London. 



Copenhagen Fields, 
London. 



X 25 East Woodhay, Hampsh. 



Woolwich. 



1 This and the subsequent figures of species from Cokvell Bay were introduced among the Woolwich species under the 
mistake explained at p. 26. 



PLATE VI (continued). 



Fig. 

13. Cytheridea debilis, p. 43. 

Left valve, outside . . . . x 25 Colwell Bay. 



14. Cy there Kostelensis ? p. 28. 

14 a. Left valve, outside . . . . x 25 1 

« . * -r-. i* i i ^ f Woolwich. 

14 6. rerrect, dorsal aspect . . . x 25 J 

15. Cytherideis? sp., p. 49. 

Cast of left valve . . . . x 12 New Cross. 



16. Cythere Wetherellii, p. 26. 



a. Left valve, outside 


X 


25 


b. Right valve, hinge-line 


X 


25 


c. Right valve, dorsal aspect 


X 


25 


d. Right valve, posterior aspect 


X 


25 



Colwell Bay. 



17. Cythere plicata, p. 32. 

Left valve, outside . . . . x 25 Colwell Bay. 

18. Cythere angulatopora, p. 34. 

Left valve, outside : broken . . . x 25 Colwell Bay. 

4 

19. Cythereis, sp., p. 40. 

Fragment of left valve . . . . x 25 Pegwell Bay. 




Geo \ .est I.'it.i . Eord& iVbe&amp 



THE 



PALiEONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVIL 



LONDON: 



M DCCC1.V. 



A MONOGRAPH 



ON THE 



BRITISH FOSSIL 



ECHINODERMATA 



OF 



THE OOLITIC FORMATIONS. 



BY 

THOMAS WRIGHT, M.D., F.R.S.E. 



PART FIRST, 

CONTAINING 

THE CIDABIDiE, HEMICIDAEIM1, AND DIADEMAD.^. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PAL/EONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1855. 



ADLARD, PBINTER, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



PREFACE. 



In presenting the First Part of my Monograph on ' British Fossil Echinodermata ' to 
the members of the Palseontographical Society, I deem it necessary to make a few remarks 
in order to explain — 1st, how I came to occupy the position of an author in the magnifi- 
cent volumes published by your Society ; and 2dly, to state the manner in which I have 
endeavoured to discharge the duties of the task I have undertaken. 

After the publication of my ' Memoirs on the Echinodermata of the Oolites,'* in the 
' Annals of Natural History,' my much lamented friend, the late Professor Edward Forbes, 
as a member of your Council, asked me to contribute a Monograph on the same subject 
to the Palseontographical Society. Knowing that he had in preparation a supplementary 
chapter on the Echinoderms of the Great Oolite, for Messrs. Morris and Lycett ; s 
Monograph on the Mollusca of that Formation, I thanked him for the good opinion he 
had formed of my ability for such a work, but declined, lest, by complying with his request, 
I might possibly have interfered with any intentions of his own on the subject, knowing 
how ardently he loved all that related to this class of the Animal Kingdom. As Professor 
Forbes, however, on another occasion, renewed, in the most pressing manner, his solici- 
tation, I then proposed to join him in a Monograph on the British Fossil Echinodermata 
of the Secondary Formations, which he at once agreed to, and the proposal for this joint 
work was submitted to the approval of your Council, and received its sanction. 

The numerous and constantly increasing duties of my esteemed colleague at the School 
of Mines prevented him from taking any share in the collection of materials for the prepa- 
ration of the Monograph on the Oolitic Echinodermata, and, with his usual candour, he 
told me that, as he was unable, from want of time, to contribute to this division of our 
proposed joint work, his name must be withdrawn from its title page ; and, if agreeable to 
me, that I should undertake the Monograph on the Oolitic species, whilst he would devote 
himself to the description of the Cretaceous forms. After this arrangement, I directed my 
attention with redoubled energy to the subject of my special studies. 

On his appointment to the chair of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh, 
Professor Forbes took with him the materials for the first part of his promised Monograph 



* 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' new series, vol. viii, 1851. 

b 



V] 



PREFACE. 



on the Cretaceous Echinoderms ; but, alas ! his untimely and much-lamented death pre- 
vented him from even commencing that work upon which his mind had been so long and 
busily engaged, and which was looked forward to with so much interest by all who 
knew the high qualifications of my friend for his selected task. But the mysterious decrees 
of Providence disappointed our expectations, and at the same time deprived Natural Science, 
in this country, of one of its brightest ornaments and warmest advocates. It would be 
doing violence to my own feelings if I did not, on this occasion, record the high estimation 
in which I held the opinions of my distinguished colleague on all points relating to the 
work we had undertaken together, and the uniform deference I paid to his suggestions, as 
to the best mode of executing the same, which were always dictated by that kindness, 
frankness, and wisdom so characteristic of the man. 

Having been thus thrown entirely on my own resources, before the real difficulties 
of the work began, I have experienced more than ever the deep responsibility of the 
task I have undertaken. I trust the circumstances I have narrated will entitle me to 
the consideration and indulgence of all who know the nature and amount of the 
difficulties to be grappled with in a work like that in which I am engaged, and the 
time and labour necessary to overcome them. I can only add, that I have spared neither 
time, labour, nor research, in order to make this Monograph worthy of the confidence 
originally reposed in me ; but how far I may have succeeded in my efforts, it remains for 
others to decide. 

At the suggestion of my excellent friend, Thomas Davidson, Esq., author of the 
magnificent Monograph on the Brachiopoda, and several other kind friends interested in 
the success of this work, it was thought advisable that, at the conclusion of my Monograph 
on the Oolitic species, I should proceed with the description of the Cretaceous forms, in 
order that a greater unity in the arrangement and management of the subject might be 
observed in the two Monographs on the Echinodermata of the Secondary rocks ; and a 
proposal to this effect has been submitted to your Council, and received its sanction. 

I have ventured to propose some important alterations in the classification of the 
Echinoidea, and have grouped the genera into thirteen natural families, many of which 
are entirely new. My object has been to attain a more natural method, and thereby 
facilitate the study of the different groups. I have given an analysis of these families at 
the commencement of the work, and enumerated the most common types of each. 

In the description of the species, I have taken them in their stratigraphical order, 
always commencing with the species found in the oldest rock in which the genus is 
discovered, thus — a, Lias, Lower, Middle, and Upper ; b, Inferior Oolite ; c, Great Oolite, 
including Fullers-earth, Stonesfield Slate, Great Oolite, Bradford Clay, Forest Marble, and 
Combrash ; d, Oxford Clay ; e, Coralline Oolite, including Calcareous Grit, and Coral 
Rag ; /, Kimmeridge Clay ; g, Portland Oolite ; h, Purbeck Beds ; — so that my work has 
the double advantage of being stratigraphical and palseontological at the same time, a 
mode of treating the subject which I hope will prove useful and convenient to geologists. 



PREFACE. 



vii 



Many of the readers of this Monograph will probably be surprised to find some old 
generic names reproduced, which have long been superseded by those of modern writers ; 
but a sense of justice to such authors as Van Phelsum, Breynius, Klein, and Leske, has led 
me to consult their original works, and restore the genera first described and figured by 
them, but omitted from the treatises of later authors on the same subject. In the nomen- 
clature of the Echinodermata, had I merely gone back to the time of Linna3us, as suggested 
by the committee of the British Association in their report made in 1842, 1 must necessarily 
have excluded the important work by Breynius,* in which, for the first time, were proposed 
seven well-described and accurately figured genera of Echinoidea, which, by some strange 
oversight, were not adopted by his contemporaries, although they have reappeared under 
new names in the works of later authors. On the principle of priority, therefore, I have 
restored the original genera so clearly defined by Breynius, even although it may occasion 
a temporary inconvenience in the names of some well-known forms of urchins. 

In every case, where practicable, the name of the author who either first recorded, 
described, or figured the species, follows the specific name of the object, without the 
addition of " Sp." adopted by some authors. By this mode justice is done to the original 
author, and confusion avoided. The modern practice of inventing and changing generic 
names, and appending to the old specific name that of the individual who has merely 
changed a name, but discovered nothing, cannot be sufficiently discountenanced, as it 
greatly increases the confusion arising from an already overloaded synonymy, and thereby 
retards the real progress of the natural history sciences. 

The accurate determination of species, and their distribution in time and space, form 
problems of the highest importance to the palaeontologist, as their true solution are the 
only certain guides of the geologist in his investigations in the field, and his generalizations 
in the study : for the classification of strata, the subdivision of rock groups, and the 
boundary lines between different formations, are all points which are more or less affected 
by the soundness of his conclusions. 

In determining the species of Echinodermata, therefore, the most careful comparison 
has been made with the true type forms to which they are referred, and the extent of 
the section in the description of the species, on the affinities and differences exhibited by 
each with other Foreign and British congeneric forms, will show how much care has been 
taken to arrive at a correct determination. 

The range and stratigraphical position of the species described in this work has 
occupied much time and attention, as many errors found in previous lists of Oolitic 
Echinodermata required considerable research to correct ; for experience has taught me 
that, unless the palasontologist can verify for himself the statements of his collectors, he 
will frequently be led into similar errors. In every instance, with the exception of 
the Northamptonshire beds, which have been carefully noted by my friend the 

* De Echinis et Echinitia, sive Methodica Eeliinorum distributione, Schediasma. Gedani, ] 732. 



VIU 



PREFACE. 



Rev. A. W. Griesbach, I have visited the different localities given in this work, and with my 
own hammer ascertained the presence of the species in the rock whence they are stated to 
be obtained ; the most perfect confidence may therefore be placed in the notes on the 
stratigraphical distribution of the species, as the greatest care has been taken in order to 
arrive at the truth. 

As the Oolitic rocks of Europe were deposited in basins of greater or less extent, it 
follows that many contemporary species which lived on different shores of these ancient 
seas will, from time to time, be discovered ; and Foreign species, hitherto found only in 
the Oolitic rocks of the Continent, will doubtless be discovered in strata of the same age 
in England, and vice versa. I have, therefore, at the end of the description of the species 
of each genus, for the purpose of easy reference in the event of new species being found, 
appended original notes on Foreign Oolitic species of that genus most nearly allied to 
our own forms, but which have not as yet been found in the English Oolites. The 
Foreign species are printed in a different type, and the notes are placed at the end of the 
section to which they belong. The short diagnosis I have given of each species is drawn 
from authentic specimens kindly contributed by several distinguished foreign friends, 
whose names are mentioned in connection with their specimens. A reference is made to 
the best figures of each species extant ; and for the localities in which they are found, and 
the collections in which the types are contained, I have consulted with much advantage 
M. Desor's excellent ' Synopsis des Echinides Fossiles,' now in course of publication. 

It is now my pleasing duty to return my most sincere thanks, either for the loan of 
specimens, or permission to inspect their collections in quest of new forms, to Mr. Pickering 
and Mr. King, Malton ; Mr. Charlesworth, York ; Mr. Waite and Mr. Duck, Calne ; Mr. 
William Buy, Sutton ; Mr. Bean, Scarborough ; the Hon. Mr. Marcham ; Mr. H. C. 
Sorby ; Mr. W. Cunnington, Devizes ; Mr. Walton and Mr. Bush, Bath ; Mr. Mackneil, 
Wotton-under-Edge ; the Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rowington Vicarage, near Warwick ; Mr. 
John Lycett, Minchiuhampton ; Mr. John Jones, Gloucester; Professor Buckman and Mr. 
Bravender, Cirencester; Professor Morris, Professor Tennant, and Mr. J. S. Bowerbank, 
London ; Mr. W. M. Tartt, Mr. Charles Pierson, Mr. Thomas Bodley, and Mr. Edward 
Hull, F.G.S., Geological Survey, Cheltenham. 

I beg to tender my especial thanks to the Rev. A. W. Griesbach, of Wollaston, 
for several valuable contributions, consisting of many fine series of different species of 
Echinoderms from the Great Oolite, Forest Marble, and Cornbrash of Northamptonshire, 
likewise for the labour he has bestowed in finding some rare species, and ascertaining 
many valuable facts relative to the distribution of the species found in his county ; to 
Mr. J. Graham Lowe, Kensington Park, for the gift of Piaster umbrella, Lamk., from 
the Coral Rag ; and to Mrs. Lowe for the gift of the rare Asterostoma excentricum, 
Agass. ; to Dr. Symes, Bridport, for a fine Clypeus Agassizii, from the Inferior Oolite of 
Chideock; to Mr. Charles Moore, Bath, for the gift of some rare specimens from the 



PREFACE. 



Upper Lias of Ilminster; to Mr. Etheridge, Bristol, for several rare urchins; to Mr. G. E. 
Gavey, C.E., for the donation of several fine Crinoidea and Asteroidea, from the Middle 
Lias of Chipping-Campden, and for the loan of his finest specimens for figuring in this 
work ; to the Earl of Ducie, for the loan of his unique Solaster Moretonis, Forbes, and 
several fine Cretaceous Cidaris and Star Fishes; to Mr. John Leckenby, Scarborough, 
for much useful information relative to the distribution of the Yorkshire Oolitic Echinoder- 
mata, and for the gift of several specimens ; to Dr. Murray, Scarborough, for the 
donation of several rare Coralline Oolite Piasters and Pyguri, collected by him at Ayton ; 
to Mr. Reed, York, for much valuable information regarding the Whitwell beds of 
Inferior Oolite, and for the gift of type specimens of Pygaster semisulcatus, Phil., and 
Echinus germinans, Phil. ; to Mr. Wood, Richmond, Yorkshire, for the gift of fine 
specimens of Echinobrissus orbicularis, Phil., Echinobrissus dimidiatus, Phil., and 
Woodocrinus macrodactylus, de Koninck, and for kindly placing his beautiful collection of 
Crinoidea at my disposal ; to Mr. Charles Fowler, Cheltenham, for the gift of Cidaris 
Fowleri; to Mr. Davidson, of Brighton, for the uniform interest he has taken in the 
success of this work, for the specimens he has contributed, the manuscript plates he has 
lent, and the introductions he has given me to several distinguished Continental naturalists, 
who have kindly supplied much useful information. 

I desire to make my warmest acknowledgments to M. Michelin, of Paris, who possesses 
the finest collection extant of living and fossil Echinodermata, for the magnificent series of 
type specimens he most generously contributed to my cabinet for comparison with English 
forms ; to M. Bouchard-Chantereaux, of Boulogne, for a series of Echinoderms from the 
Oolitic rocks of the Boulonnais ; to M. Cotteau, of Coulommiers, for the types of the 
species described by him in his ' Etudes sur les Echinides Fossiles du departement de 
l'Yonne ;' to M. Triger, of le Mans, for a suite of specimens collected by him from the 
Oolites in the departement de la Sarthe ; to Professor Deslongchainps, of Caen, for the 
specimens collected by him from the Oolites of Calvados, and determined by M. Agassiz ; 
to M. de Loriere, of Paris, for many rare urchins from the departement de la Sarthe ; to 
Professor Roemer, for the types of several of his brother's species from the Oolites of 
Hanover ; to Dr. Fraas, of Stuttgart, for the types of many of Count Minister and Professor 
Goldfuss's species from the Royal Museum of Wiirttemberg ; to Professor de Koninck, of 
Liege, Dr. Oppel, of Stuttgart, and M. Saemann, of Paris, for good types of many 
Foreign species. 

My warmest thanks are likewise due to my friend Mr. S. P. Woodward, of the British 
Museum, for kindly acting as my referee in the prosecution of this work, and for the many 
valuable suggestions he has made during its preparation and progress, as well as for the 
assistance he has given me in comparing my specimens with Foreign types in the British 
Museum, and aiding in the determination of dubious forms. 

The late Sir Henry de la Beche, Director-General of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain, most liberally gave me free access to all the specimens contained in the Geological 



X 



PREFACE. 



Museum in Jermyn Street ; and the same privilege has been most kindly renewed by his 
distinguished successor, Sir Roderick I. Murchison, to whom I beg to tender my warmest 
acknowledgments. I am under many obligations to my friend Mr. Waterhouse, of the 
British Museum, for his kindness in allowing me to examine all the Echinoderms in the 
National Collection, and his permission to figure those I have selected for this purpose- 
Professor Sedgwick, of Cambridge University, at my request, most liberally communicated 
the types of Professor M'Coy's new species of urchins, described in the 'Annals of Natural 
History.' Mr. Rupert Jones has at all times given me free admission to examine the rich 
cabinets of the Geological Society of London. Professor Phillips, of Oxford, has afforded 
me much useful information relative to the species of Echinoderms first figured in his 
valuable work on the ' Geology of Yorkshire.' To each of these kind friends I beg to 
tender my most grateful acknowledgments. 

My best thanks are likewise especially due to Messrs. Bone and Baily, for the great 
care they have bestowed on the beautiful plates that enrich my Monograph, which, for 
scientific accuracy in details, and artistic effect in execution, are second to no lithographs 
of similar objects extant. 

THOMAS WRIGHT. 



Exeter Place, Cheltenham; 
August, 1856. 



A 10NOGEAPH 

ON THE 

FOSSIL EC HINQDERM AT A 

OF THE 

OOLITIC FORMATIONS. 



Sub-Kingdom— RADIATA. 

This great division of the Animal Kingdom includes classes which differ widely from 
each other in form, organization, and habits. Some have the body circular, globular, or 
ringed ; or vermiform, plant-like, or amorphous. Some are enclosed in a soft arachnoid, 
transparent membrane, and float like crystal masses through the water, as the Infusoria and 
AcalepluB ; others hang like living stalactites from the roofs of submarine caverns, like the 
Amorphozoa ; or, assuming the forms of the Vegetable World, they develope ramose stems, 
with numerous branches, of which myriads of zoophytes are at once the builders and 
inhabitants, as the Polypifera. Some are enclosed in exquisite shells, microscopic in size, 
but unrivalled in symmetry, although the structure that produces them is but a mere film 
of jelly, as the Foraminifera ; others have a complicated calcareous skeleton, composed of 
many thousands of separate elements, which, for beauty and contrivance, is unsurpassed by 
that of any other class, as the jEchinodermata. Where the nervous system has been dis- 
covered, it consists of a simple gangliated filament, surrounding the entrance to the 
digestive organs ; but in by far the greater number of animals grouped in this division, 
no distinct nervous system is found, although the creatures themselves possess an exquisite 
sensibility. 

The sub-kingdom Radiata is formed of classes which are more remarkable for their 

1 



2 



RADIATA. 



negative than for their positive characters : hence it wants that unity of composition so 
well displayed in the sub-kingdoms Mollusca, Articulata, and Vertebrata. Some 
naturalists have proposed to separate the Radiata into two sections, under the names 
Aneura and Cgclo-neura, or Acrita and Nemato-neura ; but, unfortunately, the nervous 
system of only a very few genera of the Cyclo-neura is known, so that, by generalizing 
too much upon these isolated facts, we are in danger of reasoning on an error in order 
to establish a method. 

We include in the sub-kingdom Radiata the six following classes, which may, 
for the sake of convenience, be subdivided into two sections ; — in the one, the form of the 
body is more or less globular, sometimes it is symmetrical, often it is irregular or amor- 
phous, — these form the Globular Radiata. In the second section the body is stellate, 
and the divisions are arranged in the form of rays around a common centre, — this stellate 
form can often be shown to consist of a bilateral symmetry. These classes form the 
Stellate Radiata. The following table exhibits the sections and classes, to which 
are added the names of typical genera as examples of each : 



Sub-Kingdom. 


Sections. 


Classes. 


Examples of Genera. 






fi. 


Amorphozoa 


Halichondria, Spoiigilla, Spongia. 








FORAMINIFERA 


Orbitoides, Nummidites, Rotalia. 








Infusoria 


Plcesconia, Dileptus, Paramecium. 


Radiata. i 






POLYPIFERA 


Alcyonium, Oculina, Meandrina. 




^Stellate Radiata , 


ft 


ACALEPHiE 


Medusa, Physalus, Cassiopeeia. 








ECHINODERMATA 


Encrinus, Asterias, Echinus. 



Class— ECHINODERMATA. 

The name Echinodermata was given by J. T. Klein, in 1734,* to the shells of Sea- 
urchins, which were called Echini. Bruguieref subsequently called that class which com- 
prised the Star-fishes, and the Sea-urchins, Echinodermata. CuvierJ included in his 
class Echinodermes, with Asterias and Echinus, the Ilolothuria, animals that are destitute 
of the prickly skin, of the more typical forms, and have many external affinities with some 
Mollusca; and subsequently, in his ' Regne Animal,' § he grouped in this class, les Echino- 
dermes sans pieds, forming the order Sipunculoidea, which connect the Radiata with the 
Annelidous Articulata. 

* 'Naturalis Dispositio Echinodermatum,' Jacobi Theodori Klein, 1734. 

t ' Tableau Encyclope'dique des trois Regnes de la Nature,' 1791. 

X 'Tableau Elementaire de l'Histoire naturelle des Auimaux,' 1798. 

§ ' Regne Animal distribue d'apres son Organisation,' 1834. 



ECHINODERMATA. 



3 



The Echinodernas are most highly organized animals, and for the most part are covered 
with a coriaceous integument. In several orders it is strengthened with numerous calcareous 
pieces, which together form a complicated skeleton. The external surface of the skin, in 
many families, developes spines of various forms and dimensions, which aid in locomotion, 
and serve as defensive instruments to the creatures possessing them. By far the largest 
number of these animals have a complicated system of vessels for the circulation of water 
through their bodies. These aquiferous canals are intimately connected with the locomotion 
of the animal ; for by means of it, most of the typical groups put in motion those remark- 
able suckers which protrude in rows from different divisions of the body. In the Echinoidea 
they escape through the holes in the poriferous zones, and in the Astcroidca they pass 
through apertures in the intervals of the small plates which form the middle of the rays, 
whilst in the Sipunculoidea these organs are altogether absent. 

No class of the Animal Kingdom more clearly exhibits a gradation of structure than 
the Echinodermata ; for, whilst some remain rooted to the sea bottom, and in this sessile 
condition and other points of structure resemble the Poli/pifera, others exhibit the 
true rayed forms, clothed in prickly armour, which characterise the central groups of this 
class. These conduct us, through a series of beautiful gradations, to soft elongated organisms, 
whose forms mimic the Ascidian Mollusca ; whilst others have the long cylindrical body 
and annulose condition of the skin, with the reptatory habits of the Apodous Annelida. 

With so fertile a field for investigation, it is not surprising that the minute anatomy 
of the Echinodermata should have engaged the attention of some of the most distinguished 
Naturalists of our age — Tiedemann, Muller, Van Beneden, Agassiz, Desor, Forbes, and 
Sharpey, — and have yielded fruits which the physiologist reckons as among the most 
marvellous contributions to morphological science. 

The class Echinodermata is divided into eight orders, which, in descending sequence, 
may be thus arranged : 

1. Sipunculoidea. 5. Ophiuroidea. 

2. holothuroidea. 6. blastoidea. 

3. Echinoidea. 7. Cystoidea. 

4. asteroidea. 8. clunotdea. 



Order i. Sipunculoidea — form the apodal Annelidous Echinoderms ; they have a 
long cylindrical body, divided into rings by transverse folds of the integument : they have 
no tubular suckers, nor calcareous parts in their body, nor is it divided into a quinary 
arrangement of longitudinal lobes : some have horny bristles, like the feet of many Annelida, 
which they somewhat resemble : their mouth is sometimes surrounded by tentacula, which 
are not, however, regulated by a definite number, nor disposed with the same regularity 
as in the next Order. They are unknown in a fossil state. 

Type. Sipunculus edulis. Cuv. Pallas. 



I 



ASTEROIDEA. 



Order n. Holothuroidea. — Body in general elongated ; skin usually soft and 
leathery, in a few genera strengthened by calcareous or horny spines. Five avenues of 
suckers, which divide the body into as many longitudinal, nearly equal, lobes or segments ; 
mouth surrounded by plumose tentacula, the numbers of which are in general multiples of 
five ; anus at the opposite extremity of the body ; digestive organs consist of a long intestine, 
which makes some coils in passing through the body ; respiration performed by internal 
ramified tubes, like a miniature tree ; locomotion effected by contractions and extensions of 
the body, and by rows of tubular suckers, similar to those in the Star-fishes and Sea-urchins. 
The softness of their naked integument prevents their preservation in the stratified rocks. 
We know none in a fossil state. 

Type. Cucumaria frondosa. Griiner. 

Order in. Echinoidea. — Body spheroidal, oval, or depressed, without arms ; furnished 
with a distinct mouth, sometimes armed, which is always below, and an anus which 
occupies different positions. Body enclosed in a shell or test, composed of twenty columns 
of calcareous plates, and ten rows of holes for the passage of retractile tubular suckers ; 
the surface of the test is studded with tubercles, which possess, jointed with them, moveable 
spines, of various sizes and forms in the different families and genera : at the summit of 
the test is the apical disc, composed of five genital plates, perforated for the passage of the 
ovarial and seminal tubes, and five ocular plates for lodging the five eyes. The intestine 
winds round the shell, attached by a mesentery, the surface of which, as well as the mem- 
brane lining of the test, is covered with vibratile cilia. 

Type. The common Sea-urchin, Echinus sphcera. Midler. 

The Echinoidea are represented by one family in the Palaeozoic rocks, and by 
numerous families in the Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, several of which characterise these 
great periods of geological time. They likewise abound in our present seas. 

Order iv. Asteroidea. — Body stelliform, depressed, provided with five or more lobes 
or hollow arms, which are a continuation of the body, and contain prolongations of the 
viscera ; the mouth, which is always below and central, serves likewise as an anus ; rows 
of retractile tubular suckers occupy the centre of the rays. Skeleton complicated, com- 
posed of numerous solid calcareous pieces, variable as to number, size, and disposition ; 
skin coriaceous, studded with calcareous spines of various forms ; a madreporiform plate on 
the upper surface, near the angle between two rays ; eyes placed at the extremity of the 
rays ; reptation performed by the tubular suckers. 

Type. The common Star-fish, Uraster rubens. Linnaeus. 

This order is represented in the Silurian rocks by two genera. The Oolitic, Cretaceous, 
and Tertiary rocks contain many extinct forms. The existing species are very abundant 
in all the present seas. 



ECHINODERMATA. 5 

Order v. Ophiuroidea. — Body discoidal, distinct, depressed, provided with long, 
slender arms, in which there is no excavation for any prolongation of the viscera ; they 
are special organs of locomotion, and independent of the visceral cavity ; they have spines 
developed from their sides ; the mouth, surrounded by membranous tentacula, is always 
below and central, and serves at the same time as the anus. Skeleton complicated, com- 
posed of calcareous pieces, of which the size and number vary in different genera. The 
arms, long and slender, are sustained internally by central vertebral-like pieces, but they 
are not hollow or grooved underneath, as in the Asteroidea : they are special organs of 
locomotion, independent of, and superadded to, the visceral cavity, and have numerous 
plates or spines regularly disposed along their sides to assist in reptation. 

Type. The common Sand-star, Ophiura texturata. Lamarck. 

This order is represented by one genus in the Silurian rocks. Several genera are 
found in the Oolitic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary rocks, as well as in our present seas. 

Order vi. Blastoidea. — Body in the form of an oval calyx, composed of solid, cal- 
careous plates, provided with five interambulacra and five ambulacra, the latter united su- > 
periorly, striated transversely, and having a deep furrow down the middle ; ten ovarial holes, 
opening into five at the summit, and a central mouth aperture ; a short, slender stem ; but 
the body is destitute of arms. 

Type. Pentremites wjlatus. Sowerby. Carboniferous Limestone. 

The genera are all extinct, and belong to the Palseozoic rocks. One species appertains 
to the Upper Silurian, six to the Devonian, and twenty-four are special to the Carboniferous 
rocks. 

Order vn. Cystoidea. — Body more or less spherical, supported on a jointed stem ; 
the bursiform calyx is formed of close-fitting polygonal plates, varying in number in the 
different genera, and investing the surface like a coat of mail, except above, where 
there are three openings, one for the mouth, one for the anus, and one with a valve for 
the reproductive organs ; the fourth aperture is below, and is continuous with the canal 
in the stem. Some have two or four arms, others are armless; certain species possess 
articulated tentacula, and curious comb-like appendages, or pectinated rhombs, in connec- 
tion with the plates. 

Type. Psettdocrinites quadrifasciatus. Pearce. Upper Silurian. 

This order is extinct. All the genera are found in the Silurian and Devonian rocks. 

Order viii. Crinoidea. — Body bursiform, distinct, formed of a calyx composed of a 
definite number of plates, provided with five solid arms, which are independent of the 
visceral cavity, and are adapted for prehension ; a mouth and anus distinct ; no retractile 
suckers ; ovaries at the base of the arms opening into special apertures. Skeleton compli- 



6 ECHINOIDEA. 

cated, calcareous, composed of thick plates closely articulated together, the number and 
arrangement of which are determinate in the different families, the multiples of five being the 
numbers which predominate ; the central plate of the body is supported on a long, jointed 
column, which is firmly rooted to the sea-bottom. The mouth is central and prominent ; 
the anus is situated at its side ; the arms are mostly ramose and multi-articulate, and when 
extended form a net-like instrument of considerable dimensions. The mouth is always 
placed upwards, and retained in that position by the column being jointed to the central 
plate of the calyx. The normal station of the Crinoidea is the reverse, therefore, of the 
Asteroidea and Echinoidea. 

Type. Pentacrinus Caput-vieduscs. Miller. From the seas of the Antilles. 

Extinct families of Crinoids have existed in all seas from the Silurian downwards, and 
one or two representatives are now living. 

From the above analysis of the class Echinodermata, it appears that, as the Sipuncu- 
loidea and Holothuroidea are not found in a fossil state, and the Blastoidea and Cystoidea 
are special to the Palaeozoic period, our field of investigation in this Monograph is limited 
to the Echinoidea, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, and Crinoidea, which we now propose 
to consider seriatim, commencing with the Echinoidea. 



Order — Echinoidea. 

The body is spheroidal, oval, depressed or discoidal, and is enclosed in a calcareous 
test or shell, cemposed of ten columns of large plates, the inter- ambulacra! areas : and ten 
columns of small plates, the ambulacral areas, which are separated from each other by ten 
rows of holes, constituting the poriferous zones. The external surface of the plates is 
studded with tubercles of different sizes, in the different families ; these are articulated with 
the spines by a kind of moveable ball-and-socket joint : the spines are of various forms 
and dimensions, and serve well to characterise the genera and species. 

At the summit of the test is the apical disc, composed of five genital plates, perforated 
for the passage of the ovarial and seminal canals, and five ocular plates, notched or perfo- 
rated for lodging the eyes. There are two great apertures in the test, one for the mouth, 
and the other for the anus ; the relative position of these oral and anal apertures varies in 
the different families, and forms an important character for their systematic classification. 

The mouth is sometimes armed with a complicated apparatus of jaws and teeth, but 
sometimes it is edentulous. The internal organs of digestion consist of a pharynx, oesopha- 
gus, stomach, and intestine, which winds round the interior of the shell, attached thereto by 
a delicate mesentery, its surface, as well as that forming the lining membrane of the shell, 
is covered with vibratile cilia, the play of which causes currents of sea-water to traverse 



ECHINODERMATA. 



7 



incessantly the interior of the body, and to perform an important part in the function of 
respiration ; their blood is circulated in arteries and veins, aided by a central pulsating 
organ or heart. The five ovaries and testicles occupy the ambulacra} divisions, and open 
externally through the holes in the genital plates. Their locomotion is effected by the 
joint action of the tubular retractile suckers and the spines. Many sea-urchins attach 
themselves to rocks by these tubular feet, and some bury themselves in limestone, and 
sandstone or even in granitic rocks, by the abrading action of the spines.* 

The nervous system consists, according to M. Van Beneden, of a circular cord, which 
surrounds the entrance to the digestive organs, and sends branches into the divisions of 
the body. Professor Agassiz, and the late Professor Edward Forbes, regarded the organs 
situated in the ocular plates as eyes, but M. Dujardinf denies them even a nervous system. 
In the absence of a greater amount of direct anatomical evidence on the point, the follow- 
ing observation, related by M. Alcide d'Orbigny,J has an important bearing on the 
question, and supports it affirmatively. 

Captain Ferdinand de Candc, who commanded the ' Cleopatre ' in the Chinese seas, 
told M. d'Orbigny that he had captured, on their coasts, an urchin with long spines, 
probably a Diadema, which he examined in a vessel of water. " I hastened to seize it," he 
observed, " when it instantly turned all its spines in the direction of my hand, as if to 
defend itself. 

" Surprised at this manoeuvre, I made an attempt to seize it on the other side, when 
immediately the spines were directed towards me. 

" I thought from this that the urchin saw me, and that the motion of the spines was 
intended as an act of self-defence ; but, to prove whether this movement of the animal 

* M. Eugene Robert exhibited to the Academy a block of old red sandstone, obtained from the shore 
of the great Bay of Douarnenez, •which was perforated with numerous holes, evidently formed by the 
Echini which were lodged in them. Each rounded cavity is in exact proportion, both as to size aud form, 
with the body of the Echinoderm. M. Lory, Professor at Grenoble, and well known for his numerous and 
excellent works on geology, has begged me to exhibit several specimens of perforating Echini, which have 
taken up their abode in the granite of the Bay of Croisic, not far from Piriac. It is the same granite as that 
from the Pouliguen, and in the same state of alteration. This igneous rock is there perforated by Mollusca 
and Echinodermata for an extent of several kilometers. Those which M. Lory has just discovered are 
certainly of the same species as the Echini which burrow in the old red sandstone of the Bay of Douarnenez. 
They closely resemble the Mediterranean Echinus, mentioned by Lamarck under the name of Echinus lividus. 
It is one of the most abundant Echini on the coast, and in the market of Marseilles, whence Lamarck 
obtained his specimens. I have never heard that these individuals possessed perforating habits ; and 
probably a careful examination of living specimens of the Echinus from the coast of Brittany may show 
that it belongs to a distinct species, notwithstanding its apparent identity with that of the Mediterranean. 
In this case it might be called Echinus terebrans. ' Observations on Echini perforating the Granite of 
Brittany,' by M. Valenciennes. — Comptes Rendus, Nov. 5, 1855, p. 755. 

f Lamarck, ' Animaux sans Vertebres,' 2d ed., torn, iii, p. 200. 

X ' Paleontologie Francaise Terrains Gretaces,' torn, vi, p. 12. 



8 



ECHINOIDEA. 



was produced by ray approach, or merely by the agitation of the water, I repeated the 
experiment very slowly, and even over the water with a stick : the urchin, whether in 
the water or out of it, having always directed its defensive spines towards the object which 
approached it. From these observations I arrived at the conclusion that these urchins see, 
and that their spines serve them as defensive instruments." 

It is worthy of remark, that Captain Cande, at the time he watched this urchin, was 
ignorant of the anatomical fact that eyes had been detected in the Echinidse, and his 
inference was simply the legitimate conclusion drawn from carefully-made observations. 

The calcareous test of the Echinoidea is the only part of the structure of these animals 
which is preserved in a fossil state. It has hitherto failed to attract that amount of 
attention from the palaeontologist which the importance of its study demands, although 
in a stratigraphical point of view it is not inferior to the skeletons of any other class of the 
Animal Kingdom. The fact seems to have been almost entirely overlooked, that most of 
the generic characters of the different groups of the Echinoidea are more indelibly impressed 
on the separate pieces of their test than in the skeletons of any other class of the Invertebrata. 

Unlike the shells of the Mollusca, the test of the Echinoidea constitutes an internal 
and integral portion of the animal, being secreted by, and enclosed within, organized 
membranes, and participating in the life of the organism ; portions of the skeleton are 
likewise intimately connected with the organs of digestion, respiration, and generation, as 
well as with those of vision and locomotion. 

As the analysis of the test of the Echinoidea, with full anatomical details of the struc- 
ture of the skeleton in the Echinodermata in general, will be given in the Introduction to 
this Monograph, it is unnecessary to enter at present minutely into, the subject ; but, as 
many of our readers are doubtless unacquainted with the terminology employed in the 
description of the test of the Echinoidea, and the characters on which a diagnosis of the 
species is made, it is desirable now to preface our description of the species with brief 
explanations of the same, in this part of the work, illustrating the terminology by a refe- 
rence to the plates for accurate figures of the different parts of the test, and the magnified 
details of its anatomical characters. 



ECHINODERMATA. 



9 



Terminology, or descriptive analysis of the component elements of the test of the 

Echinoidea. 

The test of the Echinoidea is composed of the following parts : 
a. Five ambulacral areas. 
h. Five inter-arabulacral areas. 

c. Ten poriferous zones. 

d. An anal opening, and anal membrane and plates. 

e. A mouth opening, and buccal membrane and plates. 

/. Five jaws when organs of mastication exist ; some are edentulous. 

g. Tubercles of various sizes, developed on the outer surface of the plates. 

h. Spines of various forms and dimensions, which are jointed with the tubercles. 

These are the parts essential to be known ; but there are others of secondary import- 
ance, which will be described hereafter in their proper place. 

The Body of the Echinoidea is divisible into three parts : 

1st. The calcareous envelope or skeleton has a globular, circular, oval, pentagonal, 
hemispherical, conoidal, or discoidal form ; it is composed of a framework of pentagonal, 
hexagonal, and polygonal calcareous plates. This testaceous box is called the test. It 
is the form, the test of Agassiz ; the general form, the test of Desmoulins ; la coquille 
of d'Orbigny. 

2d. The visceral cavity, which contains the organs of digestion, respiration, circulation, 
and generation, is formed entirely by the calcareous skeleton. 

3d. The external surface of the test is covered with spines, which are moveably articu- 
lated with the tubercles developed on the surface. 

The normal position of the body. — In describing the different parts of the test of the 
Echinoidea, it is assumed that the urchin, the common purple-heart urchin, Spatangus 
purpureus, Muller, for example, is placed before the observer ; or, the common chalk urchin, 
Micraster cor-anguinum, Klein, will answer equally well. The side with the single ambula- 
crum lodged in the sulcus, and the mouth in that third of the base, is the anterior region. 
The four other ambulacra are disposed in pairs, and correspond to the right and left sides 
of the observer's body ; there is, therefore, a right antero-lateral and a right postero- 
lateral ; a left antero-lateral and left postero-lateral ambulacral area. The side having the 
single inter-ambulacrum in the middle, and the anal opening in the upper part of the 
border, is the posterior region. The four other inter- ambulacra are likewise disposed 
in pairs, two of which, with the single ambulacrum, form the anterior part of the test ; 
the other pair, with the pairs of ambulacra, forming the sides, and the single inter- 
ambulacrum its posterior part. 

2 



10 



TERMINOLOGY. 



All the Echinoidea have the mouth situated at the under side of the body. The surface 
in which this opening is placed is called the base ; that region of the test opposite to the 
base is the upper or dorsal surface. 

The most convex part of the margin, border, or sides, between the base and the upper 
surface, is called the circumference, — the ambitus of some authors. It is round, flat, 
convex, angular, or carinated, according to the general form and thickness of the test. 

The length, or antero-posterior diameter, is the distance between the anterior and 
posterior regions, and corresponds to the middle line of the body. 

The breadth, or transverse diameter, is the distance between the greatest lateral con- 
vexity of the circumference, in the direction of a line which will cut the line of length at 
right angles. 

The height is the distance between the most convex part of the upper surface and a 
plane on which the base of the test can rest. The apical disc is generally situated at the 
vertex, but it is not always so. The height has reference to the highest point of the test, 
quite irrespective of any other consideration. 

The test has invariably two openings, the one for the mouth, the other for the anus. 

The mouth-opening is always situated at the under surface ; to its circumference is 
attached the buccal membrane, and through its central aperture, when they exist, 
protrude the five jaws. (PI. IV, fig. lb; PI. XI, fig. 1 .) The buccal, like the anal mem- 
brane in many families, is clothed with numerous small plates. In Cidaris, Rabdocidaris, 
Goniocidaris, Diplocidaris, and probably in other Cidarida, the mouth-opening is central, 
circular, or slightly pentagonal (PI. I, figs. 2 a, 4<a ; PI. II, figs. 1 a, 2 b) ; but in Hemi- 
cidaris, Diadema, Hemipedina, Pedina, Echinus, and other Echinid^e, the mouth opening 
is more or less decagonal, its margin being divided by notches {entailles) into ten lobes. 
(PI. Ill, figs. 2 b, 6 b; PI. IV, fig. 2 b, e ; PI. V, fig. 1 e; PI. VI, figs. 2 b, 5 c.) The lobes 
are, in general, unequal in size ; those which correspond to the base of the ambulacra 
are the largest, and are called the ambulacral lobes ; those corresponding to the base of the 
inter-ambulacra are the inter -ambulacral lobes. The margin of the mouth-opening is called 
the peristome ; to it the buccal membrane, which closes the base of the test, is attached. 

The mouth-opening is central, and is armed with jaws, in the Cidarid^, Echinid^e, 
Salenid;e, Galeritid,e, and Clypeasterid.e. It is more or less excentral and edentu- 
lous in the Echinonid^e, Collyritid^e, Echinolampid^e, EcHiNocoiiYDiE, and Spatan- 
giDjE. In these families it is round, oval, or pentagonal ; sometimes its margin is ray- 
like, or surrounded by five prominent lobes ; in others it is distinctly bilabiate. 

The anal opening is always in the upper surface, directly opposite to the mouth, 
in the centre of the genital and ocular plates, and is either central or sub-central in the 
Cidarid,e, EchiniDjE, and Salenid;e. (PI. Ill, figs. 1 e, 3c; PI. IV, figs. 1 g, 2/.) In 
the other families its position varies much ; sometimes it opens on the upper surface, as in 
some GALERrriDiE and Cassiuuliu^e ; sometimes it opens near the margin, or is supra- 
marginal, marginal, or infra-marginal ; often it opens at the base, between the mouth and 



ECHINODERMATA. 



11 



the border. During the life of the animal this opening was closed by an anal membrane, 
and a series of small angular anal plates, the number and disposition of which vary in 
the different genera. The anal plates are seldom preserved in fossil species ; and the term 
anal opening is given to all that part of the test occupied by them, the anal membrane, 
and the vent. 

The Ambulacra! and Inter-ambulacral Areas. 

The test is composed — 1st, of twenty columns of calcareous plates of different sizes, 
the plaquettes, Tdfelchen, Assulcs, of authors. They are pentagonal in form, and are united 
by harmonial sutures to form rays, which proceed from the mouth, where they have their 
greatest breadth, to the apical disc, where they are narrowest. 2d, of a series of hexagonal 
or polygonal plates, forming a disc, which occupies the upper surface of the test. 3d, of 
ten rows of small plates, which are notched on their margins, to form holes : these consti- 
tute the poriferous zones. 4th, of moveable spines, which are jointed with eminences on 
the outer surface of the columnar plates. 

The ambulacral plates form two narrow columns, which are bounded by two poriferous 
zones. The space thus circumscribed is the ambulacral area. There are five of these areas 
in the test of the Echinoidea ; in the Cidarid^e the ambulacral areas are very narrow, 
and support only granules (PI. II, fig. 1 a, b) ; but in the Echinid^e (PI. VIII, fig. 1) 
they are much wider, and have large tubercles on their surface. The comparative width of 
the ambulacra, as compared with the inter-ambulacra, has led some authors* to divide the 
family Cidaridse, including therein the Echinidae, into two tribes, — the Angustistell.e, 
or Cidaridse with narrow ambulacra, and the Latistell^e, or Cidaridai with broad 
ambulacra. These two tribes nearly represent our two families : the Cidaridje are equal 
to the Angustistell^e, and the Echinidae are nearly equal to the Latistell^e. 

PI. I, figs. 1 5, 2 c, 3 c, 4 cj PI. II, figs. 1 c, 2 g represent the structure of the ambu- 
lacra in the Cidarida ; and PI. VI, fig. 2d, and PI. VII, figs. 3 and 4, show the structure 
of the ambulacral areas in some JBchinida. 

One of the ambulacral areas is single, and always represents the anterior region of 
the test. In the spheroidal Echinida and Salenida, this is detected by its relation to the 
apical disc, as the right antero-lateral genital plate always carries the madreporiform body ; 
but in the oval, pentagonal, and elongated forms, its position and relation to the mouth 
render it unmistakeable. The four other ambulacra are disposed in pairs. 

The inter-ambulacral plates form two broad columns, which compose the inter-ambu- 
lacral areas. Of these there are five, which alternate with the ambulacral areas in the 
architecture of the test : the poriferous zones form the line of demarcation between these 

* Albin Gras, 'Description des Oursins Fossiles de departement de l'Isere,' p. 20. 
E. Desor, 'Synopsis des Echinides Fossiles,' p. 1. 



12 



TERMINOLOGY. 



two classes of columnar plates. The inter-ambulacral plates are all pentagonal, and 
many times larger than the ambulacral ; they carry on their external surface the large 
primary tubercles. Of the five inter-ambulacral areas, one is single and posterior ; and in 
all the Echinoidea which have the anal opening external to the apical disc, it is in this 
single inter-ambulacrum that the vent terminates. The other four inter-ambulacra are dis- 
posed in pairs, and form the greater part of the anterior and lateral parts of the test. 
They are called anterior pairs and posterior pairs respectively, to distinguish them from 
the odd area, which is called the single inter-ambulacrum. 

PI. I, figs. 1 b, 4 e ; PI. II, fig. 1 a, b, c, show the form and structure of the inter- 
ambulacra in the Cidarida ; and PI. VI, fig. 2 a, b ; PI. VIII, fig. 1 a, b, the structure of 
these areas in the Echinidce. 

In the Cidaridce, and in some Echinidce, the inter-ambulacral areas have only two 
rows of primary tubercles ; but in most of the Echinidce there are four, six, eight, or even 
ten rows of primary tubercles in these areas. 

The Poriferous Zones. 

The poriferous zones are situated on each side of the ambulacral areas. (PI. I, fig. 4 a ; 
PI. II, figs. 1 a, b, 2 b, c.) They are composed of a very great number of small pieces, 
articulated together in such a manner as to form a series of holes, the corresponding edges 
of the plates, remaining uncalcified at certain definite intervals, to produce foramina, which 
are destined for the passage of retractile tubular suckers. The form and structure of the 
poriferous zones afford a good generic character. As there are two poriferous zones 
bordering each ambulacral area, it follows tha